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Re: [John_Lit] Another Luke-John Connection

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  • Matthew Estrada
    Hi Steve, You might be interested in taking a look at my comparison of the Cana Miracle in John with Luke s first couple of chapters in Acts that you can find
    Message 1 of 9 , Mar 23, 2011
      Hi Steve,

      You might be interested in taking a look at my comparison of the Cana Miracle in
      John with Luke's first couple of chapters in Acts that you can find at the
      following link: http://estradablog.wordpress.com/the-cana-miracle-2/

      I argue that Luke plays off of John's meaning of "wine" (= the Holy Spirit) when
      stating that everyone thought that the disciples were drunk with "wine" when
      they were really filled with the Spirit. I point out several parallels between
      the two passages (some of which you have noted), including John's dependence on
      the Joel prophecy and Luke's use of it also.

      Matt Estrada


      ________________________________
      From: steve levine <goodnews8266@...>
      To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Tue, March 22, 2011 2:17:15 PM
      Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Another Luke-John Connection

       
      Jews believed in right worksbefore death, Egyptians beleived in rite works after

      death. Jesus rebuked both religious traditions in Jn 11 and Luke 16; and put the

      focus of afterlife on Him alone. Osirus in his mummy wrappings would only be
      resurrected at the call of Jesus and the dead in Abraham's bosom and those still

      alive (yet dead in faith) would in fact rejoice and believe when (contrary to
      Abe's stated faith) the dead were indeed raised to preach.

      ________________________________
      From: Keith Yoder <keith_yoder@...>
      To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Mon, March 21, 2011 7:57:38 AM
      Subject: [John_Lit] Another Luke-John Connection

      Some time ago on Synoptic_L forum I argued that John's Raising of Lazarus (Jn
      11:1-44) shows strong evidence of

      direct literary influence from Luke's Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk 16:19-31) - see
      msg 2708

      at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Synoptic/message/2708. The Parker and Cribbs
      articles recommended by Mark Matson in his reply at
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Synoptic/message/2716 have not changed my mind
      about directionality. I've expanded my post into an article you can read at
      http://www.umass.edu/wsp/project/senior/FromLukeToJohn.pdf, in which I argue in
      detail for literary directionality flowing from Luke to John.

      Now I'd like to propose yet another Luke-John literary connection, shortly after

      the beginning of both gospels, in the narratives in John 2 and at the end of
      Luke 2. John puts his Temple Cleansing (2:13-25) in sequence right after his
      Water into Wine (2:1-12). Comparing that sequence with the two stories in Luke
      2:22-52, the Presentation of Jesus and the 12-year old Jesus in the temple, I
      think we have here another set of structured textual parallels showing direct
      literary influence between Luke and John.

      Here is a skeleton list of the literary parallels I've found between the two
      sets of narratives, with no discussion of directionality (well maybe a tiny
      bit)--

      1. Similar literary structure - Purification followed by Passover:
      a. Jn 2:1-12 - Jesus' family at wedding where Purification water is turned
      into wine
      Jn 2:13-25 - Jesus cleanses Temple at Passover Feast
      b. Lk 2:22-40 - Jesus' family in Jerusalem for post-partum Purification
      rituals
      Lk 2:41-52 - Jesus in Temple for Passover Feast

      2. Same numbers: "3 days" / "2" items
      a. Jn 2:1, 2:19, 2:20 - "third day", "in three days"/ Jn 2:6 - "2" measures
      b. Lk 2:46 - "after 3 days" / Lk 2:24 - "2" young pigeons
      Note - if Luke > John is true, then this might explain why Jn 2:1 says the
      "third" day instead of "fourth" or really "fifth".

      3. Other numeric parallels:
      a. one compound number each: Jn 2:20 - "40 and 6" years / Lk 2:36 - "80" and
      "4" years
      b. one multiplier set each: Jn 2:6 - ("2" x "3") = "6" / Lk 2:36,41 - ("7" x
      "12") = "84"

      4. Jesus' "mother" and "F/father", his mother speaks and is spoken to, his
      F/father is only spoken about:
      a. Jn 2:1, 3, 5, 12 - "(his) mother" / Jn 2:16 - "my Father"
      b. Lk 2:33, 34, 48 - "mother" and "father", "your father and I" / Lk 2:49 -
      "my Father"

      5. Jesus' mother questions him:
      Jn 2:3 (implicitly) - "they have no wine"
      Lk 2:49 (explicitly) - "why have you done this to us?"

      6. Jesus gives a 2-part answer: 1 - rude rejoinder / 2 - a "my" personal reason
      that "you" don't know
      Jn 2:4 - "what is that to me and you, woman?" / "my hour is not yet come"
      Lk 2:49 - "why did you seek me, didn't you know?" / "I must be in my Father's
      things"

      7. Purification theme in first narrative:
      Jn 2:6 - "six stone water-jars for purification (καθαρισμὸν)"
      Lk 2:22 - "when the days were completed for their purification (καθαρισμοῦ)"

      8. Passover Feast in Jerusalem them in second narrative:
      Jn 2:13, 23 - "passover" (τὸ πάσχα), "feast" (ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ), in Jerusalem (εἰς
      Ἱεροσόλυμα)
      Lk 2:41, 42 - ditto same three elements

      9. Parallel but contrastive authorial assessments of Purification and Passover:
      Jn 2:6 and 2:13 - both are dismissively described as "of the Jews" (τῶν
      Ἰουδαίων)
      Lk 2:22,23,24,27,39,42 - both are esteemed, venerable and divinely mandated
      customs

      10. "(others) do what is said"
      Jn 2:5 (to the servants) - "do (ποιήσατε) whatever he says (λέγῃ) to you"
      Lk 2:27 (parents) "to-do (τοῦ ποιῆσαι)...the custom of the law (='what was
      said' in 2:24) of the Lord"

      11. Others did "not know" what Jesus did
      Jn 2:9 - chief of wedding feast "did not know (οὐκ ᾔδει)" where the wine came
      from
      Lk 2:43 - his parents "did not know (οὐκ ἔγνωσαν)" Jesus remained in
      Jerusalem

      12. "every man"
      Jn 2:10 - "every man (πᾶς ἄνθρωπος)" first sets out the good wine (sounds
      like Luke 5:39!)
      Lk 2:23 - "every male (πᾶν ἄρσεν)" who opens the womb

      13. "sign" / criticized by others
      Jn 2: 11 - Jesus did this "beginning of signs" / Jn 2:18 "what sign do you
      show us?"
      Lk 2:34 - "for a sign" / "spoken against"

      14. Jesus "went-down" with his family to a city (in Galilee)
      Jn 2:12 - "he went-down (κατεβη) to Capernaum, he and his mother and
      brothers..."
      Lk 2:51 - "he went-down (κατεβη) with them (=his parents) to Nazareth..."

