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THE FALL OF ATHEISM

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  • akakatrtr
    There are significant turning points in the history of mankind. We are now living in one of them. Some call it globalization and some say that this is the
    Message 1 of 1 , Nov 6, 2002
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      There are significant turning points in the history of mankind. We
      are now living in one of them. Some call it globalization and some
      say that this is the genesis of the "information age." These are
      true, but there is yet a more important concept than these. Although
      some are unaware of it, great advances have been made in science and
      philosophy in the last 20-25 years. Atheism, which has held sway
      over the world of science and philosophy since the 19th century is
      now collapsing in an inevitable way.

      Of course, atheism, the idea of rejecting God's existence, has
      always existed from ancient times. But the rise of this idea
      actually began in the 18th century in Europe with the spread and
      political effect of the philosophy of some anti-religious thinkers.
      Materialists such as Diderot and Baron d'Holbach proposed that the
      universe was a conglomeration of matter that had existed forever and
      that nothing else existed besides matter. In the 19th century,
      atheism spread even farther. Thinkers such as Marx, Engels,
      Nietsche, Durkheim or Freud applied atheist thinking to different
      fields of science and philosophy.

      The greatest support for atheism came from Charles Darwin who
      rejected the idea of creation and proposed the theory of evolution
      to counter it. Darwinism gave a supposedly scientific answer to the
      question that had baffled atheists for centuries: "How did human
      beings and living things come to be?" This theory convinced a great
      many people of its claim that there was a mechanism in nature that
      animated lifeless matter and produced millions of different living
      species from it.

      Towards the end of the 19th century, atheists formulated a world
      view that they thought explained everything; they denied that the
      universe was created saying that it had no beginning but had existed
      forever. They claimed that the universe had no purpose but that its
      order and balance were the result of chance; they believed that the
      question of how human beings and other living things came into being
      was answered by Darwinism. They believed that Marx or Durkheim had
      explained history and sociology, and that Freud had explained
      psychology on the basis of atheist assumptions.

      However, these views were later invalidated in the 20th century by
      scientific, political and social developments. Many and various
      discoveries in the fields of astronomy, biology, psychology and
      social sciences have nullified the bases of all atheist
      suppositions.

      In his book, God: The Evidence, The Reconciliation of Faith and
      Reason in a Postsecular World, the American scholar Patrick Glynn
      from the George Washington University writes:

      The past two decades of research have overturned nearly all the
      important assumptions and predictions of an earlier generation of
      modern secular and atheist thinkers relating to the issue of God.
      Modern thinkers assumed that science would reveal the universe to be
      ever more random and mechanical; instead it has discovered
      unexpected new layers of intricate order that bespeak an almost
      unimaginably vast master design. Modern psychologists predicted that
      religion would be exposed as a neurosis and outgrown; instead,
      religious commitment has been shown empirically to be a vital
      component of basic mental health…

      Few people seem to realize this, but by now it should be clear: Over
      the course of a century in the great debate between science and
      faith, the tables have completely turned. In the wake of Darwin,
      atheists and agnostics like Huxley and Russell could point to what
      appeared to be a solid body of testable theory purportedly showing
      life to be accidental and the universe radically contingent. Many
      scientists and intellectuals continue to cleave to this worldview.
      But they are increasingly pressed to almost absurd lengths to defend
      it. Today the concrete data point strongly in the direction of the
      God hypothesis.1

      Science, which has been presented as the pillar of
      atheist/materialist philosophy, turns out to be the opposite. As
      another writer puts it, "The strict materialism that excludes all
      purpose, choice and spirituality from the world simply cannot
      account for the data pour in from labs and observatories."2

      In this article, we will briefly analyze the conclusions arrived at
      by different branches of science on this issue and examine what the
      forthcoming "post-atheist" period will bring to humanity.




      Cosmology: The Collapse of the Concept of An Eternal Universe And
      the Discovery of Creation

      The first blow to atheism from science in the 20th century was in
      the field of cosmology. The idea that the universe had existed
      forever was discounted and it was discovered that it had a
      beginning; in other words, it was scientifically proved that it was
      created from nothing.

      This idea of an eternal universe came to the Western world along
      with materialist philosophy. This philosophy, developed in ancient
      Greece, stated that nothing else exists besides matter and that the
      universe comes from eternity and goes to eternity. In the Middle
      Ages when the Church dominated Western thought, materialism was
      forgotten. However in the modern period, Western scientists and
      philosophers became consumed by a curiosity about these ancient
      Greek origins and revived an interest in materialism.



