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placing hands on chest is wrong

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  • Iqbal Shaikh
    Investigating the narrations of placing the hands upon the chest in Salah 08 April 2013 Last Updated on 13 April 2013 Published Date Hits: 109 It is rather
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 13, 2013
      Investigating the narrations of placing the hands upon the chest in Salah
      08 April 2013
      Last Updated on 13 April 2013
      Published Date
      Hits: 109
      It is rather unfortunate that we have to spend time to discuss a subject which the Muslim ummah has accepted to be a difference of opinion for over 1400 years just to address some of our enthusiastic brothers and sisters who claim that everything besides placing the hands on the chest in salah is weak!.
      It is rather unfortunate that we have to spend time to discuss a subject which the Muslim ummah has accepted to be a difference of opinion for over 1400 years just to address some of our enthusiastic brothers and sisters who claim that everything besides placing the hands on the chest in salah is weak! We have our sincere brothers and sisters going from Mosque to Mosque and reprimanding (and chastising) any Muslim who places their hands anywhere in Salah so this is an attempt to show that the narrations instructing to place the hands upon the chest in Salah are infact weak and disregarded.
      Considering the state of the Ummah we would prefer to spend our time on positive Dawah rather than getting bogged down in polemics but we are left with no choice but to address the matter in a professional and Academic manner which has been turned into a issue to divide the Ummah and cause chaos which is in fact nothing but a storm in a teacup.
      Before proceeding understand that the placing the hands above the Navel doesn’t mean chest and nearly all narrations of the issue of placing the hands upon the chest will be discussed here with the first one in great detail since it is proclaimed to be the most authentic and the discussions on the rest summarised.
      Narration of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA) in Ibn Khuzaimah with addition of "On His Chest":
      ػ ؿ ف ١ح ج ػٌٛعٞ ػ ػح ص ذ و ١ٍد ػ أذ ١ ػ ٚجت ذ دجغ ل حي : } ص ١ٍص غِ ع ؿٛي جلله ص ٍٝ
      جلله ػ ١ٍ ٚ ؿ ف ٛ ظغ ٠ ض ج ١ٌ ّٕٝ ػ ٍٝ ٠ ض ج ١ٌ غٜ ػ ٍٝ صضع {
      Sayyiduna Wail Ibn Huj'r (RA) says, 'I prayed with the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and he placed his right hand over his left on his chest. [Ibn Khuzaimah]
      Chain of Narration of tradition of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA):
      This narration is recorded in Ibn Khuzaimah and narrated through the following chain:
      1 Mu'ammil Ibn Ismail (RA) who narrates from;
      2 Sufyan (RA) who narrates from;
      3 Asim Ibn Kulayb (RA) who narrates from;
      4 His father (Kulayb Ibn Shihab (RA)) who narrates from;
      5 The companion Sayyidina Wail Ibn Huj'r (RA);
      Firstly. we have highlighted the chain of Kulayb Ibn Shihab (RA) because the same tradition is also authentically narrated by two others narrators and both don't mention anything about hands been upon the chest, at all!
      Secondly, even if we were to disregard the two other authentically narrated traditions we will later discuss the narrator Mu'aamil Ibn Ismail (RA) which is also highlighted.
      There are many other chains for this hadeeth, however, none contain this extra wording. Thus, it is clear that this is Muammal bin Ismaeel's own erroneous addition to the hadeeth.
      Narration of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA) in Saheeh Muslim with no mention of "On His Chest":
      دضغ حٕ ػ ١٘غ ذ دغخ دضغ حٕ ػ فح دضغ حٕ حّ٘ دضغ حٕ ذِ ضّ ذ جذحصز دضغ ٟٕ ػ رض ج جٌ رحع ذ ٚجت ػ ت ٚ ِٛ ٌٝ ٌٙ أ ٙٔ حّ دضغ ح ػ أذ ١ ٚجت ذ دجغ أ عأٜ ج رٌٕٟ ص ٍٝ جلله ػ ١ٍ ٚ ؿ ػ مٍ سّ ذ ٚج
      عف غ ٠ ض ٠ د ١ صس ف ٟ ج صٌلاز و رغ ٚ صف حّ٘ د ١حي أط ١ٔ غ ج طٌذف ذ ػٛذ غ ٚ ظغ ٠ ض ج ١ٌ ّٕٝ