      15. "many days"
      Jn 2:12 - "he remained there not many days (πολλὰς ἡμέρας)"
      Lk 2:36 - "she was advanced in days many (ἡμέραις πολλαῖς)"

      16. "found" / "in the temple" / "sitting"
      Jn 2:14 - Jesus "found in the temple (εὗρεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ)...money-changers
      sitting (καθημένους)"
      Lk 2:46 - his parents "found him in the temple sitting (εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ
      ἱερῷ καθεζόμενον)"
      Note that none of the synoptic temple-cleansing pericopes use the word "find" -
      I suggest John uses it here in 2:14 precisely because he saw it in Luke 2:46

      17. multiple sacrificial animals, last of which are "pigeons"
      Jn 2:14-15 - "oxen and sheep and pigeons (περιστερὰς)"
      Lk 2:24 - "pair of doves or two young pigeons (περιστερῶν)"
      Again, none of the synoptic temple-cleansing's describe specific animals, but
      Luke's presentation of Jesus does mention specific animals.

      18. Jesus' words initially not understood / but are later treasured
      Jn 2:28 - the Jews mistake his words literalistically /
      Jn 2:22 - after Resurrection his disciples "remembered what he said"
      Lk 2:50 - his parents did not understand the word he said to them /
      Lk 2:51 - "his mother kept all these words in her heart"

      19. hidden thoughts of men are known
      Jn 2:25 - "...for he himself knew what was in man"
      Lk 2:35 - he was sent "...for the revealing of the thoughts of many hearts"


      Finally, three additional single word parallels, of lesser weight but there
      nonetheless:

      20. "kept"
      Jn 2:10 - "you have kept (τετήρηκας)" the good wine until now
      Lk 2:51 - his mother "kept (διετήρει) all these words in her heart"

      21. "glory"
      Jn 2:11 - "he manifested his glory (τὴν δόξαν)"
      Lk 2:32 - (he will be) "...glory (δόξαν) of your people Israel"

      22. Jesus "remained"
      Jn 2:12 - "...he remained there" in Capernaum
      Lk 2:43 - "Jesus...remained" in Jerusalem


      Keith Yoder
      Research Fellow
      UMass Amherst

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Paul Anderson
      Thanks, Keith, for this thoughtful analysis of the Johannine-Lukan relationship. Do you have any strong reason to argue that the contacts imply John s
      Message 2 of 9 , Mar 23, 2011
        Thanks, Keith, for this thoughtful analysis of the Johannine-Lukan
        relationship.

        Do you have any strong reason to argue that the contacts imply John's
        familiarity with Luke instead of Luke's familiarity with John?

        If Luke used Mark (as we would most likely agree), and given that so many of
        Luke's most characteristic themes are missing from John, it seems stronger
        to infer that Luke's additions to Mark that have Johannine echoes imply
        Luke's familiarity with the Johannine tradition.

        So, why could not the same evidence bolster a view that the contact went the
        other direction?

        Much appreciated!

        Paul Anderson
        George Fox University

        On Mon, Mar 21, 2011 at 7:57 AM, Keith Yoder <keith_yoder@...> wrote:

        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Some time ago on Synoptic_L forum I argued that John's Raising of Lazarus
        > (Jn 11:1-44) shows strong evidence of
        > direct literary influence from Luke's Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk 16:19-31) -
        > see msg 2708
        > at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Synoptic/message/2708. The Parker and
        > Cribbs articles recommended by Mark Matson in his reply at
        > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Synoptic/message/2716 have not changed my
        > mind about directionality. I've expanded my post into an article you can
        > read at http://www.umass.edu/wsp/project/senior/FromLukeToJohn.pdf, in
        > which I argue in detail for literary directionality flowing from Luke to
        > John.
        >
        > Now I'd like to propose yet another Luke-John literary connection, shortly
        > after the beginning of both gospels, in the narratives in John 2 and at the
        > end of Luke 2. John puts his Temple Cleansing (2:13-25) in sequence right
        > after his Water into Wine (2:1-12). Comparing that sequence with the two
        > stories in Luke 2:22-52, the Presentation of Jesus and the 12-year old Jesus
        > in the temple, I think we have here another set of structured textual
        > parallels showing direct literary influence between Luke and John.
        >
        > Here is a skeleton list of the literary parallels I've found between the
        > two sets of narratives, with no discussion of directionality (well maybe a
        > tiny bit)--
        >
        > 1. Similar literary structure - Purification followed by Passover:
        > a. Jn 2:1-12 - Jesus' family at wedding where Purification water is
        > turned into wine
        > Jn 2:13-25 - Jesus cleanses Temple at Passover Feast
        > b. Lk 2:22-40 - Jesus' family in Jerusalem for post-partum Purification
        > rituals
        > Lk 2:41-52 - Jesus in Temple for Passover Feast
        >
        > 2. Same numbers: "3 days" / "2" items
        > a. Jn 2:1, 2:19, 2:20 - "third day", "in three days"/ Jn 2:6 - "2"
        > measures
        > b. Lk 2:46 - "after 3 days" / Lk 2:24 - "2" young pigeons
        > Note - if Luke > John is true, then this might explain why Jn 2:1 says the
        > "third" day instead of "fourth" or really "fifth".
        >
        > 3. Other numeric parallels:
        > a. one compound number each: Jn 2:20 - "40 and 6" years / Lk 2:36 -
        > "80" and "4" years
        > b. one multiplier set each: Jn 2:6 - ("2" x "3") = "6" / Lk 2:36,41 -
        > ("7" x "12") = "84"
        >
        > 4. Jesus' "mother" and "F/father", his mother speaks and is spoken to, his
        > F/father is only spoken about:
        > a. Jn 2:1, 3, 5, 12 - "(his) mother" / Jn 2:16 - "my Father"
        > b. Lk 2:33, 34, 48 - "mother" and "father", "your father and I" / Lk
        > 2:49 - "my Father"
        >
        > 5. Jesus' mother questions him:
        > Jn 2:3 (implicitly) - "they have no wine"
        > Lk 2:49 (explicitly) - "why have you done this to us?"
        >
        > 6. Jesus gives a 2-part answer: 1 - rude rejoinder / 2 - a "my" personal
        > reason that "you" don't know
        > Jn 2:4 - "what is that to me and you, woman?" / "my hour is not yet
        > come"
        > Lk 2:49 - "why did you seek me, didn't you know?" / "I must be in my
        > Father's things"
        >
        > 7. Purification theme in first narrative:
        > Jn 2:6 - "six stone water-jars for purification (καθαρισμὸν)"
        > Lk 2:22 - "when the days were completed for their purification
        > (καθαρισμοῦ)"
        >
        > 8. Passover Feast in Jerusalem them in second narrative:
        > Jn 2:13, 23 - "passover" (τὸ πάσχα), "feast" (ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ), in Jerusalem
        > (εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα)
        > Lk 2:41, 42 - ditto same three elements
        >
        > 9. Parallel but contrastive authorial assessments of Purification and
        > Passover:
        > Jn 2:6 and 2:13 - both are dismissively described as "of the Jews" (τῶν
        > Ἰουδαίων)
        > Lk 2:22,23,24,27,39,42 - both are esteemed, venerable and divinely
        > mandated customs
        >
        > 10. "(others) do what is said"
        > Jn 2:5 (to the servants) - "do (ποιήσατε) whatever he says (λέγῃ) to
        > you"
        > Lk 2:27 (parents) "to-do (τοῦ ποιῆσαι)...the custom of the law (='what
        > was said' in 2:24) of the Lord"
        >
        > 11. Others did "not know" what Jesus did
        > Jn 2:9 - chief of wedding feast "did not know (οὐκ ᾔδει)" where the wine
        > came from
        > Lk 2:43 - his parents "did not know (οὐκ ἔγνωσαν)" Jesus remained in
        > Jerusalem
        >
        > 12. "every man"
        > Jn 2:10 - "every man (πᾶς ἄνθρωπος)" first sets out the good wine
        > (sounds like Luke 5:39!)
        > Lk 2:23 - "every male (πᾶν ἄρσεν)" who opens the womb
        >
        > 13. "sign" / criticized by others
        > Jn 2: 11 - Jesus did this "beginning of signs" / Jn 2:18 "what sign do
        > you show us?"
        > Lk 2:34 - "for a sign" / "spoken against"
        >
        > 14. Jesus "went-down" with his family to a city (in Galilee)
        > Jn 2:12 - "he went-down (κατεβη) to Capernaum, he and his mother and
        > brothers..."
        > Lk 2:51 - "he went-down (κατεβη) with them (=his parents) to
        > Nazareth..."
        >
        > 15. "many days"
        > Jn 2:12 - "he remained there not many days (πολλὰς ἡμέρας)"
        > Lk 2:36 - "she was advanced in days many (ἡμέραις πολλαῖς)"
        >
        > 16. "found" / "in the temple" / "sitting"
        > Jn 2:14 - Jesus "found in the temple (εὗρεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ)...money-changers
        > sitting (καθημένους)"
        > Lk 2:46 - his parents "found him in the temple sitting (εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν
        > τῷ ἱερῷ καθεζόμενον)"
        > Note that none of the synoptic temple-cleansing pericopes use the word
        > "find" - I suggest John uses it here in 2:14 precisely because he saw it in
        > Luke 2:46
        >
        > 17. multiple sacrificial animals, last of which are "pigeons"
        > Jn 2:14-15 - "oxen and sheep and pigeons (περιστερὰς)"
        > Lk 2:24 - "pair of doves or two young pigeons (περιστερῶν)"
        > Again, none of the synoptic temple-cleansing's describe specific animals,
        > but Luke's presentation of Jesus does mention specific animals.
        >
        > 18. Jesus' words initially not understood / but are later treasured
        > Jn 2:28 - the Jews mistake his words literalistically /
        > Jn 2:22 - after Resurrection his disciples "remembered what he said"
        > Lk 2:50 - his parents did not understand the word he said to them /
        > Lk 2:51 - "his mother kept all these words in her heart"
        >
        > 19. hidden thoughts of men are known
        > Jn 2:25 - "...for he himself knew what was in man"
        > Lk 2:35 - he was sent "...for the revealing of the thoughts of many
        > hearts"
        >
        >
        > Finally, three additional single word parallels, of lesser weight but there
        > nonetheless:
        >
        > 20. "kept"
        > Jn 2:10 - "you have kept (τετήρηκας)" the good wine until now
        > Lk 2:51 - his mother "kept (διετήρει) all these words in her heart"
        >
        > 21. "glory"
        > Jn 2:11 - "he manifested his glory (τὴν δόξαν)"
        > Lk 2:32 - (he will be) "...glory (δόξαν) of your people Israel"
        >
        > 22. Jesus "remained"
        > Jn 2:12 - "...he remained there" in Capernaum
        > Lk 2:43 - "Jesus...remained" in Jerusalem
        >
        >
        > Keith Yoder
        > Research Fellow
        > UMass Amherst
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >
        > ------------------------------------
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        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • keith_yoder
        And thank you, Paul, for your kind words. My reason for presuming a Luke John flow of influence here is because that is what I found in the case of Luke and
        Message 3 of 9 , Mar 24, 2011
          And thank you, Paul, for your kind words.

