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Re: [John_Lit] Eucharistic eating in John 6:51-58

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  • fmmccoy
    INTRODUCTION In Johannine thought, what is the true rite of the eucharist? Is the true rite of the eucharist physical in nature, regarding the physical eating
    Message 1 of 2 , Sep 3, 2003
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      INTRODUCTION

      In Johannine thought, what is the true rite of the eucharist? Is the true
      rite of the eucharist physical in nature, regarding the physical eating of
      the physical flesh of Jesus and the physical drinking of the physical blood
      of Jesus? Or, is the true rite of the eucharist spiritual in nature,
      regarding the spiritual eating of the spiritual flesh of Jesus and the
      spiritual drinking of the spiritual blood of Jesus?

      It is frequently assumed that, in Johannine thought, the true rite of the
      eucharist is physical in nature. In particular, it is frequently assumed
      that 6:51-57 regards the necessity of physically eating the physical flesh
      of Jesus and of physically drinking the physical blood of Jesus.

      However, there is reason to question this assumption.

      For example, this assumption makes 6:51-57 discordant with the rest of
      6:25-70, all but necessitating that it be an interpolation by a later
      editor. However, 6:51-57 is the same basic style as the rest of 6:25-70.

      Again, there is no initiation of a physical rite of the eucharist in the
      Johannine narrative of the Last Supper. This, too, raises questions about
      whether the Johannine community regarded the true rite of the eucharist as
      being physical in nature.

      Perhaps, then, the Johannine community believed that the true rite of the
      eucharist is spiritual in nature.

      This explains why there is no initiation of a physical rite of the eucharist
      in the Johannine narrative of the Last Supper.

      Further, as will be pointed out in this post, when 6:25-70 is interpreted
      in terms of six hypotheses, then 6:51-57 becomes an integral part of the
      original text and it speaks not about physically eating/chewing the physical
      flesh of Jesus and physically drinking the physical blood of Jesus but,
      rather, about spiritually eating/chewing the spiritual flesh of Jesus and
      spiritually drinking the spiritual blood of Jesus.

      So, it will be concluded, it appears likely that the Johannine community
      deemed the true rite of the eucharist to be spiritual in nature.

      POSITING OF SIX HYPOTHESES.

      Hypothesis 1: In Johannine thought, there is the eternal Spirit of God--who
      imparts its immortality to what it resides within.

      Hypothesis 2 In Johannine thought, Jesus is the Word (Logos) of God--who
      both personifies the words (logoi) of God as a collective unity and speaks
      these words of God.

      Hypothesis 3: In Johannine thought, within each word of God and within the
      Word of God is the eternal Spirit of God, so that, therefore, these words
      and the Word are imperishable.

      Hypothesis 4: In Johannine thought, the words of God have analogs in
      physical unleavened bread, in physical fish, and in the physical body/flesh
      of Jesus as the Word, making the words of God the spiritual unleavened
      bread, the spiritual fish, and the spiritual body/flesh of Jesus as the
      Word.

      Hypothesis 5: In Johannine thought, the Spirit has analogs in physical
      water, physical wine, and physical blood, making the Spirit the spiritual
      water, the spiritual wine, and the spiritual blood.

      Hypothesis 6: In Johannine thought, what happens to the physical analogs of
      the words of God and of the Spirit in the narrative is sometimes a
      revelation of what can happen on the spiritual level of reality with these
      words of God and Spirit.

      EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHESIS 6

      At Cana, the physical water is transformed into physical wine: which
      illustrates that the Spirit can be readily transformed from itself as the
      spiritual water into itself as the spiritual wine.

      At Golgotha, physical water and physical blood flow from the physical body
      of Jesus as the Word to illustrate that the Spirit, the spiritual water and
      the spiritual blood, resides within the words of God that constitute the
      spiritual body of Jesus as the Word and, so, can also spiritually flow from
      them.

      In the feeding of the multitude, the bread is indicated by several clues to
      be physical unleavened bread. The time of Passover was near--a time when
      unleavened physical bread was eaten. The remainder left over had to be
      gathered by the disciples to prevent its immediate perishing--just like the
      ancient Israelites had to gather the unleavened physical manna to prevent
      its immediate perishing. The remaining bread filled 12 baskets--alluding to
      the 12 unleavened loaves of the physical shew-bread. Possibly, that the
      bread is said to be barley bread rather than wheat bread is also an
      indication that it is unleavened, but I am not sure on this.

      In the feeding of the multitude, the increase in the amount of the physical
      unleavened bread and of the fish available to the people by Jesus as the
      Word illustrates how Jesus, as this Word, increases the amount of the
      spiritual unleavened bread and spiritual fish available to us by spiritually
      speaking these words of God to us.