      The first person in the modern age to propose a materialist
      understanding of the universe was the renowned German philosopher
      Immanuel Kant—even though he has not a materialist in the
      philosophical sense of the word. Kant proposed that the universe was
      eternal and that every possibility could be realized only within
      this eternity. With the coming of the 19th century, it became widely
      accepted that the universe had no beginning, and that there was no
      moment of creation. Then, this idea, adopted passionately by
      dialectical materialists such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, came
      into the 20th century.

      This idea has always been compatible with atheism. This is because
      to accept that the universe had a beginning would mean that God
      created it and the only way to counter this idea was to claim that
      the universe was eternal, even though this claim had no basis on
      science. A dogged proponent of this claim was Georges Politzer who
      became widely known as a supporter of materialism and Marxism in the
      first half of the 20th century through his book Principes
      Fondamentaux de Philosophie (The Fundamental Principles of
      Philosophy). Assuming the validity of the model of an eternal
      universe, Politzer opposed the idea of a creation:

      The universe was not a created object, if it were, then it would
      have to be created instantaneously by God and brought into existence
      from nothing. To admit creation, one has to admit, in the first
      place, the existence of a moment when the universe did not exist,
      and that something came out of nothingness. This is something to
      which science can not accede.3

      By supporting the idea of an eternal universe against that of
      creation, Politzer thought that science was on his side. However,
      very soon, the fact that Politzer alluded to by his words, "if it is
      so, we must accept the existence of a creator", that is, that the
      universe had a beginning, was proven.

      This proof came as a result of the "Big Bang" theory, perhaps the
      most important concept of 20th century astronomy.

      The Big Bang theory was formulated after a series of discoveries. In
      1929, the American astronomer, Edwin Hubble, noticed that the
      galaxies of the universe were continually moving away from one
      another and that the universe was expanding. If the flow of time in
      an expanding universe were reversed, then it emerged that the whole
      universe must have come from a single point. Astronomers assessing
      the validity of Hubble's discovery were faced with the fact that
      this single point was a "metaphysical" state of reality in which
      there was an infinite gravitational attraction with no mass. Matter
      and time came into being by the explosion of this mass-less point.
      In other words, the universe was created from nothing.



      On the one hand, those astronomers who are determined to cling to
      materialist philosophy with its basic idea of an eternal universe,
      have attempted to hold out against the Big Bang theory and maintain
      the idea of an eternal universe. The reason for this effort can be
      seen in the words of Arthur Eddington, a renowned materialist
      physicist, who said, "Philosophically, the notion of an abrupt
      beginning to the present order of Nature is repugnant to me".4 But
      despite the fact that the Big Bang theory is repugnant to
      materialists, this theory has continued to be corroborated by
      concrete scientific discoveries. In their observations made in the
      1960's, two scientists, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, detected the
      radioactive remains of the explosion (cosmic background radiation).
      These observations were verified in the 1990's by the COBE (Cosmic
      Background Explorer) satellite.

      In the face of all these facts, atheists have been squeezed into a
      corner. Anthony Flew, an atheist professor of philosophy at the
      University of Reading and the author of Atheistic Humanism, makes
      this interesting confession:

      Notoriously, confession is good for the soul. I will therefore begin
      by confessing that the Stratonician atheist has to be embarrassed by
      the contemporary cosmological consensus. For it seems that the
      cosmologists are providing a scientific proof of what St. Thomas
      contended could not be proved philosophically; namely, that the
      universe had a beginning. So long as the universe can be comfortably
      thought of as being not only without end but also without beginning,
      it remains easy to urge that its brute existence, and whatever are
      found to be its most fundamental features, should be accepted as the
      explanatory ultimates. Although I believe that it remains still
      correct, it certainly is neither easy nor comfortable to maintain
      this position in the face of the Big Bang story 5

      An example of the atheist reaction to the Big Bang theory can be
      seen in an article written in 1989 by John Maddox, editor of Nature,
      one of the best-known materialist-scientific journals.

