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Re: [John_Lit] Temple

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  • Thomas W Butler
    On Sat, 21 Sep 2002 23:19:45 -0700 Bob MacDonald ... Bob, As you know, my suggestion is that the Herodian temple was seen by the
    Message 1 of 16 , Sep 23, 2002
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      On Sat, 21 Sep 2002 23:19:45 -0700 Bob MacDonald <bobmacdonald@...>
      writes:
      >
      > Where does the concept of body as temple first arise?
      >
      > (snip)
      > The incarnation puts the tent with the people in a new way.
      > What could move the author of John or any other first century
      > person to see the Body of Christ, the body of the individual,
      > the body of Jesus - as a temple - and the implication
      > subsequently for there to be no further need for a physical
      > temple?

      Bob,
      As you know, my suggestion is that the Herodian temple was
      seen by the Johannine community (and the Qumran community)
      as defiled, and, therefore in need of replacement. In fact, the
      Fourth Gospel uses language borrowed from the OT and in clear
      unambiguous Greek to suggest that Jesus - metaphorically -
      destroyed the temple and replaced it with his own body. In fact,
      I have suggested that Jesus replaced every element of the
      Mosaic system of worship: the temple, the festivals of sacrifice
      and the temple priesthood. That is what I call the sub-plot, the
      hidden story in the Fourth Gospel.
      I know that I've said a lot without offering support. If anyone
      is interested, I'd be pleased to offer a more extensive reply.

      Yours in Christ's service,
      Tom Butler
    • Horace Jeffery Hodges
      Tom Butler wrote: I have suggested that Jesus replaced every element of the Mosaic system of worship: the temple, the festivals of sacrifice and the temple
      Message 2 of 16 , Sep 23, 2002
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        Tom Butler wrote:

        "I have suggested that Jesus replaced every element of
        the Mosaic system of worship: the temple, the
        festivals of sacrifice and the temple priesthood.
        That is what I call the sub-plot, the hidden story in
        the Fourth Gospel."

        I'd be interested in hearing more about this. Do you
        mean that Jesus in John's Gospel is physically the
        temple, that he is the site of sacrifices, that he is
        the sacrifice itself, that he is all of the temple
        festivals, and that he is the priesthood, too? Say
        more.

        Jeffery Hodges

        =====
        Assistant Professor Horace Jeffery Hodges
        Hanshin University (Korean Theological University)
        447-791 Kyunggido Osan-City
        Yangsandong 411
        South Korea

        __________________________________________________
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      • kaare.fuglseth@hibo.no
        ... I must say that I am very sceptical to theories of hidden messages like this one in John. The Johannine Jesus in ch. 2:13-22 is clearly supporting the
        Message 3 of 16 , Sep 24, 2002
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          >On Sat, 21 Sep 2002 23:19:45 -0700 Bob MacDonald <bobmacdonald@...>
          >writes:
          >>
          >> Where does the concept of body as temple first arise?
          >>
          >> (snip)
          >> The incarnation puts the tent with the people in a new way.
          >> What could move the author of John or any other first century
          >> person to see the Body of Christ, the body of the individual,
          >> the body of Jesus - as a temple - and the implication
          >> subsequently for there to be no further need for a physical
          >> temple?
          >
          >Bob,
          > As you know, my suggestion is that the Herodian temple was
          >seen by the Johannine community (and the Qumran community)
          >as defiled, and, therefore in need of replacement. In fact, the
          >Fourth Gospel uses language borrowed from the OT and in clear
          >unambiguous Greek to suggest that Jesus - metaphorically -
          >destroyed the temple and replaced it with his own body. In fact,
          >I have suggested that Jesus replaced every element of the
          >Mosaic system of worship: the temple, the festivals of sacrifice
          >and the temple priesthood. That is what I call the sub-plot, the
          >hidden story in the Fourth Gospel.
          > I know that I've said a lot without offering support. If anyone
          >is interested, I'd be pleased to offer a more extensive reply.
          >
          >Yours in Christ's service,

          I must say that I am very sceptical to theories of hidden messages
          like this one in John.

          The Johannine Jesus in ch. 2:13-22 is clearly supporting the temple
          and John 4 just reflects the fact that the temple was gone. And Jesus
          keeps coming back to both the temple and the synagogues throughout
          the whole gospel.

          The many references in the second temple period of the temple idea to
          other areas (body, fist man, Israel, the community etc. in Philo,
          Paul, and others.) in fact only reduces the importance of the
          metaphor in connection with replacement theories.

          As I see it, the temple was much too important for the ioudaioi of
          any group that they would abandon it, until they had to. Then, the
          parting of the ways between what we now call Judaism and Christianity
          is inaugurated.