      ػ ٍٝ ج ١ٌ غٜ ف حٍّ أعجص أ ٠ غو غ أسغؼ ٠ ض ٠ ج ػٌٛخ غ عف ؼٙ حّ غ و رغ ف غو غ ف حٍّ ل حي ؿ غّ جلله ص عف غ ٠ ض ٠ ف حٍّ ؿجض ؿجض ذ ١ و ف ١ دُٗ
      Sayyidina Wa'il IbnHujr (RA) reported: He saw the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) raising his hands at the time of beginning the prayer and reciting takbir, and according to Hammam (the narrator), the hands were lifted opposite to ears. He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. And when he was about to bow down, he brought out his hands from the cloth, and then lifted them, and then recited takbir and bowed down, and when (he came back to the erect position) he recited:" Allah listened to him who praised Him." And when prostrates. he prostrated between the two palms. [Muslim]
      Narration of Sayyidina Wail IBn Haj'r (RA) in Musnad of Imam Ahmed (RA) with no mention of "On His Chest":
      دضغ حٕ ػ رض جلله دضغ ٟٕ أذ ٟ غ حٕ ذِ ضّ ذ ج ؼ فغ غ حٕ ش ؼ رس ػ ػ غّٚ ذ غِز ل حي : ؿ ؼّص أذ ح ج رٌش طغٞ
      ج طٌحت ٟ ٠ ذضظ ػ ػ رض ج غٌد ذ ج ١ٌذ ص رٟ ػ ٚجت ذ دجغ ج ذٌ عغ ِٟ : : ) أ ص ٍٝ غِ ع ؿٛي جلله
      ع ٚ ٠ غف غ ٠ ض ٠ ػ ضٕ ج طٌ ى ر ١غ ٚ ٠  ػ ص ٍٝ جلله ػ ١ٍ ٚ ؿ ف ىح ٠ ى رغ ئطج س فط ٚ ئطج عف
      ١ّ ٠ ٚ ػ ٠ حع . ل حي ش ؼ رس : ل حي ٌٟ أذ ح - ٠ ؼ ٟٕ جذ ض غ دٍ - ف ٟ ج ذٌض ٠ ع د طٝ ٠ رضٚ ٚ ظخ ٚجٙ ، فمٍض ًؼِعٚ : أف٠ لادض١غ خطٜ ٟذصٚ ٛعد ٛجٙ٘ ؟ فلال غِعٚ أٚ ٓدٚ ظٍو .).
      Students of Sufyan Tahwri (RA) all except Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) not mentioning "On His Chest":
      Thirdly, the other narrators who report the hadeeth together with Sufyan al Thawri (RA) from Aasim bin Kulaib (RA) have also not included these words in their narrations. Observe the following list of narrators who have al reported the same hadeeth from Aasim bin Kulaib but none of then have included the additional words reported by Muammal bin Ismaeel
      1 Sh'ubah, Abdul Wahid, and Zubair bin Muawiyah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad. (Ahmad 18398, 18371 & 18397)
      2 Zaidah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad, Darimi, Abu Dawood. Nasai and Baihaqi (Ahmad 18391, Darimi 1357, Abu Dawood 726, Nasai 889 and Baihaqi 2325)
      3 Bishr bin al Mufaddhal as in Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood and Nasai (Ibn Majah 810, Abu Dawood 726 & 957, and Nasai 1265)
      4 Abdullah bin Idrees as in Ibn Majah (Ibn Majah 810)
      5 Salam bin Saleem as in Abu Dawood Tayalisi's Musnad (Abu Dawood Tayalisi 1020)
      The weakness of Narrator Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA):
      Since the additional words in the narration "On His Chest" are only mentioned in the chain containing Mua'mmal Ibn Ismail (RA) it is critical to examine his strength as a narrator and here is what the Scholars have mentioned regarding him.
      Imam Muhammad bin Nasar Al-Marwazi (RA) declared Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) to be weak in memory and makes mistakes:
      He is the great erudite Scholar Muhammad Ibn Nas'r Ibn Hajjaj Al-Marwazi (Abu Abdullah Al-Marwazi) who was born in Baghdad in 202 AH, grew up in Nishapur and settled in Samarqand. He traveled the centres of Islamic knowledge such as Khurasah, Ray, Baghdad, Basra, Kufa, Madinutul-Munawarrah, Makkatul-Mukarramah, Syria and Egypt and learned under Masters of Hadeeth of the time Yahya Ibn At-Tamimi (RA), Ishaq Ibn Rahway (RA), Yunus Ibn Abdul-Aa'la (RA), Ibraheem Ibn Al-Mundhar (RA) amongst others and reached heights of knowledge which was recognized by many Scholars. Others said about him:
      Ibn Hibban (RA) (Author of Saheeh Ibn Hibaan): He was one of the Imams of this world who collected and strove (towards knowledge), and he was knowledgeable of the (opinion of Scholars) of his time and their differences and most of the (Scholars) of the time had excelled in knowledge.
      و ح أدض جلأت سّ ف ٟ ج ضٌ ١ٔح ج غّ ٚ ص فٕ، ٚو ح أػ أ ػ حِ ذ حالس طلاف ٚأو ػغ « : ل حي جذ د رح
      ص ١ح سٔ ف ٟ ج ؼٌ .ٍُ
      Khateeb Baghdadi (RA): He was amongst those knowledgeable people who knew about differences (of opinions) amongst the Sahaba (RA) and those who came after them regarding injunctions.