      In that article, called "Down With the Big Bang," Maddox wrote that
      the Big Bang is "philosophically unacceptable,"
      because "creationists and those of similar persuasions… have ample
      justification in the doctrine of the Big Bang." He also predicted
      that the Big Bang "is unlikely to survive the decade ahead." 6
      However, despite Maddox' hopes, Big Bang has gained credence and
      many discoveries have been made that prove the creation of the
      universe.

      Some materialists have a relatively logical view of this matter. For
      example, the English materialist physicist, H.P. Lipson, unwillingly
      accepts the scientific fact of creation. He writes:

      I think …that we must…admit that the only acceptable explanation is
      creation. I know that this is anathema to physicists, as indeed it
      is to me, but we must not reject that we do not like if the
      experimental evidence supports it. 7

      Thus, the fact arrived at finally by modern astronomy is this: time
      and matter were brought into being by an eternally powerful Creator
      independent of both of them. The eternal power that created the
      universe in which we live is God who is the possessor of infinite
      might, knowledge and wisdom.




      Physics and Astronomy: The Collapse of the Idea of a Random Universe
      and The Discovery of the Anthropic Principle

      A second atheist dogma rendered invalid in the 20th century by
      discoveries in astronomy is the idea of a random universe. The view
      that the matter in the universe, the heavenly bodies and the laws
      that determine the relationships among them has no purpose but is
      the result of chance, has been dramatically discounted.

      For the first time since the 1970's, scientists have begun to
      recognize the fact that the whole physical balance of the universe
      is adjusted delicately in favor of human life. With the advance of
      research, it has been discovered that the physical, chemical and
      biological laws of the universe, basic forces such as gravity and
      electro-magnetism, the structure of atoms and elements are all
      ordered exactly as they have to be for human life. Western
      scientists have called this extraordinary design the "anthropic
      principle". That is, every aspect of the universe is designed with a
      view to human life.

      We may summarize the basics of the anthropic principle as follows:

      The speed of the first expansion of the universe (the force of the
      Big Bang explosion) was exactly the velocity that it had to be.
      According to scientists' calculations, if the expansion rate had
      differed from its actual value by more than one part in a billion
      billion, then the universe would either have recollapsed before it
      ever reached its present size or else have splattered in every
      direction in a way never to unite again. To put it another way, even
      at the first moment of the universe's existence there was a fine
      calculation of the accuracy of a billion billionth.

      The four physical forces in the universe (gravitational force, weak
      nuclear force, strong nuclear force, and electromagnetic force) are
      all at the necessary levels for an ordered universe to emerge and
      for life to exist. Even the tiniest variations in these forces (for
      example, one in 1039, or one in 1028; that is—crudely calculated—one
      in a billion billion billion billion), the universe would either be
      composed only of radiation or of no other element besides hydrogen.

      There are many other delicate adjustments that make the earth ideal
      for human life: the size of the sun, its distance from the earth,
      the unique physical and chemical properties of water, the wavelength
      of the sun's rays, the way that the earth's atmosphere contains the
      gases necessary to allow respiration, or the Earth's magnetic field
      being ideally suited to human life. (For more information on this
      topic, see Harun Yahya, The Creation of the Universe, Al-Attique
      Publishers, 2001)

      This delicate balance is one of the most striking discoveries of
      modern astrophysics. The wellknown astronomer, Paul Davies, writes
      in the last paragraph of his book The Cosmic Blueprint, "The
      impression of Design is overwhelming."8

      In an article in the journal Nature, the astrophysicist W. Press
      writes, "there is a grand design in the Universe that favours the
      development of intelligent life."9

      The interesting thing about this is that the majority of the
      scientists that have made these discoveries were of the materialist
      point of view and came to this conclusion unwillingly. They did not
      undertake their scientific investigations hoping to find a proof for
      God's existence. But most of them, if not all of them, despite their
      unwillingness, arrived at this conclusion as the only explanation
      for the extraordinary design of the universe.