          It is also very questionable if the Qumranites or Essenes or the
          Yahad wanted to replace the temple, they might have replaced parts of
          temple elements, but that was only because they (too) were forced out
          and they would be happy to (re)capture the power there, which they
          actually did, according to H. Stegemann "The Qumran Essenes-Local
          Members of the Main Jewish Union in Late Second Temple Times". The
          Madrid Qumran Congress. Proceedings of the International Congress on
          the Dead Sea Scrolls Madrid 18-21 March, 1991. Leiden/Madrid,
          Brill/Editorial Complutense. Ed. J.T. Barrera and L.V. Montaner.
          83-166. 1992.


          --
          Kaare Fuglseth
          Associate Professor
          Regional University of Bodoe
          N-8049 Bodø
          Norway
          Tel.: + 47 7551 7700/7713
          Fax : + 47 7551 7798
          The Philo Concordance Project at
          http://webster.hibo.no/alu/krl/kaare/filon.htm

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Matson, Mark (Academic)
          ... Kaare: I am also a but suspicious of hidden messages in texts, but I see below for a bit more interaction on this particular issue. I think Tom Butler
          Message 4 of 16 , Sep 24, 2002
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            Kaare Fuglseth wrote:

            > I must say that I am very sceptical to theories of hidden messages
            > like this one in John.

            Kaare: I am also a but suspicious of "hidden messages" in texts, but I see below for a bit more interaction on this particular issue. I think Tom Butler may be overemphazing a point, but perhaps there is more here than you are willing to allow.

            > The Johannine Jesus in ch. 2:13-22 is clearly supporting the temple
            > and John 4 just reflects the fact that the temple was gone. And Jesus
            > keeps coming back to both the temple and the synagogues throughout
            > the whole gospel.

            Yes, the temple is a central feature in John's story, not only in chapter 2, but also in the Tabernacle stories, chapters 7-9. But in each case, while the temple is important, there are interesting twists that suggest a redefinition. In the case of chapter 2, the temple destruction is predicted and the temple is reinterpreted as Jesus body (2:19-22). This seems fairly clear from the text, doesn't it? This is hardly a hidden message. In the Tabernacles controversies, Jesus uses temple practices at the tabernacle feast (water libation, nighttime candle lighting) to illustrate his particular role (rivers of living water, I am the light) to redefine the temple practices in a very curious way -- surely one that suggests some significant alteration.

            Now perhaps that is all part of a "post resurrection" and "post destruction" reflection. But I wonder?

            One intriquing issue that I have pointed to is the curious allusion to Zech. 14 in 2:16. Now Zech 14. imagines a time when the temple is relatively unimportant -- all of Zion will be holy, the nations will all come and bring offerings, all the pots in the city will be holy just like the temple. Thus, the "holiness" function of the temple is diminished, and Gentiles are allowed into the holy precincts. Sounds pretty radical -- almost like the early church's understanding that in Jesus the separation between Jew and Gentile was demolished. Is there not a possibility this was inherent in Jesus' message, and is found in this passage in John?


            > As I see it, the temple was much too important for the ioudaioi of
            > any group that they would abandon it, until they had to. Then, the
            > parting of the ways between what we now call Judaism and Christianity
            > is inaugurated.

            But there is a significant body of Jewish literature that suggests an anticipation of some radical re-working of temple ideology. Zech. 14, discussed above is one (picked up, by the way, in Rev. 21 & 22, where there is no temple, but a new Jerusalem only). Ed Sanders points to these passages in his discussion of the New Temple and Restoration ideology in his "Jesus and Judaism". I think these are compelling passages that suggest across a broad range of Jewish writings either a new restored temple (following a destruction), or some modified approach to a temple or Zion was broadly anticipated. So can we really say that the temple was simply too important for any Jews to abandon it. In fact the Essenes seem to have abandoned it -- as long as it was practiced in the way it was. They probably expected a new temple, but what kind? Would it have been a huge stretch to image Jesus reinterpreting this "restoration" eschatology in a new way, perhaps one that was interpreted metaphorically?


            Mark A. Matson
            Academic Dean, Milligan College
            http://www.milligan.edu/Administrative/MMatson/personal.htm

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          • Thatcher, Tom
            Greetings, all! Kaare wrote: As I see it, the temple was much too important for the ioudaioi of ... I think the key issue in your statement is the final
            Message 5 of 16 , Sep 24, 2002
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              Greetings, all!

