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Re: [json] Format & interpretation of URL fragments for JSON resources

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  • Kris Zyp
    [+restful-json] Jacob, You may already be aware of this, but a specification for the dot-delimited hash/fragment resolution mechanism is in the JSON Schema I-D
    Message 1 of 5 , Feb 26, 2010
      You may already be aware of this, but a specification for the
      dot-delimited hash/fragment resolution mechanism is in the JSON Schema
      I-D (6.2.1) [1]. One thing to be noted that you can specify alternate
      hash/fragment resolution mechanisms in the schema, the draft just
      defines dot-delimited as the default. However, we do certainly want the
      default to be legitimate. I'd be glad to change the draft to slashes if
      there is consensus that using slashes is more appropriate. However,
      based on prior conversations [2], I had thought that there was agreement
      that the stipulations of RFC 3986 didn't need to be strictly applied to
      hashes, since they aren't transferred over the wire and don't identify
      resources (they identify internal parts of a resource, and the text you
      quoted from RFC 3986 refers to how resources are identified). I am
      certainly open to the idea that slashes might be better though, but
      since dots are currently in use, I would only want to alter the JSON
      schema draft if there is sufficient reason.

      [1] http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-zyp-json-schema-01#section-6.2.1


      On 2/26/2010 5:34 PM, Jacob Davies wrote:
      > I have a question regarding the use of URL fragments (the part after
      > the # (hash) character in a standard URL) for navigating JSON
      > resources. So far as I can see from some searches & investigation,
      > there does not seem to be a firm consensus on the format and
      > interpretation of them, and there is a fairly major problem with the
      > most common suggestion I've seen, which is the interpretation of the
      > fragment as a series of dot-delimited, URL-encoded keys to be used to
      > navigate through a set of nested JSON objects and arrays.
      > So, an example. The fragment:
      > #foo.bar.0
      > when used to navigate the JSON resource:
      > {
      > "foo" : {
      > "bar" : [
      > "xyz"
      > ]
      > }
      > }
      > would refer to the value "xyz".
      > This has the attractive feature of looking like the Javascript or Java
      > dot-notation for navigating objects.
      > The problem is that dot/period is explicitly included in the list of
      > non-reserved characters in URL-encoding:
      > http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#page-13
      > <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#page-13>
      > "For consistency, percent-encoded octets [...] period (%2E) [...]
      > should not be created by URI producers"
      > So the simple statement of the format ("dot-delimited, URL-encoded
      > keys") is either ambiguous or cannot accommodate keys containing
      > periods.
      > A simple example to illustrate:
      > {
      > "foo" : {
      > "bar" : "xyz"
      > },
      > "foo.bar" : "abc"
      > }
      > Does the fragment #foo.bar refer to the value "xyz" or "abc".
      > Obviously it is straightforward to replace the periods in keys with %2E
      > and therefore distinguish between these fragments:
      > #foo.bar - intended to refer to "xyz"
      > #foo%2Ebar - intended to refer to "abc"
      > But, there are some problems with this procedure, two minor, one major.
      > The first minor problem is that standard URL-encoding routines do not
      > replace dots with the %2E escape. The second minor problem is that it
      > makes it awkward to construct fragments by hand that refer to keys that
      > contain dots.
      > The major problem is that this method of interpretation of a URL is
      > explicitly disallowed. Quoting again from RFC 3986:
      > "URIs that differ in the replacement of an unreserved character with
      > its corresponding percent-encoded US-ASCII octet are equivalent: they
      > identify the same resource."
      > Clearly this is not true in the above example. Replacement of %2E with
      > a period changes the interpretation of the fragment. Note that the
      > word "unreserved" is significant in the above quote - the
      > replacement of a reserved character by its URL-encoded counterpart IS
      > allowed to make a difference in distinguishing between resources.
      > So, I have a suggestion for an alternative format and interpretation,
      > which is:
      > "URL fragments contain a slash-delimited, URL-encoded list of keys
      > used to navigate a JSON structure from the root".
      > So, given the JSON resource:
      > {
      > "foo" : {
      > "bar" : "xyz"
      > },
      > "foo.bar" : "abc",
      > "foo/bar" : "123"
      > }
      > the contained values can be unambiguously referred to using the
      > fragments:
      > #foo/bar - "xyz"
      > #foo.bar - "abc"
      > #foo%2Fbar - "123"
      > Slash IS a reserved character for URL-encoding, which means,
      > firstly, that we can legitimately distinguish between the first and
      > last examples there as referring to different resources; secondly,
      > that standard URL-encoding routines will correctly escape it, and
      > the wording of the format is unambiguous; and thirdly, that keys
      > containing dots can be easily used in URLs - in my experience such
      > keys are far more common than keys containing slashes, and there
      > have been several recent suggestions for using reversed domain names
      > in dotted keys as an ad-hoc namespace mechanism in JSON similar to the
      > use for Java package names, for instance:
      > {
      > "org.itemscript.Name" : "Jacob"
      > }
      > One final note: the use of an initial slash to indicate that the value
      > is rooted at the top level of the JSON structure seems unnecessary,
      > since fragment identifiers by definition are global to a given resource
      > or document.
      > Anyway, just some thoughts. I know that the dot-delimited fragment
      > format already has some momentum, but I had to make a decision about
      > which format to use for something I was working on recently, and after
      > thinking about it (and using the dot-delimited format for a while) I
      > found that the problems with dot-delimited were significant enough that
      > I didn't use it. I do think a consistent interpretation of URL fragments
      > in JSON resources would be quite useful though.
      > --
      > Jacob Davies
      > jacob@... <mailto:jacob%40well.com>