      APPLICATION OF THE HYPOTHESES TO 6:27

      Let us look at John 6:27, where the Johannine Jesus tells some of the people
      who had participated in the feeding of the multitude, "Do not work for the
      perishing food, but the food remaining to eternal life, which the Son of Man
      will give you--for God the Father has sealed (esphragisen) this one."

      Here, Jesus, as the Son of Man, is the Word--who has been sealed by God.
      So, in Plant (19), Philo speaks about "the seal of God (sphragidi theou),
      the stamp (charakter) of which is the eternal Word (Logos)."

      Further, in 6:27, the contrast is between perishable physical unleavened
      bread they had physically eaten and digested the previous day and the
      imperishable spiritual unleavened bread, consisting of the words of God,
      that Jesus, as the Word, can spiritually give to them to spiritually eat and
      spiritually digest.

      APPLICATION OF HYPOTHESES TO JOHN 6:30-33

      Next, let us turn to 6:30-33, "Therefore they said to him, 'What sign do
      you perform, that we may see and may believe you? The fathers of us ate the
      manna in the wilderness, as it has been written, He gave them bread from
      heaven to eat.' Therefore, said Jesus to them, 'Amen, amen, I say to you,
      Moses has not given you the bread out of heaven, but the Father of me gives
      you the true bread out of heaven. For the bread of God is that (or: he)
      coming down out of heaven and giving life to the world.'"

      The Jews refer to the physical manna their ancestors ate in the wilderness.
      Further, they identify this physical manna with the bread from heaven that
      is given to us by God.

      The Johannine Jesus, however, makes a distinction between the physical manna
      and the bread from heaven--stating that it is the bread from heaven that is
      the "true" bread.

      This distinction, I suggest, is basically the same distinction made, in
      5:27, between the perishable physical unleavened bread and the imperishable
      spiritual unleavened bread that consists of the words of God. In
      particular, it is a distinction between the perishable physical unleavened
      manna eaten by the ancient Israelites and the imperishable spiritual
      unleavened bread that is, in an ultimate sense, given to us by God because
      it consists of His words. This imperishable spiritual unleavened bread,
      then, is the "true" bread.

      The last sentence by the Johannine Jesus, is ambiguous in that it is not
      clear whether this spiritual unleavened bread is a "that" or a "he". The
      ambiguity is deliberate. The words of God that are this spiritual
      unleavened bread and make it a "that" are, as a totality, personified in the
      Word--thereby making this imperishable spiritual unleavened bread also a
      "he".

      This last sentence ends with the thought that this imperishable spiritual
      unleavened bread gives life to the world. Here, "life" is eternal life"
      and "the world" is "the world of mankind". When a human being spiritually
      eats and digests this spiritual unleavened bread, then the Spirit within
      this bread, as the bread is now within the human being, is within the human
      being and, so, imparts immortal life to this human being.

      APPLICATION OF HYPOTHESES TO JOHN 6:35

      Next, let us look at 6:35, where the Johannine Jesus states, "The one coming
      to me never hungers, and the one believing in me will never thirst."

      One who believes in Jesus spiritually comes to him. Since Jesus, as the
      Word, is the spiritual unleavened bread, this person, by spiritually coming
      to Jesus, spiritually comes to the spiritual unleavened bread that this
      person can spiritually eat and spiritually digest. So, this person will
      never spiritually hunger. Further, since within the spiritual unleavened
      bread is the Spirit who is the spiritual water, wine, and blood, this
      person, by spiritually eating the spiritual unleavened bread, also drinks of
      the spiritual water, the spiritual wine, and the spiritual blood and, so,
      never spiritually thirsts.

      APPLICATION OF HYPOTHESES TO JOHN 6:47-51

      Next, let us turn to 6:47-51, where the Johannine Jesus states, "Truly,
      truly, I say to you, the one believing has eternal life. I am the bread of
      life. The fathers of you ate the manna in the wilderness and died. This
      one is the bread out of heaven coming down, that anyone may eat of it and
      not die. I am the living bread, the one having come down out of heaven. If
      anyone eats of this bread, he will live into the age. And, indeed, the
      bread which I will give for the life of the world is the flesh of me.'"

      Here, Jesus speaks as the Word--who is the living bread in the sense that he
      personifies the totality of the words of God that are spiritual unleavened
      bread which eternally exists because within it is the Spirit that imparts
      immortal life to whatever it is within.

      Those who believe in Jesus as the Word spiritually come to him and
      spiritually eat and digest him as the personification of the spiritual
      unleavened bread. Anyone thusly spiritually eating and digesting this
      spiritual unleavened bread, as the Spirit is within this spiritual
      unleavened bread, will have this Spirit within oneself and, so, will gain
      eternal life because the Spirit imparts eternal life to whatever it is
      within.

      In contrast, the physical unleavened bread of the manna ate by the ancient
      Israelites did not bring them eternal life.