              Kaare wrote:

              <<> As I see it, the temple was much too important for the ioudaioi of
              > any group that they would abandon it, until they had to.>>

              I think the key issue in your statement is the final qualifier, "until they
              had to." I think a number of Jews in Jesus' day had indeed come to the
              conclusion that "they had to". Mark Matson has already noted the various
              Hebrew Bible texts which touch on this issue. I would also point out that
              there appear to be strong strains in "heterodox" Judaism at that time which
              suggest that the temple cult, as it then existed, was viewed as inadequate.
              In some cases this led to an apparently wholesale rejection of the temple in
              favor of other means of purification--as in the case of Qumran, John the
              Baptist and others like him, the Samaritans, the Egyptian Jews who set up an
              alternate "temple", and Paul. In other cases, it led to the drastic reform
              measures that we generally lump under the heading "zealots". It might also
              be relevant to note that the temple may not have dominated the religious
              landscape of the Diaspora to the extent that it did in Palestine. In Philo,
              for example--and I make no claim to be an expert on Philo at all--it seems
              to me that the temple takes on a primarily symbolic function, based more on
              the temple as a concept from the Scriptures than as a physical place in
              Jerusalem.

              So I think I agree with Mark that there was a movement in 1st-century
              Judaism toward the need to rework the temple operation--maybe not so much
              the building itself, but at least the religious industry around it (although
              in some cases the building itself, like the "Golden Eagle" incident
              described by Josephus). My own thinking would also be that Jesus' religious
              temperament was such that he would probably fit into that category of people
              who felt that need--especially if he had some connection to John the Baptist
              (I think he did).

              Take care.

              Respectfully,
              --tom

              Tom Thatcher
              Cincinnati Bible Seminary
              2700 Glenway Ave.
              Cincinnati, Oh 45204
              (513) 244-8172
              tom.thatcher@... <mailto:tom.thatcher@...>
              "the truth will set you free"


              -----Original Message-----
              From: Matson, Mark (Academic) [SMTP:MAMatson@...]
              Sent: Tuesday, September 24, 2002 9:01 AM
              To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: RE: [John_Lit] Temple

              Kaare Fuglseth wrote:

              > I must say that I am very sceptical to theories of hidden messages

              > like this one in John.

              Kaare: I am also a but suspicious of "hidden messages" in texts,
              but I see below for a bit more interaction on this particular issue. I
              think Tom Butler may be overemphazing a point, but perhaps there is more
              here than you are willing to allow.

              > The Johannine Jesus in ch. 2:13-22 is clearly supporting the
              temple
              > and John 4 just reflects the fact that the temple was gone. And
              Jesus
              > keeps coming back to both the temple and the synagogues throughout

              > the whole gospel.

              Yes, the temple is a central feature in John's story, not only in
              chapter 2, but also in the Tabernacle stories, chapters 7-9. But in each
              case, while the temple is important, there are interesting twists that
              suggest a redefinition. In the case of chapter 2, the temple destruction is
              predicted and the temple is reinterpreted as Jesus body (2:19-22). This
              seems fairly clear from the text, doesn't it? This is hardly a hidden
              message. In the Tabernacles controversies, Jesus uses temple practices at
              the tabernacle feast (water libation, nighttime candle lighting) to
              illustrate his particular role (rivers of living water, I am the light) to
              redefine the temple practices in a very curious way -- surely one that
              suggests some significant alteration.

              Now perhaps that is all part of a "post resurrection" and "post
              destruction" reflection. But I wonder?

              One intriquing issue that I have pointed to is the curious allusion
              to Zech. 14 in 2:16. Now Zech 14. imagines a time when the temple is
              relatively unimportant -- all of Zion will be holy, the nations will all
              come and bring offerings, all the pots in the city will be holy just like
              the temple. Thus, the "holiness" function of the temple is diminished, and
              Gentiles are allowed into the holy precincts. Sounds pretty radical --
              almost like the early church's understanding that in Jesus the separation
              between Jew and Gentile was demolished. Is there not a possibility this was
              inherent in Jesus' message, and is found in this passage in John?


              > As I see it, the temple was much too important for the ioudaioi of

              > any group that they would abandon it, until they had to. Then, the

              > parting of the ways between what we now call Judaism and
              Christianity
              > is inaugurated.

              But there is a significant body of Jewish literature that suggests
              an anticipation of some radical re-working of temple ideology. Zech. 14,
              discussed above is one (picked up, by the way, in Rev. 21 & 22, where there
              is no temple, but a new Jerusalem only). Ed Sanders points to these
              passages in his discussion of the New Temple and Restoration ideology in his
              "Jesus and Judaism". I think these are compelling passages that suggest
              across a broad range of Jewish writings either a new restored temple
              (following a destruction), or some modified approach to a temple or Zion was
              broadly anticipated. So can we really say that the temple was simply too
              important for any Jews to abandon it. In fact the Essenes seem to have
              abandoned it -- as long as it was practiced in the way it was. They
              probably expected a new temple, but what kind? Would it have been a huge
              stretch to image Jesus reinterpreting this "restoration" eschatology in a
              new way, perhaps one that was interpreted metaphorically?