          My reason for presuming a Luke > John flow of influence here is because
          that is what I found in the case of Luke and John's Lazarus and
          Mary-Martha texts in the short paper I referenced in my post. If you
          would care to read it, here is a link:
          http://www.umass.edu/wsp/project/senior/FromLukeToJohn.pdf
          <http://www.umass.edu/wsp/project/senior/FromLukeToJohn.pdf> .

          There I present the case for Luke > John directionality in the Lazarus
          texts on analysis of literary features alone. It seemed to me that
          John's "five brothers" and his redundant "brother/sister" themes posed a
          much higher probability of development from Luke to John than
          vice-versa - see pages 7-9. My first impression is that the Luke-John
          connection here in their respective 2nd chapters is very similar to that
          Lazarus connection, both based on common characters and both somewhat
          covert, and because John's raising of Lazarus replaces somewhat the role
          of the Synoptic cleansing of the temple, which in turn John moves to
          this position here in chapter 2.

          I'm painfully aware however that assertions of directionality can't rest
          on an isolated text or two, but must be based on systematic analysis. I
          agree there is a special relationship between Luke and John. I do not
          agree with Cribbs that Luke was influenced by John, but I'm not prepared
          to refute his well-argued position. Yet.

          Thanks again for the discussion.


          Keith Yoder



          --- In johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
          <mailto:johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com> , Paul Anderson
          <panderso@...> wrote:
          >
          > Thanks, Keith, for this thoughtful analysis of the Johannine-Lukan
          > relationship.
          >
          > Do you have any strong reason to argue that the contacts imply John's
          > familiarity with Luke instead of Luke's familiarity with John?
          >
          > If Luke used Mark (as we would most likely agree), and given that so
          many of
          > Luke's most characteristic themes are missing from John, it seems
          stronger
          > to infer that Luke's additions to Mark that have Johannine echoes
          imply
          > Luke's familiarity with the Johannine tradition.
          >
          > So, why could not the same evidence bolster a view that the contact
          went the
          > other direction?
          >
          > Much appreciated!
          >
          > Paul Anderson
          > George Fox University
          >





          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Keith Yoder
          Paul -   Sorry for delayed reply.  Thank you for your kind words.   My reason for presuming a Luke John flow of influence here is because that is what I
          Message 4 of 9 , Mar 24, 2011
            Paul -
             
            Sorry for delayed reply.  Thank you for your kind words.
             
            My reason for presuming a Luke > John flow of influence here is because that is what I found in the case of Luke and John's Lazarus and Mary-Martha texts in the short paper I referenced in my post.  If you would care to read it, here is a link:  http://www.umass.edu/wsp/project/senior/FromLukeToJohn.pdf.%c2%a0%c2%a0
             
            I present the case there for Luke > John directionality in the Lazarus texts on analysis of literary features alone.  It seems to me that John's "five brothers" and his redundant "brother/sister" themes pose a much higher probability of  development from Luke than vice-versa - see esp. pages 7-9.  
             
            Here in John 2 and Luke 2, my first impression is that this connection is very similar to the Lazarus connection:   both are based on common characters, both are somewhat covert, and they there seems to be a link in that John's raising of Lazarus somewhat stands in for the role of the Cleansing of the temple in the Synoptic plot line - and John in turn moves his Temple Cleansing to this position here in his chapter 2.  But more work would need to be done.
             
            I'm painfully aware however that assertions of directionality can't rest on an isolated text or two, but must be based on systematic analysis.  I agree there is a special relationship between Luke and John.   I do not agree with Cribbs that Luke was influenced by John, but I'm not prepared yet to refute his case.
             
             
            Thanks again for the discussion.