      و ح « : ل حي ج شٌط ١د ج رٌ غضجصٞ \ ْ ِٓأػ ج حٌٕؽ ذ حس طلاف ج صٌذحذ س ٚ ذ ؼض ف ٟ جلأد ىح .َ
      Imam Hakim (RA) writes about him, "The Imam of Hadeeth of his time, unmatched and unparalleled"
      طو غ ج ذٌحو ف محي : ئ حِ ػ صغ ذ لا ضِجف ؼس ف ٟ ج ذٌض ٠ ع
      Qadhi Muhammad Ibn Muhammad (RA) said that it has been transmitted to us from the breasts of our Mashaykh that men (of knowledge) from Khurasan were four:
      1 Abdullah Ibn Abi Mubarak (RA)
      2 Ishaq Ibn Rahway (RA)
      3 Yahya Ibn At-Tamimi (RA)
      4 Muhammad Ibn Nas'r Ibn Hajjaj Al-Marwazi (Abu Abdullah Al-Marwazi)
      جذ ٚل حي ج مٌح ظٟ ذِ ضّ ذ ذِ ضّ : و ح ج صٌضع جلأٚي شِح ٠ ش حٕ ٠ مٛ ٌٛ : عجحي سغج ؿح أعذ ؼس :
      ٠ ذ ١ٝ ذ ٠ ذ ١ٝ , ٚ ذِ ضّ ذ صٔغ. , ج رٌّحعن , ٚجذ عج ٛ٘ ٠
      Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Al-Asfaraini (RA) narrates that I heard Muhammad Ibn Adbullah Ibn Hakm' (RA) say, "Muhammad Ibn Nas'r (Al-Marwazi (RA)) was an Imam in Egypt so what is Khurasan?
      ل حي ػ رض جلله ذٓ ذِ ضّ جلإ ؿ فغج ١ ٠ ٟٕ : ؿ ؼّص ذِ ضّ ذ ػ رض جلله ذ ػ رض ج ذٌ ى ٠ مٛي : و ح ذِ ضّ ذ صٔغ ذ صّغ ئ حِ حِ. ف ى ١ف ذ شغج ؿح ؟
      Imam (Mufti) Ibnus-Salah (RA) classed him as a Shaf'ae and writes that he had in depth knowledge of sciences of Fiqh and Hadeeth and he was a Sahibul-Ikhtiyaar so he sometimes disagreed with the Shaf'ae Scholars and adopted another way and there is nothing (wrong) with this as in this he was like Ibn Khuzaima (RA), Al-Muzni (RA) and those before them like Abi-Thaur (RA).
      This is one of the earliest and original record of a Scholar of Hadeeth contemporary of Imam Bukhari (RA) discrediting the narrations by Mua'mmal Ibn Ismail (RA) by declaring him weak in memory and a person who makes many mistakes:
      ٚأ حِ حِ عٚٞ ػ ج ذٌ  ٚجذ ؿ ١غ ٠ أ ٙٔ حّ و ح حٔ ٠ مٛال ِ ٚ ٠ ٙحذ ح إِ ف ا ظ٘ج دض ٠ ع ٠ غٚ ػ د حّص ذ ػ ٠ ض غ ١غ ج إٌّ ٚئطج ج فٔغص ذ ذض ٠ ع ٚجد أ ض ٛل ف ٚ ٠ ط ػ رص ف ١ لأ و ح ؿٟء ج ذٌ فع و ػ ١غ
      ج غٌ طٍ
      Imam Tirmidhi (RA) reports that Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) made a mistake:
      دضغ حٕ ذِ ّٛص ذ غ ١لا دضغ حٕ إِ ػ د حّص ذ ؿ سٍّ ػ د ١ّض ػ أ ؾٔ أ ج رٌٕٟ ص ٍٝ جلله ػ ١ٍ
      ٚ ؿ ل حي أ ظٌٛج ذ ١ح طج ج جٌلاي ٚجلإو غج ل حي أذ ٛ ػ ١ ٝ ظ٘ج دض ٠ ع غغ ٠ د ٚ ١ٌؾ ذ ذّ فٛظ ٚئ حّٔ ٠ غٜٚ ظ٘ج
      ػ ١ٍ ٚ ؿ ٚ ظ٘ج أ صخ ٚ إِ غ طٍ ػ د حّص ذ ؿ سٍّ ػ د ١ّض ػ ج ذٌ  ج رٌ صغٞ ػ ج رٌٕٟ ص ٍٝ جًٌ
      ف ١ ف محي ػ د ١ّض ػ أ ؾٔ ٚال ٠ طحذ غ ف ١ٗ
      Imam Tirmidhi related a hadith where Mu'ammal is in the chain and says: "This is a Ghareeb (strange) hadith and it is not preserved, this narration should be narrated as this; From Hammad Bin Salamah, from al-Hasan al-Basri from Nabi and this is (the) correct (chain), while Mu'ammal made an error in his (sanad) and said; from Humayd from From Anas, he has no Mutab'iah (or anyone following / supporting him up) in this."
