During the cold war years many US citizen jews ( and also non-jews ) not only were falsely accused as additionally being USSR Soviet citizens, but also at the same time the INS ( INS - US Immigration and Naturalization Service ) during these cold war years claimed that the INS had no records at all of these jews as ever being US citizens, which these people were. Many US citizen jews have died ( of old age ) not ever knowing about the US INS ( now called USCIS ) claims that they were not citizens of the USA.
I discovered in the late 80's when I did genealogical research on my jewish family, that three in my family had this problem with the INS.
My uncle received his US citizenship from his US Army service in WW I, he held and had traveled with a US passport, and at the same time the INS claimed that he was not a US citizen as the INS had no records. Apparently he was never required to register with the INS, and the INS never looked at his citizenship papers of his US Army WWI service. He received his approved INS citizenship records, about twenty years after he had passed away.
Two other family members had somewhat similar situations as this uncle.
If anyone ever wants to prove that a family member ( or anyone ) was a US citizen, and if they have passed away then this person's US passport application records and documents are now publicly available to anyone.
Both the INS and the USCIS allow anyone to request a search to find out if anyone is a US citizen or not. So many jews during the cold war years were very vulnerable to these US government document errors from communist hunters and hate mongers.
I now know why I received a lot of ghostly harassment, as my mother falsely looked like both a USSR citizen and an illegal alien from the USSR, during the cold war years.
Many tens of millions of U.S. citizens were falsely accused as being also USSR citizens during the cold war years by the U.S State Department, by an error in a brochure that the U.S State Department distributed.
The U.S. State Department published a USSR travel-warning brochure during the cold war years that was written for the purpose of warning U.S. citizens about the dangers of traveling and visiting in the USSR controlled countries then. But there was an error in these brochures up until about 1983 ( when this error was corrected ) that incorrectly interpreted the exact details of the dual USA-USSR citizenship laws of the USSR.
This error interpretation of the USSR dual citizenship laws caused many tens of millions of U.S. citizens to be falsely accused as also being USSR citizens. The problem of this error interpretation involved the date of the beginning of the USSR, in Oct 1917. The USSR Dual citizenship laws actually only applied to persons ( and all of their future descendents ) who had formerly been living in the USSR lands on or after the Oct 1917 date. But the first State Dept brochures included everyone ( and all of their future descendents ) for all times, even those in the USA from the USSR lands centuries and even just years prior to October of 1917.
The title of this U.S. State Department travel warning brochure was "Tips for travelers to the USSR" and the 1982 version was the last version to have this error. The document number is as follows: U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1982 - 389-636. Possibly copies of this document may be obtained from the US National Archives, if anyone is interested.
It is my belief that this documentation error may have been used by communist hunters or others in the USA to justify discrimination or harm or injury to many innocent victims in the US, who were citizens of the USA and falsely labeled as also USSR citizens due to this error.