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RE: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John

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  • Tony Costa
    Dear John, sounds fascinating. I would appreciate a pdf copy of your paper as well. Best regards, Tony Costa _____ From: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
    Message 1 of 28 , Apr 18, 2009
    • 0 Attachment
      Dear John, sounds fascinating. I would appreciate a pdf copy of your paper
      as well.



      Best regards,


      Tony Costa



      _____

      From: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
      [mailto:johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
      DanielMcGrady22@...
      Sent: Saturday, April 18, 2009 4:21 PM
      To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John









      Hi John,

      I like the work you are doing here and would also appreciate a pdf copy of
      your paper.

      Many thanks,

      Danny McGrady


      In a message dated 18/04/2009 19:24:53 GMT Standard Time, dean198@yahoo.
      <mailto:dean198%40yahoo.com> com
      writes:

      Anyway, my studies have convinced me there is in fact no room for doubt
      > of the Targum origin of the Logos title. I wrote an article "The Targum
      > of Isaiah and the Johannine Literature" published last Fall in the
      > Westminster Theological Journal (pp. 247-278), of which I could send a
      > pdf file to any who are interested. Next year Hendrickson is publishing
      > my book which looks at all the Targums, especially the Palestinian
      > Targums of the Pentateuch.

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Tom Butler
      Dean,   I would like to receive a PDF file containing a copy of your article, and I am looking forward to reading your book. Tom Butler ... From: Horace
      Message 2 of 28 , Apr 19, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        Dean,
         
        I would like to receive a PDF file containing a copy of your article, and I am looking forward to reading your book.

        Tom Butler

        --- On Sat, 4/18/09, Horace Jeffery Hodges <jefferyhodges@...> wrote:

        From: Horace Jeffery Hodges <jefferyhodges@...>
        Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John
        To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
        Date: Saturday, April 18, 2009, 11:34 AM








        I'd also be interested in a copy.
         
        Jeffery Hodges

        Ewha Womans University
        Seoul, South Korea

        Blog: http://gypsyscholar ship.blogspot. com/

        Doctoral Thesis: Food as Synecdoche in the Gospel of John and Gnostic Texts

        Ph.D., History, U.C. Berkeley
        M.A., History of Science, U.C. Berkeley
        B.A., English Language and Literature, Baylor University

        Home Address:

        Dr. Sun-Ae Hwang and Dr. Horace Jeffery Hodges
        Gunyoung Apt. 102-204
        Sangbong-dong 1
        Jungnang-gu
        Seoul 131-771
        South Korea

        --- On Sat, 4/18/09, dean198 <dean198@yahoo. com> wrote:

        From: dean198 <dean198@yahoo. com>
        Subject: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John
        To: johannine_literatur e@yahoogroups. com
        Date: Saturday, April 18, 2009, 8:52 AM

        Dear John,
        I would also be deeply interested in reading your article, if you could email it to me. I think this line of study will turn out to be very significant.
        Thanks
        Dean
        BA Classics (summa cum laude) May 2009, CU Boulder.
        Honors Thesis: "John Mark and the Johannine Corpus"