            Keith Yoder
             
             
             
            --- In johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com, Paul Anderson <panderso@...> wrote:
            >
            > Thanks, Keith, for this thoughtful analysis of the Johannine-Lukan
            > relationship.
            >
            > Do you have any strong reason to argue that the contacts imply John's
            > familiarity with Luke instead of Luke's familiarity with John?
            >
            > If Luke used Mark (as we would most likely agree), and given that so many of
            > Luke's most characteristic themes are missing from John, it seems stronger
            > to infer that Luke's additions to Mark that have Johannine echoes imply
            > Luke's familiarity with the Johannine tradition.
            >
            > So, why could not the same evidence bolster a view that the contact went the
            > other direction?
            >
            > Much appreciated!
            >
            > Paul Anderson
            > George Fox University
            >





            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Paul Anderson
            Thanks, Keith, After looking at your paper, here are my impressions. First, I do think there are Lukan-Johannine contacts worth considering, but I really see
            Message 5 of 9 , Mar 24, 2011
              Thanks, Keith,

              After looking at your paper, here are my impressions.

              First, I do think there are Lukan-Johannine contacts worth considering, but
              I really see very few marks of compelling connections between Luke 2 and
              John 2. None of the details are similar enough to suggest much influence in
              either direction.

              Second, I'm not convinced that any of the larger set of parallels in your
              essay confirm a Luke>John directionality of influence. That Luke (or his
              tradition) would create a moralizing story from the memory of Lazarus in the
              afterlife, the inferred roles of Mary and Martha, and the motivation of the
              woman anointing Jesus more plausibly suggests Luke's didactic expansion upon
              less paraenetic Johannine narratives. So, do show me why Luke>John is
              compelling as opposed to John>Luke. I do not find Bacon's conjectures
              regarding John's dependence on the Synoptics convincing, though he worked
              very hard at establishing an alternative paradigm.

              Meantime, here are bases for considering the John>Luke direction of
              influence, although I do not believe Luke had access to the completed
              written Johannine narrative. These and several other features are laid out
              in this essay: http://www.bibleinterp.com/opeds/acts357920.shtml and in *The
              Fourth Gospel and the Quest for Jesus *(Part III).

              First, the most characteristic of Lukan features are largely missing from
              John: the shepherds and angels around the birth narrative, hymns of
              Zechariah, Mary and Simeon, a genealogy, the infant and young Jesus in
              Jerusalem, the threefold temptation, the Nazareth inaugural address, the
              Lord's Prayer and beatitudes, beatitudes (with an emphasis on the poor); the
              parables of the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son; the story of Zachaeus;
              Jesus’ agony in the garden and his appearance before Herod; and
              postresurrection encounters on the road to Emmaus. *None* of these
              distinctive Lukan features, however, appear in John.

              Put another way, the twelve chapters in Luke that are most distinctively
              Lukan (Lk. 1-2 and 10-19) show very few contacts with the Gospel of John.
              So, if the Johannine evangelist knew and used the Lukan tradition, he drew
              only from incidental details and not from the most characteristic of Luke’s
              features or sections. Such an inference is thus highly unlikely from a
              literary analysis standpoint.

              Second, the strongest inferences must take note of Luke’s multiple
              departures from Mark and sidings with John:

              1) Johannine detail is included in Luke-Acts:


              - The beholding of Jesus’ glory (*doxa*) is added to the Transfiguration
              scene (Jn. 1:14 Lk. 9:32)
              -

              Bethlehem is described as the city of David only in John and Luke (Jn.
              7:42 Lk. 2:4)
              -

              Jesus is described as the son of Joseph only in Luke and John (Jn. 1:45;
              6:42 Lk. 3:23; 4:22)
              -

              Stoning and fear of stoning by Jewish leaders or the crowd (especially in
              Jerusalem) is mentioned only in John and Luke-Acts (Jn.8:59; 10:31-33; 11:8
              Lk. 13:34; 20:6; Ac. 5:26; 7:58; 14:5, 19)
              -

              The *Ioudaioi* seek to kill Jesus and his followers (Jn. 5:18; 7:1 Ac.
              9:23; 26:21)
              -

              The crowd acclaims Jesus as “king” at the triumphal entry (Jn. 12:13 Lk.
              19:38)
              -

              The place Jesus went to on the Mount of Olives was known and frequented
              (Jn. 18:2 Lk. 21:37, 22:39)
              -

              The “right” ear of the servant was severed by Peter (Jn. 18:10 Lk. 22:50)
              -

              The court/house of the high priest was entered by Jesus (Jn. 18:15 Lk.
              22:54)
              -

              Annas is uniquely mentioned in John and Luke-Acts, as is his association
              with Caiaphas (Jn. 18:13, 24 Lk. 3:2; Ac. 4:6)
              -

              Pilate’s instructing the words to be written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin
              is a detail common only to John and Luke (Jn. 19:20 Lk. 23:38—in some mss.)
              -

              The tomb is one in which no one had ever been laid (Jn. 19:41 Lk. 23:53)
              -

              Two angels in white or two men in dazzling clothes are mentioned at the
              empty tomb (Jn. 20:12 Lk. 24:4)

              2) The Johannine presentation of John the Baptist is replicated in Luke and
              Acts:

              -

              People question outwardly or in their hearts about John the Baptist,
              regarding whether he was the Christ (Jn. 1:20 Lk. 3:15)
              -

              John declares himself *not *to be the Messiah in John and Acts (Jn. 1:20;
              3:28 Ac. 13:25)
              -

              John has a more extensive itinerant ministry (Jn. 1:19-42; 3:22-4:3;
              10:40-42 Lk. 3:1-22; 7:18-35; 11:1) than portrayed in Mark
              -

              In both John and Acts, spiritual birth involves not just water but the
              Spirit (Jn. 3:5 Ac. 8:12-17; 18:24-19:7)

              3) Luke adds Johannine narrative and content:

              -

              The age of Jesus is alluded to (albeit differently) in John and Luke (Jn.
              8:57 Lk. 3:23)
              -

              The “law of Moses” is referred to distinctively in John and Luke-Acts
              (Jn. 1:17; 7:23 Lk. 2:22; 24:44; Ac. 13:39; 15:5; 28:23)
              -

              Mary and Martha are mentioned as sisters and are presented as having
              similar roles (Jn. 11:1-45; 12:1-11 Lk. 10:38-42)
              -

              A man named Lazarus is presented in both John and Luke and in both cases
              is associated with death and the testimony of after-death experiences—Luke
              expands a narrative into a parable (Jn. 11:1-12:17 Lk. 16:19-31)
              -

              A distinctive story about a dead man being raised by Jesus is included in
              John and Luke (Jn. 11:1-45 Lk. 7:11-17)
              -

              Pilate declares Jesus’ innocence three times (Jn. 18:38; 19:4, 6 Lk.
              23:4, 14, 22)
              -

              The crowd desires to give tribute to Caesar in their double demand for
              his crucifixion (Jn. 19:1-16 Lk. 23:2-33)
              -

              The day was the day of Preparation for the Sabbath, explaining the haste
              of the burial (Jn. 19:42 Lk. 23:54)
              -