      Three things to note from Imam al-Tirmidhi:
      1 The narrations which were authenticated by al-Tirmidhi (Tahseen and Tas-heeh) only was so because Mu'ammal had authentic Shawahid and Mutabi'ah.
      2 In cases where there is an addition to the isnad and matn from Mu'ammal then it is rejected by al-Tirmidhi and not preserved.
      3 Mu'ammal made errors.
      Imam Nasa'i (RA) reports that Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) makes many mistakes:
      .
      After narrating a hadith (a du'a), Abu Abdir Rahman said: "This is an error, (meaning) from 'Asim from Sha'bi, The correct (chain) is Shu'bah from Mansur, Mu'ammal Bin Isma'eel makes MANY MISTAKES, against him is Bahz Bin Asad in his transmission (of this hadith), (which states), from Shu'bah from Mansur"
      Imam Ibn Haj'r Al-Haytami (RA) reports that Jamaah (majority) consider Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) to be weak:
      عٚج ج طٌ رغج ٟٔ ف ٟ جلأٚ ؿط ٚف ١ إِ ذ ئ ؿُ
      al-Haythami narrates a hadith from al-Tabrani's Awsat and says: "It is narrated by al-Tabrani in al-Awsat and in it is Mu'ammal Bin Isma'eel (who is) Thiqah (according to) Ibn Hibban but the Jama'ah (majority) considered him weak".
      عٚج ج رٌؼجع ٚف ١ إِ ذ ئ ؿ حّػ ١ ٚغ م جذ ؼِ ١ ٚجذ د رح ٚ ظؼ ف ج رٌشحعٞ ٚغ ١غ ،ٖٚذ م ١س عجح غ محش
      He relates a hadith from Musnad al-Bazzar and says: "It was narrated by al-Bazzar, and in it is Mu'ammal Bin Isma'eel, he thiqah according to Ibn Ma'een and Ibn Hibban, but weak according to al-Bukhari and other than him, and the rest of it's narrators are Thiqah"
      He relates a hadith from al-Tabrani's Awsat and says: "It is related by al-Tabrani from two routes (chains), in the first of the two is Mansur Bin dinar and he is Weak and in the last is Mu'ammal Ibn Isma'eel (he is) Thiqah according to Ibn Ma'een but weak according to the Jamhoor (Majority)"
      He again relates a hadith from al-Tabrani's Awsat and says: "He (al-Tabrani) said: "No one else elevated it (i.e. made it Marfu') from Hammad Bin Zayd except Mu'ammal Bin Isma'eel", "I (al-Haythami) say: Mu'ammal is Thiqah but makes many mistakes, he is Thiqah according to Ibn Ma'een and other than him but weak according to al-Bukhari and other than him also, and the rest of it's narrators are Thiqah"
      Imam Mizzi (RA) reports that Imam Bukhari (RA) declares Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) Munkirul-Hadeeth:
      ٚل حي ج رٌشحعٞ : ىِٕغ ج ذٌض ٠ ع.
      Imam Dhahabi (RA) reports that Imam Bukhari (RA) declares Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) Munkirul-Hadeeth:
      ٚل حي ج رٌشحعٞ : ىِٕغ ج ذٌض ٠ ع
      Imam Abu Hatim (RA) reports that IMua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) makes mistakes:
      ل حي ؿأ صٌ أذ ٝ ػ إِ ذ ئ ؿ حّػ ١ ف محي صضٚق شض ٠ ض ف ٟ ج ٌ سٕ و ػ ١غ ج شٌطأ ٠ ى طد دض ٠ ػٗ
      ...He (Ibn Abi Hatim) said i asked my father (Abu Hatim) regarding Mu'ammal Ibn Isma'eel and he said Honest, Firm in Sunnah makes abundant mistakes, write his narrations...
      ٚ ؿ ث ػ إِ ذ ئ ؿ حّػ ١ ٚأذ ٝ دظ ٠ فس ف محي ف ٟ و ط رٙ حّ سطأ و ػ ١غ ٚأذ ٛ دظ ٠ فس جل ٍٙ حّ سطأ
      "he (Abu Hatim) was asked regarding Mu'ammal Ibn Isma'eel and Abi Huzayfah and he said in their books are many errors while Abu Huzayfah made fewer mistakes of the two."
      ٚل حي غ ١غ صف و ط ر ف ىح ٠ ذضظ د فظ ف ى ػغ سطأٖ
      "It was also said that he buried his books and narrated by heart and thus erred alot"
      Imam Hakim (RA) reports that Imam Dar Qutni (RA) declares Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) makes many mistakes:
      . 492
      al-Hakim said: "I said to al-Daraqutni (regarding) Mu'ammal Bin Isma'eel: He replied Sudooq (truthful) but many mistakes.