        --- In johannine_literatur e@yahoogroups. com, "jronning" <jronning@.. .> wrote:
        >
        > Greetings all,
        >
        > Probably most are aware that 100 years ago it was commonly considered
        > possible or likely that the Logos title came from the Aramaic (Targum)
        > expression "the Word of the Lord" which was often used to render the
        > Tetragrammaton, and that this idea has been widely discredited during
        > the 20th century, though a few souls (notably Martin McNamara) have
        > continued to champion it.  This is an issue I've been looking at for the
        > last five years or so, I got into it almost accidentally (my fieldis
        > really more OT than NT, tho my major interest is NT interpretation of
        > OT).
        >
        > Anyway,  my studies have convinced me there is in fact no room for doubt
        > of the Targum origin of the Logos title. I wrote an article "The Targum
        > of Isaiah and the Johannine Literature" published last Fall in the
        > Westminster Theological Journal (pp. 247-278), of which I could send a
        > pdf file to any who are interested. Next year Hendrickson is publishing
        > my book which looks at all the Targums, especially the Palestinian
        > Targums of the Pentateuch.
        >
        > Much of John's Gospel is illuminated by such an understanding, and other
        > features of the Targums besides the Word concept also contribute to
        > illuminating John.  Some random examples:
        >
        > 1. Tg. Neofiti Deut 32:39, "See now that I, I in my Word am he."
        > Suggests a link between the Prologue (where John calls Jesus the Word)
        > and the body of the Gospel, where Jesus (the Word) repeatedly says "I am
        > he" (ego eimi); some of these ego eimi sayings in turn can be linked
        > back to Deut 32:39 (or one of its Targum renderings); e.g. "I am the
        > resurrection and the life" can be related to Neofiti's rendering of Deut
        > 32:39, "I kill and I make alive" which is "I put to death the living in
        > this world and raise the dead to life in the world to come."  Also, "No
        > one can snatch them out of my hand" (John 10:28) agrees with a literal
        > translation of the Hebrew (but not the Aramaic) of Deut 32:39, "No one
        > delivers from my hand."
        >
        > 2. The Palestinian Targums of Gen 28:10 say that five miracles were done
        > for our father Jacob when he left home to go to Haran. The fifth of
        > these was that when he lifted the stone from the mouth of the well, the
        > water surged up and overflowed for 20 years (the time he was in Haran).
        > This legend can be seen as being alluded to in answer to the Samaritan
        > woman's question, "You are not greater than our father Jacob, are you,"
        > to which Jesus replies that the water he gives "will become in him a
        > well of water surging up to eternal life."  Yes, I suppose we should
        > conclude this legend was embraced by the Samaritans also.
        >
        > 3. John 12:41; Isaiah saw Christ's glory, context indicating a reference
        > to Isaiah 6 (I saw the Lord, sitting on his throne, high and lifted up).
        > In Tg. Isa 6:1 he sees the glory of the Lord's Shekinah and hears the
        > Word of the Lord speaking to him.  Dalman pointed this out 100 years
        > ago.  Not so well known is that Tg. Pseudo-Jonathan Deut 4:7 borrows
        > from Isa 6:1 saying that the Word of the Lord sits on his throne, high
        > and lifted up. My article also shows how the four "lifted up" sayings in
        > John correspond to the four "high and lifted up" passages in Isaiah
        > (that speak of God and his servant being high and lifted up).
        >
        > 4. John 12:37, though he had done so many signs among them, they were
        > not believing in him. Some have seen this as a paraphrase of Num 14:11;
        > how long will they not believe in me, in spite of all the signs I have
        > done among them?  In the various Targums, it is "how long will they not
        > believe in my Word (or in the name of my Word);" cf. John 1:12, those
        > who believed in his name).
        >
        > In general, allusions in John to the OT, where the Targums speak of the
        > divine Word as accomplishing what the Hebrew text says God does, carry
        > the overall message "the Word has become flesh."   I.e., what God did in
        > the OT (through the agency of his Word according to the Targums), he now
        > does as a man sent by the Father. That is, recognizing the Targum
        > background to John enables us to see "the Word became flesh" as
        > programmatic of the Gospel as a whole.  In my article I show how this
        > pertains to the theme of God as warrior; in my book I do the same for
        > other divine roles, e.g. Jesus as Bridegroom, Jesus as Lawgiver (with
        > the upper room as a new Sinai).
        >
        > Some food for thought, I trust.
        >
        > John Ronning
        > jronning@...
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >

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        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Don Garlington
        Yes, please do send me the file. Thanks. Don G. ... From: DanielMcGrady22@aol.com Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for
        Message 3 of 28 , Apr 19, 2009
        • 0 Attachment
          Yes, please do send me the file. Thanks.

          Don G.

          --- On Sat, 4/18/09, DanielMcGrady22@... <DanielMcGrady22@...> wrote:
          From: DanielMcGrady22@... <DanielMcGrady22@...>
          Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John
          To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
          Date: Saturday, April 18, 2009, 1:20 PM



















          Hi John,



          I like the work you are doing here and would also appreciate a pdf copy of

          your paper.