              The great catch of fish is climactically mentioned as something of a
              calling narrative (Jn. 21:1-14 Lk. 5:1-11)
              -

              Concern is expressed at whether the nets might break (Jn. 21:11 Lk.
              5:6-7)
              -

              Jesus eats fish and bread with the disciples after the resurrection (Jn.
              21:9-13 Lk. 24:28-43)

              4) Presentations of Jesus’ teachings and ministry in John are replicated in
              Luke:

              -

              The “word of God” is an embellished Lukan theme (Jn. 1:1-2; 10:35 Lk.
              3:2; 5:1; 8:11, 21; 11:28; Ac. 4:31; 6:2, 7; 8:14; 11:1; 12:24; 13:5, 7, 46;
              17:13; 18:11)
              -

              Only in John and Luke-Acts is Jesus referred to as “savior” (Jn. 4:42 Lk.
              1:69; 2:11; Ac. 5:31; 13:23)
              -

              Double questions are asked regarding Jesus’ Messiahship and Sonship (Jn.
              10:24, 33-36 Lk. 22:67, 70)
              -

              The ascension is alluded to or mentioned (Jn. 20:17 Lk. 24:51; Ac.
              1:9-11)
              -

              Jesus suddenly appears to his disciples after the resurrection, standing
              among them (Jn. 20:19 Lk. 24:36)
              -

              Jesus invites his followers to see and touch his hands (Jn. 20:20, 27 Lk.
              24:39-40)
              -

              Jesus bestows peace upon his followers after the resurrection (Jn. 20:19,
              21 Lk. 24:36)
              -

              Luke uniquely connects the beginning of feeding of the multitude with
              Bethsaida, the home of Philip, whom Jesus in John asked to find the crowds
              something to eat (Jn. 1:44; 6:5; 12:21 Lk. 9:10)
              -

              The citation of Isaiah 6:9-10 is distinctively associated with the
              reaching of the Gentiles in John and Acts (Jn. 12:20-41 Ac. 28:25-28)
              -

              “Israelites” are portrayed as people in whom there is nothing false and
              amongst whom God is at work in John and Acts (Jn. 1:47 Ac. 2:22, 29; 3:12;
              5:35; 13:16; 21:28)
              -

              Jesus is presented explicitly as the prophet predicted by Moses (Deut.
              18:15-22) in John and Acts (Jn. 5:46; 6:14 Ac. 3:22; 7:37; 26:22-23)
              -

              Jesus refers to “my kingdom” only in John and Luke (Jn. 18:36 Lk. 22:30)
              -

              Jesus prays for his disciples, that they might not fail during the time
              of trial (Jn. 17:15 Lk. 22:31-32)

              5) Presentations of disciples in John are repeated in Luke-Acts:

              -

              The disciples question who would be the betrayer (Jn. 13:22-24 Lk. 22:23)
              -

              Satan enters Judas (Jn. 13:27 Lk. 22:3)
              -

              Only John and Luke mention a second Judas who is *not* Iscariot (Jn.
              14:22 Lk. 6:16; Ac. 1:13)
              -

              Mary Magdalene becomes a link between the risen Lord and the Apostles
              (Jn. 20:18 Lk. 24:10)
              -

              Peter runs to the tomb after Mary’s report (Jn. 20:4 Lk. 24:12)
              -

              Peter arrives at the tomb and sees the linen cloths lying there (Jn. 20:5
              Lk. 24:12)
              -

              Peter is reported as having returned to his “home” (Jn. 20:10 Lk. 24:12)
              after seeing the empty tomb
              -

              The unbelief of Thomas in John 20:24-28 is alluded to as the unbelief of
              the apostles in Luke 24:11 following Mary’s report
              -

              Simon Peter is the primary disciple associated with the great catch of
              fish (Jn. 21:2-11 Lk. 5:3-8)
              -

              Philip is presented as one who evangelizes aliens, including Hellenists,
              Samaritans, and Ethiopians (Jn. 12:20-22 Ac. 8:5-40)

              6) Luke follows John’s order and presentation several times, *against*Mark:

              -

              Luke begins Jesus' ministry in ways reminiscent of John's rendering: the
              countryside of Galilee in the area around Nazareth (Jn. 1:43-2:11 Lk.
              4:14-16)
              -

              Only one sea-crossing is used in Luke rather than Mark’s two (Jn. 6:16-21
              Lk. 8:22-26)
              -

              Only one feeding is mentioned in Luke, and this is the feeding of the
              5,000, as it is in John (Jn. 6:1-15 Lk. 9:10-17)
              -

              Luke relocates the confession of Peter after the feeding of the 5,000 as
              a contrast to its following the feeding of the 4,000 as it does in Mark (Jn
              6:68-69 Lk. 9:20)
              -

              Luke moves the servanthood discussion to the last supper, where it is in
              John (Jn. 13:1-17 Lk. 22:24-30)
              -

              Jesus extols and exemplifies the greatness of servant leadership at the *
              table* (Jn. 13:1-17 Lk. 12:37; 22:24-30)
              -

              Luke moves the prediction of Peter’s denial to the last supper (Jn. 13:38
              Lk. 22:34)
              -

              Jesus’ post-resurrection appearances begin in Jerusalem (Jn. 20:19-29 Lk.
              24:13-53.)

              7) At times Luke conflates John’s and Mark’s presentations together:

              -

              Peter’s confession is “the Christ of God” conflating “the Christ” with
              “the Holy One of God” (Mk. 8:29 & Jn. 6:69 Lk. 9:20)
              -

              Luke departs from Mark’s presentation of the anointing of Jesus’ head,
              and presents the event as the anointing of Jesus’ feet—an unlikely move to
              make without a traditional basis; John provides such a basis (Mk. 14:1-11 &
              Jn. 12:1-8 Lk. 7:36-50)

              8) Sometimes associative links (not strong contacts, but distinctive
              similarities nonetheless) appear between John and Luke-Acts:

              -

              “Levites” are mentioned only in John and Luke-Acts (Jn. 1:19 Lk. 10:32;
              Ac. 4:36)
              -

              The claim by Jerusalem leaders that Jesus or his disciples lack of formal
              education is mentioned in John and Acts (Jn. 7:15 Ac. 4:13)
              -

              “Siloam” is only mentioned in John and Luke (Jn. 9:7, 11 Lk. 13:4)
              -

              Speaking against Caesar is used rhetorically against Jesus and his
              followers by surrogates of Jewish leaders (Jn. 19:12 Lk. 23:2 Ac. 17:7)
              -

              Jesus is described as a “king” and a threat to Caesar before Pilate (Jn.
              19:14-15 Lk. 23:2)
              -

              Solomon’s portico in the Jerusalem Temple is mentioned only in John and
              Acts (Jn. 10:23 Ac. 3:11; 5:12), and this is one of the places Jesus and his
              followers witnessed to Jewish leaders

              9) The Holy Spirit references emphasized in John are repeated in Luke-Acts:

              -

              The Holy Spirit will teach believers what they need to know and say (Jn.
              14:26 Lk. 12:12),
              -

              The Holy Spirit is presented distinctively as “wind” (Jn. 3:8 Ac. 2:2)
              -

              The work of the Holy Spirit is described as “comfort” (*paraklēsis*)
              provided by the Comforter (*Paraklētos*) in John and Luke-Acts (Jn.
              14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7 Lk. 2:25; Ac. 9:31)