      In his book, The Symbiotic Universe the American astronomer, George
      Greenstein, acknowledges this fact:

      How could this possibly have come to pass [that the laws of physics
      conform themselves to life]? …As we survey all the evidence, the
      thought insistently arises that some supernatural agency—or, rather
      Agency—must be involved. Is it possible that suddenly, without
      intending to, we have stumbled upon scientific proof of the
      existence of a Supreme Being? Was it God who stepped in and so
      providentially crafted the cosmos for our benefit?10

      By beginning his question with "Is it possible", Greenstein, an
      atheist, tries to ignore that plain fact that has confronted him.
      But many scientists who have approached the question without
      prejudice acknowledge that the universe has been created especially
      for human life. Materialism is now being viewed as an erroneous
      belief outside the realm of science. The American geneticist, Robert
      Griffiths, acknowledges this fact when he says, "If we need an
      atheist for a debate, I go to the philosophy department. The physics
      department isn't much use."11

      In his book Nature's Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose
      in the Universe, which examines how physical, chemical and
      biological laws are amazingly calculated in an "ideal" way with a
      view to the requirements of human life, the well-known molecular
      biologist, Michael Denton writes:

      The new picture that has emerged in twentieth-century astronomy
      presents a dramatic challenge to the presumption which has prevalent
      within scientific circles during most of the past four centuries:
      that life is a peripheral and purely contingent phenomenon in the
      cosmic scheme.12

      In short, the idea of a random universe, perhaps atheism's most
      basic pillar, has been proved invalid. Scientists now openly speak
      of the collapse of materialism.13 The supposition whose falsity God
      reveals in the Qur'an, "We did not create heaven and earth and
      everything between them to no purpose. That is the opinion of those
      who disbelieve…" (Qur'an, 38: 27) was shown to be invalid by science
      in the 1970's.




      Quantum Physics and the Discovery of the Divine Wisdom


      One of the areas of science that shatters the materialist myth and
      gives positive evidence for theism is quantum physics.

      Quantum physics deals with the tiniest particles of matter, what is
      called the sub-atomic realm. In school everyone learns that matter
      is composed of atoms. Atoms are made up of a nucleus and several
      electrons spinning around it. One strange fact is that all these
      particles take up only some 0.0001 percent of the atoms. In other
      words, an atom is something that is 99.9999 percent "empty."

      An even more interesting fact is that when the nuclei and electrons
      are further examined, it has been realised that these are made up of
      much smaller particles called "quarks," and that these quarks are
      not particles in the physical sense, but simply energy. This
      discovery has broken the classical distinction between matter and
      energy. It now appears that in the material universe, only energy
      exists. What we call matter is just "frozen energy."

      There is a still more intriguing fact: The quarks, those energy
      packets, act in such a way that they maybe described as "conscious."
      Physicist Freeman Dyson, on his acceptance of the Templeton Prize,
      stated that:

      Atoms are weird stuff, behaving like active agents rather than inert
      substances. They make unpredictable choices between alternative
      possibilities according to the laws of quantum mechanics. It appears
      that mind, as manifested by the capacity to make choices, is to some
      extent inherent in every atom.14

      What this means is that there is information behind matter.
      Information that precedes the material realm. Gerald Schroeder, an
      MIT-trained scientist who has worked in both physics and biology and
      author of the famous book The Science of God, makes a number of
      important comments on this subject. In his more recent book, The
      Hidden Face of God: Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth (2001),
      Schroeder explains that quantum physics—along with other branches of
      science—is the tool for discovering a universal wisdom that lies
      behind the material world. As he puts it:

      It took humanity millennia before an Einstein discovered that, as
      bizarre as it may seem, the basis of matter is energy, that matter
      is actually condensed energy. It may take a while longer for us to
      discover that there is some non-thing even more fundamental than
      energy that forms the basis of energy, which in turn forms the basis
      of matter.15

      John Archibald, professor of physics at Princeton University and
      recipient of the Einstein Award, explained the same fact when he
      said that the "bit" (the binary digit) of information gives rise to
      the "it," the substance of matter.16 According to Schroeder this has
      a "profound meaning":

      The matter/energy relationships, the quantum wave functions, have
      profound meaning. Science may be approaching the realization that
      the entire universe is an expression of information, wisdom, an
      idea, just as atoms are tangible expressions of something as
      ethereal as energy.17

      This wisdom is such an omniscient thing that covers the whole
      universe:

      A single consciousness, a universal wisdom, pervades the universe.
      The discoveries of science, those that search the quantum nature of
      subatomic matter, have moved us to the brink of a startling
      realization: all existence is the expression of this wisdom. In the
      laboratories we experience it as information that first physically
      articulated as energy and then condensed into the form of matter.
      Every particle, every being, from atom to human, appears to
      represent a level of information, of wisdom.18