          Many thanks,



          Danny McGrady





          In a message dated 18/04/2009 19:24:53 GMT Standard Time, dean198@yahoo. com

          writes:



          Anyway, my studies have convinced me there is in fact no room for doubt

          > of the Targum origin of the Logos title. I wrote an article "The Targum

          > of Isaiah and the Johannine Literature" published last Fall in the

          > Westminster Theological Journal (pp. 247-278), of which I could send a

          > pdf file to any who are interested. Next year Hendrickson is publishing

          > my book which looks at all the Targums, especially the Palestinian

          > Targums of the Pentateuch.



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




























          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Matson, Mark (Academic)
          John: I also would like a copy of your article. Mark A. Matson Academic Dean Milligan College http://www.milligan.edu/administrative/mmatson/personal.htm
          Message 4 of 28 , Apr 19, 2009
          • 0 Attachment
            John:

            I also would like a copy of your article.

            Mark A. Matson
            Academic Dean
            Milligan College
            http://www.milligan.edu/administrative/mmatson/personal.htm

            ________________________________

            From: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com on behalf of DanielMcGrady22@...
            Sent: Sat 4/18/2009 4:20 PM
            To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John




            Hi John,

            I like the work you are doing here and would also appreciate a pdf copy of
            your paper.

            Many thanks,

            Danny McGrady


            In a message dated 18/04/2009 19:24:53 GMT Standard Time, dean198@...
            writes:

            Anyway, my studies have convinced me there is in fact no room for doubt
            > of the Targum origin of the Logos title. I wrote an article "The Targum
            > of Isaiah and the Johannine Literature" published last Fall in the
            > Westminster Theological Journal (pp. 247-278), of which I could send a
            > pdf file to any who are interested. Next year Hendrickson is publishing
            > my book which looks at all the Targums, especially the Palestinian
            > Targums of the Pentateuch.






            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



            ------------------------------------

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            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • PHILLIPS P.M.
            Dear Dan Love to see the pdf but I don t agree at all that the Logos title comes from the Targumim. See my own contribution in Prologue of the Fourth
            Message 5 of 28 , Apr 20, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              Dear Dan

              Love to see the pdf but I don't agree at all that the Logos title comes
              from the Targumim. See my own contribution in "Prologue of the Fourth
              Gospel". In any case, what date would you give to the respective
              documents? Are you suggesting that John's community were well aware of
              the relevant Targumic material? What historical evidence do you have of
              this? Surely it is much more likely that there is a similar background
              to both the Targumim and Johannine Literature - e.g. OT and second
              temple Judaism.

              Pete

              Pete Phillips
              Director of Research
              Centre for Biblical Literacy
              St John's College, Durham, UK

              ________________________________

              From: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
              [mailto:johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Don
              Garlington
              Sent: 19 April 2009 19:21
              To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John





              Yes, please do send me the file. Thanks.

              Don G.

              --- On Sat, 4/18/09, DanielMcGrady22@...
              <mailto:DanielMcGrady22%40aol.com> <DanielMcGrady22@...
              <mailto:DanielMcGrady22%40aol.com> > wrote:
              From: DanielMcGrady22@... <mailto:DanielMcGrady22%40aol.com>
              <DanielMcGrady22@... <mailto:DanielMcGrady22%40aol.com> >
              Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John
              To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
              <mailto:johannine_literature%40yahoogroups.com>
              Date: Saturday, April 18, 2009, 1:20 PM

              Hi John,

              I like the work you are doing here and would also appreciate a pdf copy
              of

              your paper.