              10) Women are presented in similar ways in John and Luke-Acts:

              -

              Jesus enters the home of Mary and Martha and is served by Martha (Jn.
              12:1-8 Lk. 10:38-42)
              -

              The mother of Jesus is featured prominently in John and Luke (Jn. 2:1-12;
              19:25-27 Lk. 1:26-2:51)
              -

              Women make confessions in John and Luke (Jn. 11: 27 Lk. 11:27)
              -

              Women are reported as having seen angels/men in radiant clothes at the
              empty tomb (Jn. 20:12 Lk. 24:23)

              11) Samaritans are presented in similar ways in John and Luke-Acts:

              -

              “Samaria” is only mentioned in John and Luke-Acts in the New Testament
              (Jn. 4:4, 9 Lk. 17:11; Ac. 1:8; 8:1, 5, 9, 14; 9:31; 15:3)
              -

              Jesus ministers in Samaria as well as Galilee (Jn. 4:4-42 Lk. 17:11)
              -

              Jesus’ followers (versus Jesus’ instructions in Matthew 10:5) are
              reported as traveling through Samaria (Jn. 4:8, 27-38 Lk. 9:51-56; Ac.
              8:1-25; 15:3)
              -

              A Samaritan person is presented as a favorable example for later
              audiences (Jn. 4:39-42 Lk. 10:25-37; 17:11-19)
              -

              Jews having no dealings with Samaritans is declared or suggested (Jn. 4:9
              Lk. 10:33-37)
              -

              Samaritans are reported as believing that Jesus was the Messiah or
              receiving his ministry with gratitude (Jn. 4:39-42 Lk. 17:16; Ac. 8:7-8,
              13-17)

              12) Events reported only in John are alluded to in Luke-Acts:

              -

              The “idle tale” told by Mary Magdalene to the apostles in Luke 24:10-11
              appears to be a reference to the account in John 20:2, where she reported
              the empty tomb to Peter and the Beloved Disciple
              -

              The disciples’ visit to the tomb in John 20:3-9 is alluded to in the
              disciples’ report on the road to Emmaus in Luke 24:24
              -

              The Lord’s post-resurrection appearance to Simon Peter in John 21:2-21is
              alluded to in Luke 24:34

              So, because these features are not in Mark or Matthew but are contained in
              the Johannine tradition, it seems stronger to argue that Luke has
              incorporated these Johannine elements in producing his "orderly
              account"--even seeming to expresses appreciation to the Johannine tradents
              for what he has received from eyewitnesses and servants of the Logos (Lk.
              1:2). Therefore, I believe the strongest critical evidence supports Lukan
              dependence on the Johannine tradition, likely in its oral stages of
              development.

              However, I'm willing to be convinced to the contrary, although (with Moody
              Smith and Mark Matson), but so far I think Cribbs wins the critical case
              over Bailey, Bacon, and others.

              Thanks so much!

              Paul Anderson
              Professor of Biblical and Quaker Studies
              George Fox University
              Newberg, OR 97132




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              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Matson, Mark (Academic)
              Dear Paul and Keith: Wow, great response Paul. I m out of my office right now at a conference, and so did not have all my material handy to study it as Paul
              Message 6 of 9 , Mar 25, 2011
                Dear Paul and Keith:

                Wow, great response Paul. I'm out of my office right now at a conference, and so did not have all my material handy to study it as Paul did -- I am grateful for his response.

                Let me just add a little word here. The issue of directionality is very difficult. In many cases one can argue either way -- and have. (for instance Bailey's work on the anointing).

                For my part I thought a careful exegetical analysis of material in Luke and John would be most helpful. So in my "In Dialogue with Another Gospel" I deal with the series of similarities between Lk and Jn in the passion narrative testing John to Luke directionality. And I find it reasonable for this direction. (notice I did not "prove" that directionality, which is probably beyond our ability). [and, as a sidenote, I have a chapter the pulls together in chart form all the similarities I could find, and list which scholars have addressed them].

                My main point here is that directionality requires some careful work. For instance, is there a linguistic basis (i.e., does Luke use Johannine words, or does John use Lukan words)?

                One thing that impressed me is that Luke often has Johannine sounding material precisely where it varies from a Markan master narrative. That suggests that Luke has made room for some Johannine material in his revision of the Markan story. Of course that does not help with Lazarus, since that is in the interpolation material where Mark's story is not dominant. And it is why I stuck to the passion narrative. It seems to me that one needs some explanation for Luke's variation on the passion narrative, given that in much of the story he does follow Mark. A plausible explanation, it seems to me, is the Johannine version has influenced Luke in his writing.

                Could it be John used Luke? well, sure, it could. And since John is more or less unique it is hard to test that. Except that John shows few clear signs of uniquely Lukan features intruding into his style.

                Just some more thoughts on this issue.

                Mark A. Matson
                Academic Dean
                Milligan College
                Milligan College, TN
                http://www.milligan.edu/administrative/mmatson/personal.htm
                ________________________________________
                From: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com [johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Paul Anderson [panderso@...]
                Sent: Friday, March 25, 2011 1:44 AM
                To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Another Luke-John Connection

                Thanks, Keith,

                After looking at your paper, here are my impressions.

                First, I do think there are Lukan-Johannine contacts worth considering, but
                I really see very few marks of compelling connections between Luke 2 and
                John 2. None of the details are similar enough to suggest much influence in
                either direction.

                Second, I'm not convinced that any of the larger set of parallels in your
                essay confirm a Luke>John directionality of influence. That Luke (or his
                tradition) would create a moralizing story from the memory of Lazarus in the
                afterlife, the inferred roles of Mary and Martha, and the motivation of the
                woman anointing Jesus more plausibly suggests Luke's didactic expansion upon
                less paraenetic Johannine narratives. So, do show me why Luke>John is
                compelling as opposed to John>Luke. I do not find Bacon's conjectures
                regarding John's dependence on the Synoptics convincing, though he worked
                very hard at establishing an alternative paradigm.

                Meantime, here are bases for considering the John>Luke direction of
                influence, although I do not believe Luke had access to the completed
                written Johannine narrative. These and several other features are laid out
                in this essay: http://www.bibleinterp.com/opeds/acts357920.shtml and in *The
                Fourth Gospel and the Quest for Jesus *(Part III).

                First, the most characteristic of Lukan features are largely missing from
                John: the shepherds and angels around the birth narrative, hymns of
                Zechariah, Mary and Simeon, a genealogy, the infant and young Jesus in
                Jerusalem, the threefold temptation, the Nazareth inaugural address, the
                Lord's Prayer and beatitudes, beatitudes (with an emphasis on the poor); the
                parables of the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son; the story of Zachaeus;
                Jesus’ agony in the garden and his appearance before Herod; and
                postresurrection encounters on the road to Emmaus. *None* of these
                distinctive Lukan features, however, appear in John.

                Put another way, the twelve chapters in Luke that are most distinctively
                Lukan (Lk. 1-2 and 10-19) show very few contacts with the Gospel of John.
                So, if the Johannine evangelist knew and used the Lukan tradition, he drew
                only from incidental details and not from the most characteristic of Luke’s
                features or sections. Such an inference is thus highly unlikely from a
                literary analysis standpoint.