              Mark A. Matson
              Academic Dean, Milligan College
              http://www.milligan.edu/Administrative/MMatson/personal.htm

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            • Mary Coloe
              I ve only just caught up with this discussion and will contribute more. I have recently published a book specifically examining the Temple in john. It s God
              Message 6 of 16 , Sep 25, 2002
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                I've only just caught up with this discussion and will contribute more. I
                have recently published a book specifically examining the Temple in john.
                It's God Dwells with us: Temple Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel. Liturgical
                press, 2001. In this i traced the various 'locations' of the Divine
                presence in Isral through the Ark, Tent, Temple - then the reaction to a
                royal ideology of Temple in the
                Prophetic, Priestly Tabernacle, Wisdom and Apocalyptic including Qumran to
                show a very gradual movement of religious awareness of where god's presence
                can be found. I then moved into the specific Johannine passages - john 2,
                4, Tabernacles, Dedication.
                I devoted a chapter to Jn 14:2 My Father's house where I argued for a major
                transfer of the Temple to the community of disciples. In this chapter I
                also turned to Zechariah where we get the only designation of who will
                build the Temple -
                Behold the Man whose name is Branch - he will build the Temple of the Lord.
                In this chapter I examined links with the term Branch in Zechariah and the
                Netzer/branch in Isaiah 11.
                this lead to a discussion of the deliberate title the 4th G. gives Jesus in
                the Passion - as THE NAZARENE.
                In examining the Passion I argued that the narrative shows that as one
                Temple is destroyed Jesus the Nazarene Temple builder raises a new Temple
                in his words to the Mother and Beloved disciple.

                If you want to follow this up I can only suggest you read my book and the
                specific arguments that you find there. It is a rich and complex theme and
                I woulsee the Temple as the major Christological image in the Gospel,
                functioning to express Jesus' identity and mission.
                Recent Reviews of my book in Theology, and CBQ have been very favourable.

                In regards to the first question - where the idea came from - I think there
                was much in Jewish theological thinking to prepare the ground as evidenced
                in the Qumran literature.
                The early communities even before 70 had powerful pneumatic experinces
                which is evident in the Pauline writings so that Paul began to speak of the
                Christian person as t living Temple because of this living experience.
                My suspicion is that it is this living pneumatic experience that led to
                firstly Paul and then other writers developing the Temple as an image.
                After 70 the 4th evangelist shaped this experience and theology into a way
                of telling his story of Jesus thus giving this early spirituality and
                theology a narrative form.
                The destruction in 70 was significant, but even prior to this was a sense
                of the Divine presence still in their midst.

                The book says it better and in more detail.
              • Bob MacDonald
                Thank you Mary, Tom, Tom, Horace and Kaare for your comments. Tom Butler speaks of Jesus destroying the temple and replacing the Mosaic liturgy. Dom Crossan
                Message 7 of 16 , Sep 25, 2002
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                  Thank you Mary, Tom, Tom, Horace and Kaare for your comments.

                  Tom Butler speaks of Jesus destroying the temple and replacing the Mosaic
                  liturgy. Dom Crossan similarly calls the 'cleansing' of the temple a
                  symbolic destruction.

                  Tom Thatcher writes: >>Now perhaps that is all part of a "post resurrection"
                  and "post destruction" reflection. But I wonder? <<

                  I am heartened to see that a pre-destruction rethinking of the temple and
                  liturgy seems possible - after all, the folks who live in any generation
                  have to have some imagination!

                  Mary, I would like to order your book (though perhaps my editor will tell me
                  there is one in the local library) but I am very glad to see you take up the
                  issue of "powerful pneumatic experiences".

                  You wrote: >>My suspicion is that it is this living pneumatic experience
                  that led to firstly Paul and then other writers developing the Temple as an
                  image. After 70 the 4th evangelist shaped this experience and theology into
                  a way of telling his story of Jesus thus giving this early spirituality and
                  theology a narrative form. <<

                  Having said this, two questions -
                  1. do you think that Paul or the Pauline school influenced the Johnnie
                  school and the writer of John?
                  2. why would the experience of pre-destruction first century persons lead to
                  a redevelopment of the temple as an image and the experience of earlier
                  generations would not?