      Imam Dar Qutni (RA) (RA) reports that his teacher doubted the memory of Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA):
      2173 \ 9 - دضغ حٕ أذ ٛ ذ ىغ ج ١ٌٕ حذ ٛعٞ ، عٔج ححجذ دٔ ؾٍ١ِحٔ ، عٔج َإٌّ دٔ اِحؼ١ٌ ، عٔج ؿ ف ١ح ، دضغ ٟٕ صِٕٛع ، ػ أذ ٟ ٚجت ، ل حي : جحء حٔ و طحخ ػ غّ ٚ ذٔ ذ شح مٔ ١ : ئ جلأ سٍ٘ ذ ؼ عٙح
      أػظ ذ ؼط ، ف اطج عأ ٠ ط ج ٌٙلاي لأٚي ج ٌٕٙحع ، ف لا ض فطغٚج د طٝ ٠ شٙض عج لا طٚج ػضي أ ٙٔ حّ أ ل٘ا و غ : ئ و ح إِ د فظ ف ٙٛ غغ ٠ د . ٚسح فٌ جلإ حِ ػ رض ج غٌد ذ ِٙضٞ .ذ حلأ ؾِ ػ ش ١س . ل حي حٌٕ أذ ٛ خ
      After narrating a hadith where Mu'ammal Bin Isma'eel is in the chain Imam al-Daraqutni says: "Abu Bakr (al-Naysaburi) informed us that if Mu'ammal remembered it (this hadith) then it is Ghareeb, for he was opposed by al-Imam Abdur Rahman al-Mahdi".
      Imam Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr (RA) specifically rejects Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) with multiple report
      [682] رش قص ش ؽ ق جيخرجعٞ فٞ جيشعجيٞق ٚأخٞ صجٚص فٞ جيقصع ٚجيشعَطٞ ٚجيْؽجبٞ ٚجخْ َجؼز َؤَي ػ ١ ج ؼٌضٚٞ ِٛ ٌٝ آي ج شٌطحخ ٚل ١ ِٛ ٌٝ ذ ٟٕ ذ ىغ أذ ٛ ػ رض ج غٌد ج رٌ صغٞ ؼٔ ٠ ىِس عٜٚ ػ ذ ئ ؿ حّ
      ػ ىغ سِ ذ ػ حّع ٚأذ ٟ ل٘اي ج غٌج ؿ رٟ ٚ حٔف غ ذ ػ غّ ج جٌ ذّٟ ٚ ش ؼ رس ٚج ذٌ حّص ٠ ٚج ٌ ف ١ح ١ٔ ٚغ ١غ
      ٚػ أد ضّ ذ د رٕ ٚئ ؿذحق ذ عج ٛ٘ ٠ ٚػ ٍٟ ذ ج ضٌّ ٠ ٟٕ ٚأذ ٛ ِٛ ؿٝ ٚذ ضٕجع ٚأذ ٛ و غ ٠ د ٚأذ ٛ
      جء أد ضّ ذ ػ ػ حّ ج ٌٕٛف ٍٟ ٚػ ٍٟ ذ ؿٙ ج غٌ ٍِٟ ٚ ذِ ّٛص ذ غ ١لا ٚأد ضّ ذ صٔغ ج فٌغجء ج جٌٛػ
      ٚآسغٚ ل حي ذ أذ ٟ س ١ ػ سّ ػ ذ ؼِ ١ غ مس ٚل حي ػ ػ حّ ج ضٌجع ِٟ ل صٍ الذ ؼِ ١ أٞ شٟء دح ف محي
      غ مس ل صٍ ٛ٘ أدد ئ ١ٌه أٚ ػ ر ١ض جلله ٠ ؼ ٟٕ ذ ِٛ ؿٝ ف ٠ ف ع ٚل حي أذ ٛ دحض صضٚق شض ٠ ض ف ٟ
      ج ٌ سٕ و ػ ١غ ج شٌطأ ٚل حي ج رٌشحعٞ ىِٕغ ج ذٌض ٠ ع ٚل حي ج ٢ج غٞ ؿأ صٌ أذ ح صجٚص ػ ف ؼظ ٚعف غ شأ ئال أ ٠ ٙ ف ٟ ج شٌٟء ٚطو غ ذ د رح ف ٟ ج ػٌ محش ٚل حي حِش ؿ سٕ ؿص ٚ حِت ط ١ ٚف ١ٙح أعس أذ ٛ
      ج مٌح ؿ ذ ضِٕز ٚػجص ف ٟ ع عِح ٚل حي ج رٌشحعٞ حِش ؿ سٕ س ؾّ أٚ ؿص ٚل حي غ ١غ صف و ط ر ف ىح صظ د فظ ف ى ػغ سطأ ل صٍ ل حي ذ د رح ف ٟ ج ػٌ محش عذ حّ أسطأ حِش ٠ ٛ جلأد ض ٌ رغ ػ شغز ١ٌ سٍ ٠ خ
      س صٍ شٙغ ع عِح ؿ سٕ ؿص ٚ حِت ط ١ ٚ ى٘ظج أعس ج رٌشحعٞ ػ ذ أذ ٟ ذ ؼز ل حي ج رٌشحعٞ أ حِ جذ ف محي ذٔ ص رٍ ١س و حٕ سٔ ل حي ٚدضغ ٟٕ أغ ك ذ أ ِٛ ٌٝ رٌ ٟٕ ذ ىغ ٚل حي ٠ ؼ مٛخ ذ ؿ ف ١ح َ ؤ أذ ٛ ػ رض ج غٌد ش ١ز ج ١ٍ ؿ ٟٕ ؿ ؼّص ؿ ١ٍ حّ ذ دغخ ٠ ذ  ج ػٌ حٕء و ح شِ ١ش ط حٕ