                Second, the strongest inferences must take note of Luke’s multiple
                departures from Mark and sidings with John:

                1) Johannine detail is included in Luke-Acts:


                - The beholding of Jesus’ glory (*doxa*) is added to the Transfiguration
                scene (Jn. 1:14 Lk. 9:32)
                -

                Bethlehem is described as the city of David only in John and Luke (Jn.
                7:42 Lk. 2:4)
                -

                Jesus is described as the son of Joseph only in Luke and John (Jn. 1:45;
                6:42 Lk. 3:23; 4:22)
                -

                Stoning and fear of stoning by Jewish leaders or the crowd (especially in
                Jerusalem) is mentioned only in John and Luke-Acts (Jn.8:59; 10:31-33; 11:8
                Lk. 13:34; 20:6; Ac. 5:26; 7:58; 14:5, 19)
                -

                The *Ioudaioi* seek to kill Jesus and his followers (Jn. 5:18; 7:1 Ac.
                9:23; 26:21)
                -

                The crowd acclaims Jesus as “king” at the triumphal entry (Jn. 12:13 Lk.
                19:38)
                -

                The place Jesus went to on the Mount of Olives was known and frequented
                (Jn. 18:2 Lk. 21:37, 22:39)
                -

                The “right” ear of the servant was severed by Peter (Jn. 18:10 Lk. 22:50)
                -

                The court/house of the high priest was entered by Jesus (Jn. 18:15 Lk.
                22:54)
                -

                Annas is uniquely mentioned in John and Luke-Acts, as is his association
                with Caiaphas (Jn. 18:13, 24 Lk. 3:2; Ac. 4:6)
                -

                Pilate’s instructing the words to be written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin
                is a detail common only to John and Luke (Jn. 19:20 Lk. 23:38—in some mss.)
                -

                The tomb is one in which no one had ever been laid (Jn. 19:41 Lk. 23:53)
                -

                Two angels in white or two men in dazzling clothes are mentioned at the
                empty tomb (Jn. 20:12 Lk. 24:4)

                2) The Johannine presentation of John the Baptist is replicated in Luke and
                Acts:

                -

                People question outwardly or in their hearts about John the Baptist,
                regarding whether he was the Christ (Jn. 1:20 Lk. 3:15)
                -

                John declares himself *not *to be the Messiah in John and Acts (Jn. 1:20;
                3:28 Ac. 13:25)
                -

                John has a more extensive itinerant ministry (Jn. 1:19-42; 3:22-4:3;
                10:40-42 Lk. 3:1-22; 7:18-35; 11:1) than portrayed in Mark
                -

                In both John and Acts, spiritual birth involves not just water but the
                Spirit (Jn. 3:5 Ac. 8:12-17; 18:24-19:7)

                3) Luke adds Johannine narrative and content:

                -

                The age of Jesus is alluded to (albeit differently) in John and Luke (Jn.
                8:57 Lk. 3:23)
                -

                The “law of Moses” is referred to distinctively in John and Luke-Acts
                (Jn. 1:17; 7:23 Lk. 2:22; 24:44; Ac. 13:39; 15:5; 28:23)
                -

                Mary and Martha are mentioned as sisters and are presented as having
                similar roles (Jn. 11:1-45; 12:1-11 Lk. 10:38-42)
                -

                A man named Lazarus is presented in both John and Luke and in both cases
                is associated with death and the testimony of after-death experiences—Luke
                expands a narrative into a parable (Jn. 11:1-12:17 Lk. 16:19-31)
                -

                A distinctive story about a dead man being raised by Jesus is included in
                John and Luke (Jn. 11:1-45 Lk. 7:11-17)
                -

                Pilate declares Jesus’ innocence three times (Jn. 18:38; 19:4, 6 Lk.
                23:4, 14, 22)
                -

                The crowd desires to give tribute to Caesar in their double demand for
                his crucifixion (Jn. 19:1-16 Lk. 23:2-33)
                -

                The day was the day of Preparation for the Sabbath, explaining the haste
                of the burial (Jn. 19:42 Lk. 23:54)
                -

                The great catch of fish is climactically mentioned as something of a
                calling narrative (Jn. 21:1-14 Lk. 5:1-11)
                -

                Concern is expressed at whether the nets might break (Jn. 21:11 Lk.
                5:6-7)
                -

                Jesus eats fish and bread with the disciples after the resurrec?tion (Jn.
                21:9-13 Lk. 24:28-43)

                4) Presentations of Jesus’ teachings and ministry in John are replicated in
                Luke:

                -

                The “word of God” is an embellished Lukan theme (Jn. 1:1-2; 10:35 Lk.
                3:2; 5:1; 8:11, 21; 11:28; Ac. 4:31; 6:2, 7; 8:14; 11:1; 12:24; 13:5, 7, 46;
                17:13; 18:11)
                -

                Only in John and Luke-Acts is Jesus referred to as “savior” (Jn. 4:42 Lk.
                1:69; 2:11; Ac. 5:31; 13:23)
                -

                Double questions are asked regarding Jesus’ Messiahship and Sonship (Jn.
                10:24, 33-36 Lk. 22:67, 70)
                -

                The ascension is alluded to or mentioned (Jn. 20:17 Lk. 24:51; Ac.
                1:9-11)
                -

                Jesus suddenly appears to his disciples after the resurrection, standing
                among them (Jn. 20:19 Lk. 24:36)
                -

                Jesus invites his followers to see and touch his hands (Jn. 20:20, 27 Lk.
                24:39-40)
                -

                Jesus bestows peace upon his followers after the resurrection (Jn. 20:19,
                21 Lk. 24:36)
                -

                Luke uniquely connects the beginning of feeding of the multitude with
                Bethsaida, the home of Philip, whom Jesus in John asked to find the crowds
                something to eat (Jn. 1:44; 6:5; 12:21 Lk. 9:10)
                -

                The citation of Isaiah 6:9-10 is distinctively associated with the
                reaching of the Gentiles in John and Acts (Jn. 12:20-41 Ac. 28:25-28)
                -

                “Israelites” are portrayed as people in whom there is nothing false and
                amongst whom God is at work in John and Acts (Jn. 1:47 Ac. 2:22, 29; 3:12;
                5:35; 13:16; 21:28)
                -

                Jesus is presented explicitly as the prophet predicted by Moses (Deut.
                18:15-22) in John and Acts (Jn. 5:46; 6:14 Ac. 3:22; 7:37; 26:22-23)
                -

                Jesus refers to “my kingdom” only in John and Luke (Jn. 18:36 Lk. 22:30)
                -

                Jesus prays for his disciples, that they might not fail during the time
                of trial (Jn. 17:15 Lk. 22:31-32)

                5) Presentations of disciples in John are repeated in Luke-Acts:

                -

                The disciples question who would be the betrayer (Jn. 13:22-24 Lk. 22:23)
                -

                Satan enters Judas (Jn. 13:27 Lk. 22:3)
                -

                Only John and Luke mention a second Judas who is *not* Iscariot (Jn.
                14:22 Lk. 6:16; Ac. 1:13)
                -

                Mary Magdalene becomes a link between the ri?sen Lord and the Apostles
                (Jn. 20:18 Lk. 24:10)
                -