              Many thanks,

              Danny McGrady

              In a message dated 18/04/2009 19:24:53 GMT Standard Time, dean198@yahoo.
              com

              writes:

              Anyway, my studies have convinced me there is in fact no room for doubt

              > of the Targum origin of the Logos title. I wrote an article "The
              Targum

              > of Isaiah and the Johannine Literature" published last Fall in the

              > Westminster Theological Journal (pp. 247-278), of which I could send a

              > pdf file to any who are interested. Next year Hendrickson is
              publishing

              > my book which looks at all the Targums, especially the Palestinian

              > Targums of the Pentateuch.

              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]











              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Jack Kilmon
              ... From: PHILLIPS P.M. To: Sent: Monday, April 20, 2009 3:10 AM Subject: RE: [John_Lit]
              Message 6 of 28 , Apr 20, 2009
              • 0 Attachment
                ----- Original Message -----
                From: "PHILLIPS P.M." <p.m.phillips@...>
                To: <johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com>
                Sent: Monday, April 20, 2009 3:10 AM
                Subject: RE: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John


                > Dear Dan
                >
                > Love to see the pdf but I don't agree at all that the Logos title comes
                > from the Targumim. See my own contribution in "Prologue of the Fourth
                > Gospel". In any case, what date would you give to the respective
                > documents? Are you suggesting that John's community were well aware of
                > the relevant Targumic material? What historical evidence do you have of
                > this? Surely it is much more likely that there is a similar background
                > to both the Targumim and Johannine Literature - e.g. OT and second
                > temple Judaism.
                >
                > Pete
                >
                > Pete Phillips
                > Director of Research
                > Centre for Biblical Literacy
                > St John's College, Durham, UK


                Since the Targums preserve an Aramaic idiom very similar to Old Judean, I
                would not be surprised to see correspondences between the Targums and the
                Aramaic sub-structure of 4G. I do not detect Aramaic interference in the
                Greek of the Prologue, however, and have always consider the prologue to be
                an antiphonal hymn appended to the text in one of its many redactional
                phases. I am looking forward to reading the pdf and would also like to read
                your paper on the prologue.

                Jack


                Jack Kilmon
                San Antonio, TX
              • deanf4545
                I noticed that this article by John Ronning is already available in the files section of this group.
                Message 7 of 28 , Apr 20, 2009
                • 0 Attachment
                • John Ronning
                  Greetings Dean, Sorry I m just getting around to this now, I haven t been checking my yahoo e-mail regularly.  The article is attached. Hendrickson is also
                  Message 8 of 28 , May 25 6:14 AM
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Greetings Dean,

                    Sorry I'm just getting around to this now, I haven't been checking my yahoo e-mail regularly.  The article is attached. Hendrickson is also publishing my book on the same subject (about a year overdue so far).

                    Regards,

                    John Ronning




                    ________________________________
                    From: dean198 <dean198@...>
                    To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Saturday, April 18, 2009 3:52:28 PM
                    Subject: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John





                    Dear John,
                    I would also be deeply interested in reading your article, if you could email it to me. I think this line of study will turn out to be very significant.
                    Thanks
                    Dean
                    BA Classics (summa cum laude) May 2009, CU Boulder.
                    Honors Thesis: "John Mark and the Johannine Corpus"