                  Bob

                  mailto::BobMacDonald@...
                  + + + Victoria, B.C., Canada + + +

                  Catch the foxes for us,
                  the little foxes that make havoc of the vineyards,
                  for our vineyards are in flower. (Song 2.15)
                  http://bobmacdonald.gx.ca


                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: Mary Coloe [mailto:M.Coloe@...]
                  Sent: Wednesday, September 25, 2002 8:17 AM
                  To: johannine_literature@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: RE: [John_Lit] Temple



                  I've only just caught up with this discussion and will contribute more. I
                  have recently published a book specifically examining the Temple in john.
                  It's God Dwells with us: Temple Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel. Liturgical
                  press, 2001. In this i traced the various 'locations' of the Divine
                  presence in Isral through the Ark, Tent, Temple - then the reaction to a
                  royal ideology of Temple in the
                  Prophetic, Priestly Tabernacle, Wisdom and Apocalyptic including Qumran to
                  show a very gradual movement of religious awareness of where god's presence
                  can be found. I then moved into the specific Johannine passages - john 2,
                  4, Tabernacles, Dedication.
                  I devoted a chapter to Jn 14:2 My Father's house where I argued for a major
                  transfer of the Temple to the community of disciples. In this chapter I
                  also turned to Zechariah where we get the only designation of who will
                  build the Temple -
                  Behold the Man whose name is Branch - he will build the Temple of the Lord.
                  In this chapter I examined links with the term Branch in Zechariah and the
                  Netzer/branch in Isaiah 11.
                  this lead to a discussion of the deliberate title the 4th G. gives Jesus in
                  the Passion - as THE NAZARENE.
                  In examining the Passion I argued that the narrative shows that as one
                  Temple is destroyed Jesus the Nazarene Temple builder raises a new Temple
                  in his words to the Mother and Beloved disciple.

                  If you want to follow this up I can only suggest you read my book and the
                  specific arguments that you find there. It is a rich and complex theme and
                  I woulsee the Temple as the major Christological image in the Gospel,
                  functioning to express Jesus' identity and mission.
                  Recent Reviews of my book in Theology, and CBQ have been very favourable.

                  In regards to the first question - where the idea came from - I think there
                  was much in Jewish theological thinking to prepare the ground as evidenced
                  in the Qumran literature.
                  The early communities even before 70 had powerful pneumatic experinces
                  which is evident in the Pauline writings so that Paul began to speak of the
                  Christian person as t living Temple because of this living experience.
                  My suspicion is that it is this living pneumatic experience that led to
                  firstly Paul and then other writers developing the Temple as an image.
                  After 70 the 4th evangelist shaped this experience and theology into a way
                  of telling his story of Jesus thus giving this early spirituality and
                  theology a narrative form.
                  The destruction in 70 was significant, but even prior to this was a sense
                  of the Divine presence still in their midst.

                  The book says it better and in more detail.


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                • Horace Jeffery Hodges
                  Bob, unless you re including the Latin poet in your thanks -- ... -- then you must be referring to me. Call me Jeffery. Jeffery Hodges ===== Assistant
                  Message 8 of 16 , Sep 25, 2002
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                    Bob, unless you're including the Latin poet in your
                    thanks --

                    > Thank you Mary, Tom, Tom, Horace and Kaare for your
                    > comments.

                    -- then you must be referring to me. Call me
                    "Jeffery."

                    Jeffery Hodges

                    =====
                    Assistant Professor Horace Jeffery Hodges
                    Hanshin University (Korean Theological University)
                    447-791 Kyunggido Osan-City
                    Yangsandong 411
                    South Korea

                    __________________________________________________
                    Do you Yahoo!?
                    New DSL Internet Access from SBC & Yahoo!
                    http://sbc.yahoo.com
                  • Mary Coloe
                    Bob these are two questions I d like to comment on - Having said this, two questions - 1. do you think that Paul or the Pauline school influenced the Johnnie
                    Message 9 of 16 , Sep 26, 2002
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                      Bob these are two questions I'd like to comment on -
                      Having said this, two questions -
                      1. do you think that Paul or the Pauline school influenced the Johnnie
                      school and the writer of John?
                      My suspicion is direct influence no - that this transformation of Temple
                      language into community was part of the milieu in both Jewish and Christian
                      world of that time - as I noted it is there already in qumran as well as
                      Paul, and post 70's the Rabbi's were engaged in the same questions - how to
                      transfer
                      the meaning of the Temple and its sacrifice to a situation where there is
                      no Temple. The 4th Gospel is part of this late first century theological
                      environment, with the addition of
                      a rich pneumatic experience and the self-conscious reflection on and
                      reinterpretation of the Scriptures guided by the Paraclete.


                      2. why would the experience of pre-destruction first century persons lead
                      to
                      a redevelopment of the temple as an image and the experience of earlier
                      generations would not?