                Peter runs to the tomb after Mary’s report (Jn. 20:4 Lk. 24:12)
                -

                Peter arrives at the tomb and sees the linen cloths lying there (Jn. 20:5
                Lk. 24:12)
                -

                Peter is reported as having returned to his “home” (Jn. 20:10 Lk. 24:12)
                after seeing the empty tomb
                -

                The unbelief of Thomas in John 20:24-28 is alluded to as the unbelief of
                the apostles in Luke 24:11 following Mary’s report
                -

                Simon Peter is the primary disciple associated with the great catch of
                fish (Jn. 21:2-11 Lk. 5:3-8)
                -

                Philip is presented as one who evangelizes aliens, including Hellenists,
                Samaritans, and Ethiopians (Jn. 12:20-22 Ac. 8:5-40)

                6) Luke follows John’s order and presentation several times, *against*Mark:

                -

                Luke begins Jesus' ministry in ways reminiscent of John's rendering: the
                countryside of Galilee in the area around Nazareth (Jn. 1:43-2:11 Lk.
                4:14-16)
                -

                Only one sea-crossing is used in Luke rather than Mark’s two (Jn. 6:16-21
                Lk. 8:22-26)
                -

                Only one feeding is mentioned in Luke, and this is the feeding of the
                5,000, as it is in John (Jn. 6:1-15 Lk. 9:10-17)
                -

                Luke relocates the confession of Peter after the feeding of the 5,000 as
                a contrast to its following the feeding of the 4,000 as it does in Mark (Jn
                6:68-69 Lk. 9:20)
                -

                Luke moves the servanthood discussion to the last supper, where it is in
                John (Jn. 13:1-17 Lk. 22:24-30)
                -

                Jesus extols and exemplifies the greatness of servant leadership at the *
                table* (Jn. 13:1-17 Lk. 12:37; 22:24-30)
                -

                Luke moves the prediction of Peter’s denial to the last supper (Jn. 13:38
                Lk. 22:34)
                -

                Jesus’ post-resurrection appearances begin in Jerusalem (Jn. 20:19-29 Lk.
                24:13-53.)

                7) At times Luke conflates John’s and Mark’s presentations together:

                -

                Peter’s confession is “the Christ of God” conflating “the Christ” with
                “the Holy One of God” (Mk. 8:29 & Jn. 6:69 Lk. 9:20)
                -

                Luke departs from Mark’s presentation of the anointing of Jesus’ head,
                and presents the event as the anointing of Jesus’ feet—an unlikely move to
                make without a traditional basis; John provides such a basis (Mk. 14:1-11 &
                Jn. 12:1-8 Lk. 7:36-50)

                8) Sometimes associative links (not strong contacts, but distinctive
                similarities nonetheless) appear between John and Luke-Acts:

                -

                “Levites” are mentioned only in John and Luke-Acts (Jn. 1:19 Lk. 10:32;
                Ac. 4:36)
                -

                The claim by Jerusalem leaders that Jesus or his disciples lack of formal
                education is mentioned in John and Acts (Jn. 7:15 Ac. 4:13)
                -

                “Siloam” is only mentioned in John and Luke (Jn. 9:7, 11 Lk. 13:4)
                -

                Speaking against Caesar is used rhetorically against Jesus and his
                followers by surrogates of Jewish leaders (Jn. 19:12 Lk. 23:2 Ac. 17:7)
                -

                Jesus is described as a “king” and a threat to Caesar before Pilate (Jn.
                19:14-15 Lk. 23:2)
                -

                Solomon’s portico in the Jerusalem Temple is mentioned only in John and
                Acts (Jn. 10:23 Ac. 3:11; 5:12), and this is one of the places Jesus and his
                followers witnessed to Jewish leaders

                9) The Holy Spirit references emphasized in John are repeated in Luke-Acts:

                -

                The Holy Spirit will teach believers what they need to know and say (Jn.
                14:26 Lk. 12:12),
                -

                The Holy Spirit is presented distinctively as “wind” (Jn. 3:8 Ac. 2:2)
                -

                The work of the Holy Spirit is described as “comfort” (*paraklēsis*)
                provided by the Comforter (*Paraklētos*) in John and Luke-Acts (Jn.
                14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7 Lk. 2:25; Ac. 9:31)

                10) Women are presented in similar ways in John and Luke-Acts:

                -

                Jesus enters the home of Mary and Martha and is served by Martha (Jn.
                12:1-8 Lk. 10:38-42)
                -

                The mother of Jesus is featured prominently in John and Luke (Jn. 2:1-12;
                19:25-27 Lk. 1:26-2:51)
                -

                Women make confessions in John and Luke (Jn. 11: 27 Lk. 11:27)
                -

                Women are reported as having seen angels/men in radiant clothes at the
                empty tomb (Jn. 20:12 Lk. 24:23)

                11) Samaritans are presented in similar ways in John and Luke-Acts:

                -

                “Samaria” is only mentioned in John and Luke-Acts in the New Testament
                (Jn. 4:4, 9 Lk. 17:11; Ac. 1:8; 8:1, 5, 9, 14; 9:31; 15:3)
                -

                Jesus ministers in Samaria as well as Galilee (Jn. 4:4-42 Lk. 17:11)
                -

                Jesus’ followers (versus Jesus’ instructions in Matthew 10:5) are
                reported as traveling through Samaria (Jn. 4:8, 27-38 Lk. 9:51-56; Ac.
                8:1-25; 15:3)
                -

                A Samaritan person is presented as a favorable example for later
                audiences (Jn. 4:39-42 Lk. 10:25-37; 17:11-19)
                -

                Jews having no dealings with Samaritans is declared or suggested (Jn. 4:9
                Lk. 10:33-37)
                -

                Samaritans are reported as believing that Jesus was the Messiah or
                receiving his ministry with gratitude (Jn. 4:39-42 Lk. 17:16; Ac. 8:7-8,
                13-17)

                12) Events reported only in John are alluded to in Luke-Acts:

                -

                The “idle tale” told by Mary Magdalene to the apostles in Luke 24:10-11
                appears to be a reference to the account in John 20:2, where she reported
                the empty tomb to Peter and the Beloved Disciple
                -

                The disciples’ visit to the tomb in John 20:3-9 is alluded to in the
                disciples’ report on the road to Emmaus in Luke 24:24
                -

                The Lord’s post-resurrection appearance to Simon Peter in John 21:2-21is
                alluded to in Luke 24:34

                So, because these features are not in Mark or Matthew but are contained in
                the Johannine tradition, it seems stronger to argue that Luke has
                incorporated these Johannine elements in producing his "orderly
                account"--even seeming to expresses appreciation to the Johannine tradents
                for what he has received from eyewitnesses and servants of the Logos (Lk.
                1:2). Therefore, I believe the strongest critical evidence supports Lukan
                dependence on the Johannine tradition, likely in its oral stages of
                development.

                However, I'm willing to be convinced to the contrary, although (with Moody
                Smith and Mark Matson), but so far I think Cribbs wins the critical case
                over Bailey, Bacon, and others.

                Thanks so much!

                Paul Anderson
                Professor of Biblical and Quaker Studies
                George Fox University
                Newberg, OR 97132




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