                    --- In johannine_literatur e@yahoogroups. com, "jronning" <jronning@.. .> wrote:
                    >
                    > Greetings all,
                    >
                    > Probably most are aware that 100 years ago it was commonly considered
                    > possible or likely that the Logos title came from the Aramaic (Targum)
                    > expression "the Word of the Lord" which was often used to render the
                    > Tetragrammaton, and that this idea has been widely discredited during
                    > the 20th century, though a few souls (notably Martin McNamara) have
                    > continued to champion it. This is an issue I've been looking at for the
                    > last five years or so, I got into it almost accidentally (my fieldis
                    > really more OT than NT, tho my major interest is NT interpretation of
                    > OT).
                    >
                    > Anyway, my studies have convinced me there is in fact no room for doubt
                    > of the Targum origin of the Logos title. I wrote an article "The Targum
                    > of Isaiah and the Johannine Literature" published last Fall in the
                    > Westminster Theological Journal (pp. 247-278), of which I could send a
                    > pdf file to any who are interested. Next year Hendrickson is publishing
                    > my book which looks at all the Targums, especially the Palestinian
                    > Targums of the Pentateuch.
                    >
                    > Much of John's Gospel is illuminated by such an understanding, and other
                    > features of the Targums besides the Word concept also contribute to
                    > illuminating John. Some random examples:
                    >
                    > 1. Tg. Neofiti Deut 32:39, "See now that I, I in my Word am he."
                    > Suggests a link between the Prologue (where John calls Jesus the Word)
                    > and the body of the Gospel, where Jesus (the Word) repeatedly says "I am
                    > he" (ego eimi); some of these ego eimi sayings in turn can be linked
                    > back to Deut 32:39 (or one of its Targum renderings); e.g. "I am the
                    > resurrection and the life" can be related to Neofiti's rendering of Deut
                    > 32:39, "I kill and I make alive" which is "I put to death the living in
                    > this world and raise the dead to life in the world to come." Also, "No
                    > one can snatch them out of my hand" (John 10:28) agrees with a literal
                    > translation of the Hebrew (but not the Aramaic) of Deut 32:39, "No one
                    > delivers from my hand."
                    >
                    > 2. The Palestinian Targums of Gen 28:10 say that five miracles were done
                    > for our father Jacob when he left home to go to Haran. The fifth of
                    > these was that when he lifted the stone from the mouth of the well, the
                    > water surged up and overflowed for 20 years (the time he was in Haran).
                    > This legend can be seen as being alluded to in answer to the Samaritan
                    > woman's question, "You are not greater than our father Jacob, are you,"
                    > to which Jesus replies that the water he gives "will become in him a
                    > well of water surging up to eternal life." Yes, I suppose we should
                    > conclude this legend was embraced by the Samaritans also.
                    >
                    > 3. John 12:41; Isaiah saw Christ's glory, context indicating a reference
                    > to Isaiah 6 (I saw the Lord, sitting on his throne, high and lifted up).
                    > In Tg. Isa 6:1 he sees the glory of the Lord's Shekinah and hears the
                    > Word of the Lord speaking to him. Dalman pointed this out 100 years
                    > ago. Not so well known is that Tg. Pseudo-Jonathan Deut 4:7 borrows
                    > from Isa 6:1 saying that the Word of the Lord sits on his throne, high
                    > and lifted up. My article also shows how the four "lifted up" sayings in
                    > John correspond to the four "high and lifted up" passages in Isaiah
                    > (that speak of God and his servant being high and lifted up).
                    >
                    > 4. John 12:37, though he had done so many signs among them, they were
                    > not believing in him. Some have seen this as a paraphrase of Num 14:11;
                    > how long will they not believe in me, in spite of all the signs I have
                    > done among them? In the various Targums, it is "how long will they not
                    > believe in my Word (or in the name of my Word);" cf. John 1:12, those
                    > who believed in his name).
                    >
                    > In general, allusions in John to the OT, where the Targums speak of the
                    > divine Word as accomplishing what the Hebrew text says God does, carry
                    > the overall message "the Word has become flesh." I.e., what God did in
                    > the OT (through the agency of his Word according to the Targums), he now
                    > does as a man sent by the Father. That is, recognizing the Targum
                    > background to John enables us to see "the Word became flesh" as
                    > programmatic of the Gospel as a whole. In my article I show how this
                    > pertains to the theme of God as warrior; in my book I do the same for
                    > other divine roles, e.g. Jesus as Bridegroom, Jesus as Lawgiver (with
                    > the upper room as a new Sinai).
                    >
                    > Some food for thought, I trust.
                    >
                    > John Ronning
                    > jronning@...
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    >







                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • John Ronning
                    Pete, Sorry I m just getting around to this.  My view of the date of John is late 1st centruy.  There is a lot in John that depends on the events of 70AD,
                    Message 9 of 28 , May 25 6:53 AM
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Pete,

                      Sorry I'm just getting around to this.  My view of the date of John is late 1st centruy.  There is a lot in John that depends on the events of 70AD, covered in my article under discussion of "Caiaphas [i.e. unwitting] prophecies," which I believe John saw in the Targums (this identification depends on the connection of targumic Word with the Logos title.