                      From the time of Solomon, there were efforts of reinterpretation.
                      Deuteronomic theology emphasised the presence of God's name - to move away
                      from a too literal sense of God's presence actually dwelling in the Temple.
                      The Priestly tradition spoke of god's Glory. The prophets pleaded for
                      justice as well as Temple worship,
                      the Wisdom tradition spoke of the Wisdom dwelling in Israel, while other
                      used the Targumic terms such as Shekinah, Yichra, - so prior to the first
                      century there were ongoing reflections and reinterpretations of Where can
                      God's presence be found - in Torah, in Wisdom,
                      etc. So the first century responses within Judaism and its various forms,
                      and Christianity did not occur in a vaccuum.

                      Even Pharisaic judaism is taking Temple purity and tyransfering it to daily
                      living (not that I worked on this).
                    • Thomas W Butler
                      On Mon, 23 Sep 2002 17:39:42 -0700 (PDT) Horace Jeffery Hodges ... Jeffery, Thank you for your interest and your questions. Here is a concise summary of my
                      Message 10 of 16 , Sep 26, 2002
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                        On Mon, 23 Sep 2002 17:39:42 -0700 (PDT) Horace Jeffery Hodges
                        <jefferyhodges@...> writes:
                        > Tom Butler wrote:
                        >
                        > "I have suggested that Jesus replaced every element of
                        > the Mosaic system of worship: the temple, the
                        > festivals of sacrifice and the temple priesthood.
                        > That is what I call the sub-plot, the hidden story in
                        > the Fourth Gospel."
                        >
                        > I'd be interested in hearing more about this. Do you
                        > mean that Jesus in John's Gospel is physically the
                        > temple, that he is the site of sacrifices, that he is
                        > the sacrifice itself, that he is all of the temple
                        > festivals, and that he is the priesthood, too? Say
                        > more.
                        >
                        > Jeffery Hodges


                        Jeffery,
                        Thank you for your interest and your questions. Here is a
                        concise summary of my theory regarding the sub-plot of the
                        Gospel According to John. For a more detailed presentation,
                        see my book Let Her Keep It, to which I have referred on this
                        list before.

                        The Fourth Gospel makes extensive use of signs, most of
                        which are names, words, symbols borrowed from the Septuagint
                        version of the Pentateuch. (I have a concordance of terms found
                        in both the Pentateuch and the Fourth Gospel. Let me know if
                        you would like to receive a copy of it.)

                        Since much of the Pentateuch concerns the temple, the
                        festivals of sacrifice and the temple priesthood, it is not surprising
                        that many of the signs used in the Fourth Gospel are borrowed
                        from Mosaic texts relating to those three categories of scripture.
                        To save space and reading time, I'll present each category
                        separately.

                        The Temple
                        The author(s) of the Fourth Gospel present(s) a clear, un-
                        ambiguous connection between the Temple in Jerusalem and
                        the Body of Jesus.
                        Jn. 2: 13-24: Jesus drives out the money changers and the
                        cattle, sheep and doves that were being sold in the temple,
                        saying, "Take these things out of here! Stop making my
                        Father's house a marketplace!"
                        He refers to the temple as his Father's (God's) house.
                        The origin of this sign is Gen. 28: 16-22 in which Jacob
                        exclaims " ... This is none other than the house of God and
                        this is the gate of heaven." He then anoints the stone upon
                        which his head had been resting while he dreamed, and
                        declares "... this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall
                        be God's house ..."
                        To reinforce this link to the Mosaic source of the sign, the
                        narrator of the Gospel tells the reader that the disciples
                        remembered Ps. 69: 9, which has its origin in Nu. 25: 10-13.
                        (The material link being the rare term zhlos -zeal.)
                        Jn. 2: 18-19 "The Jews then said to him, 'What sign can you
                        show us for doing this?' Jesus answered them, 'Destroy this
                        temple and in three days I will raise it up.'" A reply the Jews
                        did not understand. The narrator explains in vs. 21 "But he
                        was speaking of the temple of his body."
                        First the author(s) of the Gospel acknowledge(s) the Mosaic
                        source, authority and meaning of the sign, then transfer(s) the
                        meaning of that sign to Jesus. In this case, the house of God,
                        represented in the Mosaic tradition by Jacob's anointed stone,
                        is now represented by the (anointed?) body of Jesus.
                        The zeal which God recognized in Phinehas, leading to the
                        granting by God to Phinehas and his descendants a covenant
                        of perpetual priestood, is now recognized by the disciples in
                        Jesus. The disciples see this zeal as a sign authorizing Jesus
                        to cleanse the temple. The Jews do not.

                        Yours in Christ's service,
                        Tom Butler

                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Thomas W Butler
                        Hello Bob, I hope you won t mind if I respond to the question that you posed to Mary. As you know, I approach the issue of the temple from a different
                        Message 11 of 16 , Sep 26, 2002
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                          Hello Bob,
                          I hope you won't mind if I respond to the question that you posed
                          to Mary. As you know, I approach the issue of the temple from a
                          different perspective.