      When Jesus, as the Word, spiritually gives this spiritual unleavened bread
      of the words of God to one, then. as these words of God are his spiritual
      body/flesh, he spiritually gives one his spiritual body/flesh.

      This spiritual body/flesh he spiritually gives one is eternal life for the
      world of humanity because within it is the Spirit which imparts eternal life
      to whatever it is within. So, one who spiritually receives his spiritual
      body/flesh from him and spiritually eats and digests it will have the Spirit
      within oneself and, so, will gain eternal life.

      APPLICATION OF HYPOTHESES TO JOHN 6:53-58

      Next, let us turn to 6:53-58, where the Johannine Jesus states, "Truly,
      truly, I say to you, unless you chew the flesh of the Son of Man and drink
      his blood, you do not have life within yourselves The one chewing on my
      flesh and drinking my blood abides in me, and I in him. As sent me the
      living Father and I live because of the Father, also even that one chewing
      on me will live because of me. This one is the bread of heaven, having come
      down, not as ate the fathers and died. The one chewing this bread will live
      into the age."

      "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you chew the flesh of the Son of Man and
      drink his blood, you do not have life within yourselves." That is to say,
      unless you spiritually chew the words of God that are the spiritual
      body/flesh of me as the Word and spiritually drink the Spirit that is my
      spiritual blood, you do not have the etermally living Spirit within
      yourselves.

      "The one chewing on my flesh and drinking my blood has eternal life and I
      will raise him up on the last day. For the flesh of me is true food and
      the blood of me is true drink." That is to say, one who spiritually chews
      on my spiritual body/flesh of the words of God, within which is the Spirit,
      and drinks my spiritual blood which is the Spirit, has this eternally living
      Spirit within him/herself and, since the Spirit gives eternal life to
      whatever it is in, such a person will gain eternal life and, so, will
      participate in the resurrection of the just at the End of the current era.
      As a result, his spiritual body/flesh is the true food and his spiritual
      blood is the true drink.

      "The one chewing on my flesh and drinking my blood abides in me, and I in
      him." That is to say, the one spiritually chewing on his spiritual
      body/flesh of the words of God (within whom is the Spirit) and spiritually
      drinking his spiritual blood of the Spirit has, within him/herself, the
      Spirit that is within Jesus as the Word and, so, such a person abides in
      Jesus. Conversely, as the Spirit that is within Jesus is within such a
      person, Jesus abides within such a person.

      "As sent me the living Father and I live because of the Father, also even
      that one chewing on me will live because of me." This relates to John 3:34,
      where John the Baptist states, "For whom God sent speaks the utterances of
      God, for not by measure gives He the Spirit." So, it can be roughly
      paraphrased this way, "As sent me the eternally living Father to speak His
      words and I eternally live because He has given me the Spirit through which
      is eternal life, also even that one who spiritually chews on these words of
      the Father that are my spiritual body/flesh will eternally live because,
      since the Spirit is within these words of the Father, I have, in turn,
      given this person the Spirit through which is eternal life."

      "This one is the bread of heaven, having come down, not as ate the fathers
      and died. The one chewing this bread will live into the age." That is to
      say, I am the Word, who personifes the words of God, as a totality, that are
      the spiritual unleavened bread and that has come down from heaven, not to
      bring death as did the physical unleavened bread of the manna, but to bring
      eternal life to whoever spiritually chews on it--meaning that such a person
      will participate in the resurrection of the just at the End of the current
      era.

      APPLICATION OF HYPOTHESES TO JOHN 6::61-63

      Finally, let us turn to 6:61-63, where the Johannine Jesus tells his
      disciples, "(Does) this cause you to stumble? (What) if you were to see
      the Son of Man ascending where he was at first? The Spirit is the thing
      making alive, the flesh does not profit anything. The speech (hremata)
      which I have spoken to you is Spirit and is life."

      Do not stumble by mistakenly thinking that I have been speaking about my
      physical flesh. I am the Word, who has descended to earth and who will
      return one day to heaven. It is the Spirit within my spiritual body/flesh
      of the words of God that brings you eternal life, my physical flesh does not
      profit you in any way. Since the Spirit is within these words of God I have
      uttered, this makes these words, in their inmost being, this Spirit through
      whom is eternal life.

      CONCLUDING REMARKS
      When interpreted in terms of six hypotheses, 6:25-70 forms an organic unity
      in which, in 6:51-56, the flesh of Jesus is his spiritual body/flesh, which
      consists of the words of God, and the blood of Jesus is his spiritual blood,
      which is the Spirit. One is to spiritually chew on these words of God, like
      a cow physcially chews its cud, meditating on them over and over again

      This suggests that the Johannine community likely believed the true rite of
      the eucharist to be spiritual in nature.

      Frank McCoy
      1809 N. English Apt. 17
      Maplewood, MN USA 55109
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