      ٠ ٛ صٛ ذ ئال أ دض ٠ ػ ال ٠ ش ر دض ٠ ع أ صذحذ ٚل ض ٠ جد ػ ٍٝ أ ج ؼٌ أ ٠ م فٛج ػ دض ٠ ػ ف ا ٠ غٚٞ ج حٌّٕو ١غ ػ غ محش ش ١ٛس ٚ ظ٘ج أ شض ف ٍٛ و ح صٔ ظ٘ ج حٌّٕو ١غ ػ ج عٌؼ فحء ىٌ حٕ جٔ ؼ ػظعج
      ٌحجٟ صضٚق و ػ ١غ ج شٌطأ ٚ أٚ ح٘ ٠ طٛي طو غ ح٘ ٚل حي ذ ؿ ؼض غ مس و ػ ١غ ج غٌ طٍ ٚل حي ذ ل ح غٔ ٚل حي ج
      صح خٌ ٠ شطة ٚل حي ج ضٌجعل ط ٟٕ غ مس و ػ ١غ ج شٌطأ ٚل حي ئ ؿذحق ذ عج ٛ٘ ٠ دضغ حٕ إِ ذ ئ ؿ حّػ ١ غ مس
      ٚل حي ذِ ضّ ذ صٔغ ج غٌّٚػٞ ج إٌّ ئطج ج فٔغص ذ ذض ٠ ع ٚجد أ ٠ طٛل ف ٚ ٠ ػ رص ف ١ لأ و ح ؿٟء
      د فع و ػ ١غ ج غٌ طٍجي
      Imam Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr Asqalani (RA) specifically mentions that there is weakness in naration between Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) and Sufyan (RA) which is the chain of the hadeeth in question:
      ٚو ظ هٌ إِ ذ ئ ؿ حّػ ١ ف ٟ دض ٠ ػ ػ ج ػٌٛعٞ ظؼف
      Shaykh Al-Albani (RA) specifically mentions that Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) is weak in memory and the status of this Hadeeth in Ibn Khuzaimah is weak:
      Shaykh (RA) however states that this Hadeeth is Authentic through other chains!
      ػ ٍٝ ج صٌضع أدحص ٠ ع ض شٙض Responses to objections on Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) by Zubair Ali Zai (Ahl-e-Hadeeth)
      The personal practise of Sufyan Thawri (RA) of placing the hands beneath the Navel
      As explained earlier that none of the students of Sufyan Thawri (RA) narrate these additional wordings of "On His Chest" and it is also note that Imam Sufyan Thawri (RA) was from the people of knowledge of Kufa (i.e. that he followed the School of Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)) and
      he was of the opinion that hands should be placed beneath the Navel in Salah as mentioned by the authoritative book of Hanblai Madhab, Al-Maghni:
      ) 662 ( َؽأيز : قجي : ) ٚٞؼعيَٖج شحش ؽعشٖ ( جرشيفش جيعٚجٞز فٞ َٚضع ٚضعَٖج ، فعٚٞ عْ أحَص ، أ ٠ عؼٙ حّ ض ذص ؿغض . عٚٞ ط هٌ ػ ػ ٍٟ ، ٚأذ ٟ غ٘ ٠ غز ٚأذ ٟ جِ ؼٍ ، ٚج شٌٕ ؼٟ ، ٚج ػٌٛعٞ ، ٚئ ؿذحق ;
      حٌّ عٚٞ ػ ػ ٍٟ ع ظٟ جلله ػ ل حي : ج ٌ سٕ ٚ ظغ ج ١ّ ١ٌ ػ ٍٝ ج شٌ حّي ض ذص ج ٌغز . عٚج جلإ حِ أد ضّ
      ، ٚأذ ٛ صجٚص . ٚ ظ٘ج ٠ صٕغف ئ ٌٝ ؿ سٕ ج رٌٕٟ ص ٍٝ جلله ػ ١ٍ ٚ ؿ ٚلأ ل ٛي طو غ حٔ ج صٌذحذ س .