                          On Wed, 25 Sep 2002 19:23:52 -0700 Bob MacDonald <bobmacdonald@...>
                          writes:
                          > (snip)
                          > 1. do you think that Paul or the Pauline school influenced the
                          > Johnnie school and the writer of John?

                          My suspicion is that the influence would be the other way around:
                          that the Johannine school influenced Paul (not only the Pauline
                          school).

                          While the dating of the Fourth Gospel is still a matter of debate, it
                          seems to be generally accepted (as far as my understanding goes)
                          that the Johnannine school probably existed long before the text
                          of the Gospel was "published" in the sense that it was made
                          available to persons outside of the school. Prior to that time,
                          while the school was still in existence, I believe the Fourth Gospel
                          was a work in process.

                          Of particular interest and relevance to our current discussion of
                          the temple / body of Jesus is the developed theology of Paul in
                          which he identifies the Church as the Body of Christ. I would
                          argue that the progression of that idea starts (as I have shown
                          in the message I have posted today) in the Torah with the Ladder
                          Dream of Jacob (ie: the dream that there is a place on earth
                          where one can find God - the House of God). That dream is
                          replaced in the Fourth Gospel with the idea that the body of
                          Jesus replaces the Temple in Jerusalem as the place on earth
                          where one can find God. Then Paul develops the idea further
                          in his resurrection theology, identifying the growing Christian
                          Church as the living Body of Christ in the world. There appears
                          to be a logical progression of the idea that supports my
                          contention that the influence of the Johannine community on
                          this idea preceded the developed theology of Paul.

                          > 2. why would the experience of pre-destruction first century
                          > persons lead to a redevelopment of the temple as an image
                          > and the experience of earlier generations would not?

                          As I indicated in an earlier post, some of the first century pre-
                          destruction theologians (like the Essenes) perceived the Herodian
                          Temple to be defiled (as can be seen in some of the Qumran
                          texts - ie: the commentary on Habakkuk where the High Priest is
                          called "The Wicked Priest.)"

                          [1QpHab 1.3; 8.9; 9.9; 11.4 - see Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls
                          ed. James Charlesworth, The Anchor Bible Reference Library,
                          Doubleday, 1992, p. 142]

                          Charlesworth takes pains to explain that this view was a minority
                          view, even in the pre 70 CE period. Prior to that the view of the
                          Jewish world was that the Temple was a holy place, the House of
                          God. There was, in other words, no need to "redevelop" the
                          concept of the temple when the temple was seen as holy. The
                          reason (prior to its physical destruction) to "redevelop" the idea
                          was that the temple located geographically in Jerusalem had
                          been defiled, through the influence of an evil High Priest. That
                          picture is certainly painted by the Fourth Gospel, when the
                          High Priest replaces the atonement sacrifice (two rams) with
                          the body of Jesus (John 11: 50-53) and in so doing, violates
                          the principle established by the sign given to Abraham (Gen. 22:
                          12-13) to end the practice of human sacrifice.

                          Yours in Christ's service,
                          Tom Butler

                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • John Lupia
                          Dear Mary: Unfortunately, I have not yet had a chance to see your book. Having Fr. Frank on your dissertation committee assures me the work is solid. I can
                          Message 12 of 16 , Sep 26, 2002
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                            Dear Mary:

                            Unfortunately, I have not yet had a chance to see your
                            book. Having Fr. Frank on your dissertation committee
                            assures me the work is solid. I can only assume at
                            this point in time that you make the distinction
                            between NAOS and hIERON, and show the syllogistic
                            iconographical transfer for NAOS (Jn 2:19-21) from the
                            "Holy of Holies" of a building of stone to the body of
                            flesh in the person of Jesus. I look forward to
                            reading your thesis.

                            With warm regards,
                            John

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                            501 North Avenue B-1
                            Elizabeth, New Jersey 07208-1731 USA
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                          • Mary Coloe
                            John I do make a comment on these terms in a footnote on 73. hieron and naos can refer to the entire Temple as well as the inner sanctuary but hieron can also
                            Message 13 of 16 , Sep 26, 2002
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                              John I do make a comment on these terms in a footnote on 73. hieron and
                              naos can refer to the entire Temple as well as the inner sanctuary but
                              hieron can also be used for pagan shrines. According to the TDNT a clear
                              distinction is not possible but I thin that in the LXX and the 4G the terms
                              are used with precise meaning.
                              For the Jews the two terms are indistinguishable but in v. 20 the 4G it is
                              used to speak of the body of the pre-existent Word who has tabernacled in
                              human history and so can rightly be called the new Temple/House of God.
                            • Horace Jeffery Hodges
                              Dear Tom, Thanks for the further elaboration. I may have to have the library order your book so that I can see your argument in more detail. One question,
                              Message 14 of 16 , Sep 26, 2002
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                                Dear Tom,

                                Thanks for the further elaboration. I may have to have
                                the library order your book so that I can see your
                                argument in more detail.

