Teaching Torture - School of the Americas
- Teaching Torture
Congress keeps the School of the Americas alive
By Doug Ireland
Remember how congressional leaders on both sides of the aisle
deplored the torture of prisoners at Abu Ghraib as "un-American"?
Last month, the House of Representatives quietly passed a renewed
appropriation that keeps open the United States' most infamous
torture-teaching institution, known as the School of the Americas
(SOA), where the illegal physical and psychological abuse of
prisoners of the kind the world condemned at Abu Ghraib and worse has
been routinely taught for years.
A relic of the Cold War, the SOA was originally set up to train
military, police and intelligence officers of U.S. allies south of
the border in the fight against insurgencies Washington labeled
"communist." In reality, the SOA's graduates have been the shock
troops of political repression, propping up a string of dictatorial
and repressive regimes favored by the Pentagon.
The interrogation manuals long used at the SOA were made public in
May by the National Security Archive, an independent research group,
and posted on its website after they were declassified following
Freedom of Information Act requests by, among others, the Baltimore
Sun. The National Security Archive noted that the manuals "describe
'coercive techniques' such as those used to mistreat the detainees at
The Abu Ghraib torture techniques have been field-tested by SOA
graduates; seven of the U.S. Army interrogation manuals that were
translated into Spanish, used at the SOA's trainings and distributed
to our allies, offered instruction on torture, beatings and
assassination. As Dr. Miles Schuman, a physician with the Canadian
Centre for Victims of Torture who has documented torture cases and
counseled victims, graphically wrote in the May 14 Toronto Globe and
Mail under the headline "Abu Ghraib: The Rule, Not the Exception":
"The black hood covering the faces of naked prisoners in Abu Ghraib
was known as la capuchi in Guatemalan and Salvadoran torture
chambers. The metal bed frame to which the naked and hooded detainee
was bound in a crucifix position in Abu Ghraib was la cama, named for
a former Chilean prisoner who survived the U.S.-installed regime of
Gen. Augusto Pinochet. In her case, electrodes were attached to her
arms, legs and genitalia, just as they were attached to the Iraqi
detainee poised on a box, threatened with electrocution if he fell
The long history of torture by U.S.-trained thugs in South and
Central America under the command of SOA graduates has also been
studiously documented by human-rights organizations like Amnesty
International (in its 2002 report titled "Unmatched Power, Unmet
Principles") and in books like A. J. Langguth's Hidden Terrors,
William Blum's Rogue State and Lawrence Weschler's A Miracle, a
Universe. In virtually every report on human-rights abuses from Latin
America, SOA graduates are prominent. A U.N. Truth Commission report
said that over two-thirds of the Salvadoran officers it cites for
abuses are SOA graduates. Forty percent of the cabinet members under
three sanguinary Guatemalan dictatorships were SOA graduates. And the
list goes on.
In 2000 the Pentagon engaged in a smoke-screen attempt to give the
SOA a face-lift by changing its name to the Western Hemispheric
Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC) as part of a "reform"
program. But as the late GOP Sen. Paul Coverdale of Georgia (where
SOA/WHINSEC is located) said at the time, the changes to the school
were "basically cosmetic."
The lobbying campaign to close SOA/ WHINSEC has been led by School of
the Americas Watch, founded by religious activists after the 1990s
murder of four U.S. nuns by Salvadoran death squads under command of
one of the SOA's most infamous graduates, Col. Roberto D'Aubuisson.
Lest you think that the school's links to atrocities are all in the
distant past, School of Americas Watch has documented a raft of
recent scandals postdating the Pentagon's chimerical "reform." Here
are just two of them:
In June 2001, Col. Byron Lima Estrada, an SOA grad who was head
of Guatemala's bloody D-2 intelligence unit, was convicted of
Guatemalan Bishop Gerardi's murder by bludgeoning--two days after the
bishop released a report concluding that the army was responsible for
a majority of the 200,000 killed in his country's civil war.
In April 2002, two SOA graduates (Army Commander in Chief Efrain
Vasquez and Gen. Ramirez Poveda) helped lead a failed coup in
Venezuela. The notorious Otto Reich, a failed Bush administration
appointee who sat on WHINSEC's Board of Visitors, met with the
generals in the months preceding the coup.
Rep. Jim McGovern, D-Mass., has spearheaded opposition in the House
to SOA/WHINSEC, but his amendment to the Foreign Operations
appropriation killing money for the school (which had 128
co-sponsors) was withdrawn at the 11th hour on July 15 after a
bipartisan agreement limited the number of amendments that could come
to the House floor.
The last chance for killing the school's money this year now rests
with the Senate--but when past SOA critics Sens. Boxer and Feinstein
were called to find out what they planned to do, the response was a
deafening silence from their offices. In light of the School of
Americas Watch's extensive lobbying, our elected representatives
can't claim they don't know of the school's record on torture.
This episode calls to mind Mark Twain's observation that "there is no
distinct, native American criminal class--except Congress."
From the August 25-31, 2004 issue of the North Bay Bohemian.
Copyright © Metro Publishing Inc.
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