      This means that the material universe is not a purposeless and
      chaotic heap of atoms, as the atheist/materialist dogma assumes, but
      is instead a manifestation of a wisdom which existed before the
      universe and which has absolute sovereignty over everything that
      exists. In Schroeder's words, it is "as if a metaphysical substrate
      was impressed upon the physical". 19

      This discovery shatters the whole materialist myth and reveals that
      the material universe we see is just a shadow of a transcendent
      Absolute Being. Thus, as Schroeder explains, quantum physics has
      become the point where science and theology meet:

      The age-old theological view of the universe is that all existence
      is the manifestation of a transcendent wisdom, with a universal
      consciousness being its manifestation. If I substitute the word
      information for wisdom, theology begins to sound like quantum
      physics. We may be witnessing the scientific confluence of the
      physical with the spiritual. 20

      Quantum is really the point where science and theology meet. The
      fact that the whole universe is pervaded by a wisdom is a secret
      that was revealed in the Qur'an 14 centuries ago. One verse reads:

      Your god is God alone, there is no god but Him. He encompasses all
      things in His knowledge. (Qur'an, 20:98)




      The Natural Sciences: The Collapse of Darwinism and The Triumph of
      Intelligent Design



      As we stated at the beginning, one of the main supports for the rise
      of atheism to its zenith in the 19th century was Darwin's theory of
      evolution. With its assertion that the origin of human beings and
      all other living things lay in unconscious natural mechanisms,
      Darwinism gave atheists the opportunity they had been seeking for
      centuries. Therefore, Darwin's theory had been adopted by the most
      passionate atheists of the time, and atheist thinkers such as Marx
      and Engels elucidated this theory as the basis of their philosophy.
      Since that time, the relationship between Darwinism and atheism has
      continued.

      But, at the same time, this greatest support for atheism is the
      dogma that has received the greatest blow from scientific
      discoveries in the 20th century. The discoveries by various branches
      of science such as paleontology, biochemistry, anatomy and genetics
      have shattered the theory of evolution from various aspects. (See
      Harun Yahya, Evolution Deceit, 2000). We have dealt with this fact
      in much more detail in various other books and publications, but we
      may summarize it here as follows:

      Paleontology: Darwin's theory rests on the assumption that all
      species come from one single common ancestor and that they diverged
      from one another over a long period of time by small gradual
      changes. It is supposed that the proofs for this will be discovered
      in the fossil record, the petrified remains of living things. But
      fossil research conducted in the course of the 20th century has
      presented a totally different picture. The fossil of even a single
      undoubted intermediate species that would substantiate the belief in
      the gradual evolution of species has not been found. Moreover, every
      taxon appears suddenly in the fossil record and no trace has been
      found of any previous ancestors. The phenomenon known as the
      Cambrian Explosion is especially interesting. In this early
      geological period, nearly all of the phyla (major groups with
      significantly different body plans) of the animal kingdom suddenly
      appeared. This sudden emergence of many different categories of
      living things with totally different body structures and extremely
      complex organs and systems, including mollusks, arthropods,
      echinoderms and (as recently discovered) even vertebrates, is a
      major blow to Darwinism. For, as evolutionists also agree, the
      sudden appearance of a taxon implies supernatural design and this
      means creation.

      Biological Observations: In elaborating his theory, Darwin relied on
      examples of how animal breeders produced a different variety of dogs
      or horses. He extrapolated the limited changes he observed in these
      cases to the whole of the natural world and proposed that every
      living thing could have come to be in this way from a common
      ancestor. But Darwin made this claim in the 19th century when the
      level of scientific sophistication was low. In the 20th century
      things have changed greatly. Decades of observation and
      experimentation on various species of animals have shown that
      variation in living things has never gone beyond certain genetic
      boundary. Darwin's assertions, like "I can see no difficulty in a
      race of bears being rendered, by natural selection, more and more
      aquatic in their habits, with larger and larger mouths, till a
      creature was produced as monstrous as a whale."21 actually
      demonstrates his great ignorance. On the other hand, observations
      and experiments have shown that mutations defined by Neo- Darwinism
      as an evolutionary mechanism add no new genetic information to
      living creatures.