                                One question, though: Do you only rely directly upon
                                the Old Testament (whether LXX or MT) or do you also
                                rely upon the Old Testament as refracted through
                                Second-Temple writings?

                                Best Regards,

                                Jeffery Hodges

                                P.S. Yes, I'd be happy to have your concordance.

                                =====
                                Assistant Professor Horace Jeffery Hodges
                                Hanshin University (Korean Theological University)
                                447-791 Kyunggido Osan-City
                                Yangsandong 411
                                South Korea

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                              • Thomas W Butler
                                Hello Jeffery, The fastest and least expensive way to acquire my book is to order it directly from me. It is available on Amazon.com and through Borders
                                Message 15 of 16 , Sep 27, 2002
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                                  Hello Jeffery,
                                  The fastest and least expensive way to acquire my book is to order
                                  it directly from me. It is available on Amazon.com and through
                                  Borders Books, but there is a delay and they have inflated the price.
                                  If you ask your librarian order a copy, feel free to give him / her my
                                  e-mail address. I suspect the cost will already be inflated by the
                                  cost of shipping.
                                  I have relied primarily upon OT material. However, the Dead Sea
                                  Scrolls do offer some different perspectives than one finds in the
                                  Mosaic texts, so I am not opposed to considering such material.
                                  My intent is to show that the writer(s) of the Fourth Gospel took
                                  the very Greek words that are used in the LXX as oracles. Those
                                  writers used that precise language as signs that allowed them to
                                  make reference to a larger meaning than the words, at first glance,
                                  appeared to carry.
                                  Note that I am not suggesting that any meaning that a
                                  contemporary reader might imagine is permitted. I am using
                                  what others call a material connection between texts. The
                                  meaning in the OT context is often quite clear and the word
                                  that functions as a sign is frequently a rare word or a word that
                                  is being used in an unusual way to convey a specific meaning.
                                  Here is a copy of my concordance of Mosaic and Johannine
                                  signs (attached). I'd be interesting to hear what you think of it.

                                  Yours in Christ's service,
                                  Tom Butler

                                  On Thu, 26 Sep 2002 23:11:44 -0700 (PDT) Horace Jeffery Hodges
                                  <jefferyhodges@...> writes:
                                  > Dear Tom,
                                  >
                                  > Thanks for the further elaboration. I may have to have
                                  > the library order your book so that I can see your
                                  > argument in more detail.
                                  >
                                  > One question, though: Do you only rely directly upon
                                  > the Old Testament (whether LXX or MT) or do you also
                                  > rely upon the Old Testament as refracted through
                                  > Second-Temple writings?
                                  >
                                  > Best Regards,
                                  >
                                  > Jeffery Hodges
                                  >
                                  > P.S. Yes, I'd be happy to have your concordance.
                                  >
                                  > =====
                                  > Assistant Professor Horace Jeffery Hodges
                                  > Hanshin University (Korean Theological University)
                                  > 447-791 Kyunggido Osan-City
                                  > Yangsandong 411
                                  > South Korea
                                  >
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                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                • Bob MacDonald
                                  Dear list as I look back over the summer s postings, there was a lot about flesh and blood and the words of John 6:53. I am looking forward now to a real
                                  Message 16 of 16 , Oct 5, 2002
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                                    Dear list

                                    as I look back over the summer's postings, there was a lot about flesh and
                                    blood and the words of John 6:53. I am looking forward now to a real lesson
                                    in Christology from Paul Anderson's book, but I have just finished Covenant
                                    of Blood, Circumcision and Gender in Rabbinic Judaism by Lawrence Hoffman
                                    and I found it a remarkable book on the subject of blood and symbolism in
                                    Judaism.

                                    As a result, I have written both an essay revealing the astonishing
                                    similarity of Jewish and Christian symbolism around wine and blood and a
                                    story segment set in the year 20 in Zippori, a town about 4 miles from
                                    Nazareth.

                                    If anyone is interested, you will find the essay at
                                    http://bmd.gx.ca/understanding_the_content_of_wor.htm; the story is linked
                                    at the foot of the page - it is really an integral part of the essay.

                                    Thanks for all your teaching.

                                    Bob

                                    mailto::BobMacDonald@...
                                    + + + Victoria, B.C., Canada + + +

                                    Catch the foxes for us,
                                    the little foxes that make havoc of the vineyards,
                                    for our vineyards are in flower. (Song 2.15)
                                    http://bobmacdonald.gx.ca
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