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Jacob Davies
      One more note - I was looking at the section on normalization again: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-6.2.2 and this paragraph stood out: The
      Message 2 of 5 , Feb 27, 2010
        One more note - I was looking at the section on normalization again:


        and this paragraph stood out:

        "The percent-encoding mechanism (Section 2.1) is a frequent source of
        variance among otherwise identical URIs. In addition to the case
        normalization issue noted above, some URI producers percent-encode
        octets that do not require percent-encoding, resulting in URIs that
        are equivalent to their non-encoded counterparts. These URIs should
        be normalized by decoding any percent-encoded octet that corresponds
        to an unreserved character, as described in Section 2.3."

        Again, this section isn't talking about resources versus
        navigation-inside-resources, it's just talking about URIs as a whole
        (of which the fragment is a part) and the process for normalizing
        them. That process decodes "any percent-encoded octet that corresponds
        to an unreserved character", leaving the recipient of the URI
        completely unable to distinguish between "#abc.def" and "#abc%2Edef".
        Obviously for an application that is performing purely internal
        processing with the fragments that may not be a problem, but for any
        other use, a URI processor perfectly compliant with RFC3986 can break
        this fragment format by removing the ability to refer to keys with
        embedded dots.

        On the same note there is this from section 2.4:

        "[T]he components and subcomponents
        significant to the scheme-specific dereferencing process (if any)
        must be parsed and separated before the percent-encoded octets within
        those components can be safely decoded, as otherwise the data may be
        mistaken for component delimiters. The only exception is for
        percent-encoded octets corresponding to characters in the unreserved
        set, which *can be decoded at any time*."

        (My emphasis.)

        So the problem is, again, a perfectly compliant URI parser can (and
        the following text may imply that it should) replace all
        percent-encode sequences corresponding to unreserved characters before
        parsing it into sections.

        And as a matter of actual practice, Firefox - although not IE or
        Chrome - *does* normalize fragments in exactly this way. Type in
        http://www.yahoo.com/#%2E and it will be replaced with
        http://www.yahoo.com/#. after you hit enter. This would be an active
        problem for me if I used the dot-delimited format (although I hadn't
        run into it before I switched to slashes), since I use the URI
        fragment to indicate state in a browser application, including (under
        certain circumstances) acting as a pointer into a separate JSON
        structure. Use of the fragment to carry application state (for the
        purposes of browser history and the back button) is a pretty common
        technique in AJAX applications.

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