[John_Lit] Re: Chapter 21
- Thanks, Ken.
I haven't discussed this particular item with Professor Hengel, but the
conjecture is that the introductory title was added earlier rather than
later. I have no idea how something like that would be verified or
disconfirmed. I do remember discussing with Professor Hengel his view
that the second-century testimony to John's apostolic connection (if not
authorship) was quite early and clear, and he spell this out in his book.
I think the title comes along by the middle second century, at the
latest, but let me look into it.
A good question, that!
Paul N. Anderson
Professor of Biblical and Quaker Studies
George Fox University
Newberg, OR 97132
I was also a participant in Hengel's Famous Friday
Night Table Talks (for 5 years, 1990-1995), but I
don't recall his ever discussing this point (though he
might have done so before my German improved enough to
follow the discussion).
I also don't recall Hengel's specific reasons from my
reading of his book some 10 years ago, but I think,
though, that Hengel draws his conclusions--that the
title belongs to the text of the Fourth Gospel and
that the author of chapter 21 added it--from his
arguments that John the Elder was the author of the
first 20 chapters and that the earliest references to
the Fourth Gospel refer to it as "The Gospel According
In other words, Hengel's argument is probably based
upon his narrowing of the historical window to a brief
enough time (between the probable date of John the
Elder's death and the first reference to the Gospel of
John) that the most plausible conslusion is that the
author of chapter 21 added the title.
Hengel probably has other reasons as well, but as I
said, I don't recall them. Wish that I could be of
more help on this.
Perhaps I'll ask him the next time that we correspond.
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