                      Briefly to your other q's:
                      The extant Targums all appear to come from 2nd century and later, but the argument for 1st century precursors upon which John (as well as other NT passages) depend for illumination is I think very strong - thus the historical evidence is from the NT itself.  I would recommend all of Martin McNamara's writings on this subject, especially his Analecta Biblica volume on the NT and the Palestinian Targums to the Pentateuch.  In the next couple of years Eerdmans should be coming out with a reworked edition of McNamara's Targum and Testament.

                      From this it can be inferred that John's target audience (I don't believe in the "Johannine community concept, except that the community is the church at large) included Aramaic speaking Jewish Christians, though it is also evident that he is writing to Gentiles who don't even know the equivalence of "Christ" and "Messiah."   I assume John meant for the former to use his material to instruct the latter (yes, including teaching them enough of the Targums to understand the thrust of John's burden).

                      Re. similar backgrounds - I agree there is something to this, e.g. there does seem to be a lot in coming philosophically between targumic Word and Philo's Logos (contra the opinion of many). Ironically this similarity has led people to the wrong conclusions (e.g. Philo or Wisdom instead of the Targums).

                      Regards,

                      John Ronning




                      ________________________________
                      From: PHILLIPS P.M. <p.m.phillips@...>
                      To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
                      Sent: Monday, April 20, 2009 10:10:09 AM
                      Subject: RE: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John





                      Dear Dan

                      Love to see the pdf but I don't agree at all that the Logos title comes
                      from the Targumim. See my own contribution in "Prologue of the Fourth
                      Gospel". In any case, what date would you give to the respective
                      documents? Are you suggesting that John's community were well aware of
                      the relevant Targumic material? What historical evidence do you have of
                      this? Surely it is much more likely that there is a similar background
                      to both the Targumim and Johannine Literature - e.g. OT and second
                      temple Judaism.

                      Pete

                      Pete Phillips
                      Director of Research
                      Centre for Biblical Literacy
                      St John's College, Durham, UK

                      ____________ _________ _________ __

                      From: johannine_literatur e@yahoogroups. com
                      [mailto:johannine_literatur e@yahoogroups.. com] On Behalf Of Don
                      Garlington
                      Sent: 19 April 2009 19:21
                      To: johannine_literatur e@yahoogroups. com
                      Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John

                      Yes, please do send me the file. Thanks.

                      Don G.

                      --- On Sat, 4/18/09, DanielMcGrady22@ aol.com
                      <mailto:DanielMcGra dy22%40aol. com> <DanielMcGrady22@ aol.com
                      <mailto:DanielMcGra dy22%40aol. com> > wrote:
                      From: DanielMcGrady22@ aol.com <mailto:DanielMcGra dy22%40aol. com>
                      <DanielMcGrady22@ aol.com <mailto:DanielMcGra dy22%40aol. com> >
                      Subject: Re: [John_Lit] Re: Targum backgrounds for John
                      To: johannine_literatur e@yahoogroups. com
                      <mailto:johannine_ literature% 40yahoogroups. com>
                      Date: Saturday, April 18, 2009, 1:20 PM

                      Hi John,

                      I like the work you are doing here and would also appreciate a pdf copy
                      of

                      your paper.

                      Many thanks,

                      Danny McGrady

                      In a message dated 18/04/2009 19:24:53 GMT Standard Time, dean198@yahoo.
                      com

                      writes:

                      Anyway, my studies have convinced me there is in fact no room for doubt

                      > of the Targum origin of the Logos title. I wrote an article "The
                      Targum

                      > of Isaiah and the Johannine Literature" published last Fall in the

                      > Westminster Theological Journal (pp. 247-278), of which I could send a

                      > pdf file to any who are interested. Next year Hendrickson is
                      publishing

                      > my book which looks at all the Targums, especially the Palestinian

                      > Targums of the Pentateuch.

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