      It is inconceivable that Sufyan Thawri (RA) had an authentic narration of placing the hands upon the chest and yet chose to disregard it and practised placing the hands beneath the navel!
      Specific Hadeeth No 2 about placing hands upon the chest:
      Sayyiduna Hulb (ra) relates, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) turn from both his right and left and I also saw him place this upon his chest.' Yahya (one of the narrators) described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint. (Ahmad 21460.)
      Allamah Hashim Sindhi says in Dirham al Surrah p. 113 that both Simak bin Harb and Qabeesah (two of the narrators of this hadeeth) have been disparaged by some of the ulama of jarh and t'adeel.)
      The above hadeeth contains the words 'upon his chest'. This extra wording is not firmly established or confirmed, because of all the narrators who report this hadeeth from Simak, only one reports this extra wording.
      Observe the following narrations of the same hadeeth without the extra wording of 'upon his chest'.
      1 Abu al Ahwas reports from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would lead us in prayer and would clasp his left hand with his right.
      2 Shareek reports from Simak from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says (towards the end of a longer hadeeth), 'I saw him place one of his hands on the other and I also saw him turn once towards his right and once towards his left.'
      3 Wakee reports from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) place his right hand upon his left in prayer and I also saw him turn away from both his right and left.'
      4 Daruqutni narrates from Abdul Rahman bin Mahdi and Wakee', from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) place his right hand upon his left in prayer.' (Daruqutni 1087)
      The above narrations all clearly show that the wording 'upon his chest' is an unreliable addition on the part of one of the reporters and therefore this particular narration is shaadh.
      Imam Nimawi adds in his al T'aleeq al Hasan (1/145): 'I have a suspicion that the wording of this hadeeth has mistakenly been changed by a writer. The correct words would appear to be "Yadhau hadhihi ala hadhihi", i.e., "he would place this hand upon this hand", and not "hadhihi ala sadrihi", i.e., "this hand upon his chest". Only this wording would be in agreement with the narrators own interpretation of the hadeeth as is stated in the narration "Yahya described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint". This would also tally with all the other narrations of this hadeeth that do not contain the wording "upon the chest", and would also explain why the following authors have not included this narration in their comprehensive books: Haithami in his Majm'a al Zawaid, Suyuti in his Jam' al Jawami, and Ali al Muttaqi in his Kanz alUmmal. And Allah knows best.'
      The author of Awn al M'abud also admits that Yahya's commentary does not fit the wording of the hadeeth.
      Specific Hadeeth No 3 about placing hands upon the chest:
      Taawoos narrates that The Messenger of Allah [salallahu alayhi wa sallam] used to place his right hand over his left, and then clasp them firmly on his chest during prayer. (Abu Dawood 759)
      Imam Nimawi has declared this hadeeth to be weak. (al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/145. Allamah Hashim Sindhi says in Dirham al Surrah p27 that the authenticity of two of its narrators has been disputed: Sulaiman bin Musa and Haitham bin Humaid.)
      This hadith is mursal and its isnad contains Sulaiman bin Musa who has been classified as weak by some scholars. Bukhari claims that he has munkar narrations. Nasai says that he is not strong in Hadeeth. Hafidh says in al Taqreeb, "He is a sadooq and faqeeh. There is some (leen) "weakness" in his hadeeth." Furthermore, Abu Dawood has recorded the same narration in his Maraseel but with a different wording. Instead of "he clasped them firmly on his chest" that narration reads "he entwined the fingers of his hands on his chest. [Maraseel Abi Dawood, p85]
      This hadeeth is also mursal and although mursal narrations are not readily accepted by others, the Hanafi Ulama consider them acceptable as evidence. Therefore, as some have pointed out, this narration is binding on us. However, we say that the saheeh hadith of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr [radiyallahu anhu] narrated by Ibn Abi Shaibah takes precedence and the ahadeeth of Sayyidina Ali (ra) and Siyyiduna Abu Hurairah (ra) are more acceptable to us because they explicitly mention the sunnah being below the navel. Tawoos's words "he would" cannot match the words of the companions "it is sunnah". Also as mentioned earlier the very wording of Tawoos's hadeeth is in dispute. Moreover, Tawoos's mursal narration is opposed to the mursal narrations of Ibrahim al Nakhai and Abu Mijlaz.
      Specific Hadeeth No 4 about placing hands upon the chest:
      Sayyiduna Wail ibn Hujr (ra) narrates, ''I was present with the Prophet [salallahu alahyi wasalam]. He rose, went towards the masjid and entered the mihraab. He raised his hands with takbeer and then placed his right hand over his left upon his chest.'' (Bayhaqi 2335)
      Imam Nimawi says, "Its isnad is extremely weak. Dhahabi has said about Muhammad bin Hujr in Mizaan that he has munkar narrations. Bukhari has said that there is a question about him. [Bukhari often uses this expression to desribe the weakness of a narrator]. Ibn al Turkmani says, "The mother of Abdul Jabbar is the mother of Yahya. I do no know her name or her details (grade of reliability)." Saeed bin Abdul Jabbar is also weak. Dhahabi quotes Nasai in his Mizaan as saying that Saeed bin Abdul Jabbar is not strong. Hafidh ibn Hajar says in Taqreeb, "Saeed bin Abdul Jabbar al Hadhrami al Kufi is weak." [al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/145]
      Specific Hadeeth No 5 about placing hands upon the chest:
      Aqabah bin Sahban reports that Sayyiduna Ali (ra) commenting on the verse [So pray unto thy Lord, and sacrifice] explained, that this means to place the right hand upon the middle of the left upon the chest. (Bayhaqi 2337)
      Ibn al Turkmani says that both the sanad and the text of this narration are mudhtarib. [al Jawhar al Naqiyy 2/46]
      Specific Hadeeth No 6 about placing hands upon the chest:
      Abu al Jawz reports from Sayyiduna ibn Abbas (ra) that he said of the verse [So pray unto thy Lord, and sacrifice]: This means placing the right hand upon the left in prayer, on the chest.(Bayhaqi 2339).
      Allamah Hashim says in Dirham al Surrah p28, "The hadeeth is weak on two accounts: because it is muqati' and also because three of its narrators, Amr, Yahya and Rawh are weak. So this should be considered. Furthermore, the authors of Muheet al Burhani and Majm'a al Bahrain have narrated a marf'u hadetteh from Ibn Abbas [radiyallahu anhu] with the words "It is part of sunnah to place the right hand upon the left below the navel in salah.")
      Imam Nimawi has declared the isnad of this narration to be weak, "Rawh bin al Musayyab is matrook [abandoned]. Ibn Hibban says that Rawh Ibn al Musayyab narrates and ascribes fabricated traditions even to reliable authorities. It is not permissible to narrate from him. Ibn Adiyy says that his narrations are not preserved." [al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/146]
      The sanad also contains a third narrator, Amr bin Malik al Nakri. Ibn al Turkmani writes of him in al Jawhar al Naqiyy saying, "Ibn Adiyy has said that Amr al Nakri is munkar al Hadeeth even when narrating from reliable authorities. He plagiarised narration and Abu Ya'la al Mawsili declared him dhaeef." [al Jawhar al Naqiyy 2/47]
      The correct Tafseer of this verse: Ibn Jareer al Tabari, quoting the tafseer of the ulama which he states is the most correct, writes: "The meaning of this verse is that "Oh Porophet of Allah! Make all your prayers sincere for the sake of your Lord, whithout any share for other false gods and deities, and also make all your sacrifices solely for the sake of your Lord without any share for other idols." [Ibn Jareer al Tabari in his Tafseer 12/724]
      Hadeeth No 7 with implied meanings of placing hands upon the chest:
      Ibn Jarir al Dhabbiyy reports from his father who said, "I saw Ali (ra) clasping his left hand with his right on the wrist, above the navel.'' (Abu Dawood 757)
      Imam Nimawi writes in Aathar al Sunan that the additional wording "above the navel" is not authentic and established. The same hadeeth has been narrated in al Safinah al Jaraidiyyah on the authority of Muslim bin Ibrahim, one of Bukhari's shaykhs, in al Musannaf of Abu Bakr bin Abi Shaibah, [Ibn Abi Shaibah 3940 & 8722] and in Bukhari [in the chapters relating to actions in salah] in muallaq, abridged form. However, none of these narrations contain the extra wording "above the navel". The only narrator to include this additional wording in the hadeeth is Abu Badr Shuja bin al Walid narrating from Abu Talut Abdus Salam bin Abi Hazim. Shuja' has been considered reliable by some, but Abu Hatim says of him as quoted by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in his introduction [to Fath al Bari], and by Dhahabi in his Mizan that "He is weak in hadeeth; a shaykh who is not strong and therefore, his word cannot be acceptable in evidence, although he has saheeh ahadeeth from Muhammad bin Amr bin Alqamah." Hafidh Ibn Hajar also says in his Taqreeb, "He is pious, sudooq and he has mistakes." [al T'aleeq al Hasan 1/146]
      Imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (RA) forbids placing hands upon the chest in Salah and declares placing them beneath the Navel as Sunnah:
      Firstly, the noble Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (RA) states that the additional words of "On His Chest" are narrated by none other then Mua'mmil Ibn Ismail (RA) as discussed here and the narration is in fact weak.
      Secondly, he also states that the correct Sunnah is to place the hands in Salah beneath the Navel. ػ ٍٝ ج صٌضع ِٕٟٙ ػ ذ ح ٌ سٕ ٚ ٟ٘: "ج ٌٕٟٙ ػ ج طٌ ى ف ١غ"
      Category: Acts of Worship
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