      The Origin of Life: Darwin spoke about a common ancestor but he
      never mentioned how this first common ancestor came to be. His only
      conjecture was that the first cell could have formed as a result of
      random chemical reactions "in some small warm little pond".22 But
      evolutionary biochemists who undertook to close this hole in
      Darwinism met with frustration. All observations and experiments
      showed that it was, in a word, impossible for a living cell to arise
      within inanimate matter by random chemical reactions. Even the
      English atheist Nobel Prize-winner Fred Hoyle expressed that such a
      scenario "is comparable with the chance that a tornado sweeping
      through a junk-yard might assemble a Boeing 747 from the materials
      therein."23

      Intelligent Design: Scientists studying cells, the molecules that
      compose the cells, their remarkable organization within the body and
      the delicate order and plan in the organs are faced with proof of
      the fact that evolutionists strongly wish to reject: The world of
      living things is permeated by designs too complex to be found in any
      technological equipment. Intricate examples of design, including our
      eyes that are too superior to be compared to any camera, the wings
      of birds that have inspired flight technology, the complexly
      integrated system of the cells of living things and the remarkable
      information stored in DNA, have vitiated the theory of evolution
      which regards living things as the product of blind chance.

      All these facts have squeezed Darwinism into a corner by the end of
      the 20th century. Today, in the United States and other Western
      countries, the theory of intelligent design is gaining
      everincreasing acceptance among scientists. Those who defend the
      idea of intelligent design say that Darwinism has been a great error
      in the history of science and that it came to be as the result of
      materialist philosophy's being imposed on the scientific paradigm.
      Scientific discoveries show that there is a design in living things
      which proves creation. In short, science proves once more that God
      created all living things.




      Psychology: The Collapse of Freudianism and the Acceptance of Faith

      The representative of the 19th century atheist dogma in the field of
      psychology was the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. Freud
      proposed a psychological theory which rejected the existence of the
      soul and tried to explain the whole spiritual world of human beings
      in terms of sexual and similar hedonistic motivations. But Freud's
      greatest assault was against religion.



      In his book The Future of an Illusion published in 1927, he proposed
      that religious faith was a kind of mental illness (neurosis) and
      that, as human beings progressed, religious faith would completely
      disappear. Due to the primitive scientific conditions of the time,
      the theory was proposed without the requisite research and
      investigation, and with no scholarly literature or possibility of
      comparison, and therefore, its claims were extremely deficient.
      Indeed, if Freud had the possibility of evaluating his propositions
      today, he would himself be surprised by the logical deficiency of
      his claims and he would be the first to criticize such senseless
      presuppositions.

      After Freud, psychology developed on an atheist foundation. Not only
      Freud, but the founders of other schools of psychology in the 20th
      century were passionate atheists. Two of these were B.F. Skinner,
      the founder of the behaviorist school and Albert Ellis, founder of
      rational emotive therapy. The world of psychology ended up by
      becoming the forum for atheism. A 1972 poll among the members of the
      American Psychology Association revealed that only 1.1 percent of
      psychologists in the country had any religious beliefs.24

      But most psychologists who fell into this great deception were
      undone by their own psychological investigations. It became known
      that the basic suppositions of Freudianism had almost no scientific
      support and, moreover, that religion was not a mental illness as
      Freud and some other psychological theorists declared, but a basic
      element of mental health. Patrick Glynn summarizes these important
      developments:

      Yet the last quarter of the twentieth century has not been kind to
      the psychoanalytic vision. Most significant has been the exposure of
      Freud's views of religion as entirely fallacious. Ironically enough,
      scientific research in psychology over the past twenty-five years
      has demonstrated that, far from being a neurosis or source of
      neuroses as Freud and his disciples claimed, religious belief is one
      of the most consistent correlates of overall mental health and
      happiness. Study after study has shown a powerful relationship
      between religious belief and practice, on the one hand, and healthy
      behaviors with regard to such problems as suicide, alcohol and drug
      abuse, divorce, depression, even, perhaps surprisingly, levels of
      sexual satisfaction in marriage, on the other. In short, the
      empirical data run exactly contrary to the supposedly "scientific"
      consensus of the psychotherapeutic profession.25

      Finally, as Glynn says, "modern psychology at the close of the
      twentieth century seems to be reacquainting itself with religion"26
      and "a purely secular view of human mental life has been shown to
      fail not just at the theoretical, but also at the practical, level.27

      In other words, atheism has been routed also on the field of
      psychology.




      Medicine: The Discovery of "How Hearts Find Peace"

      Another branch of science that was affected by the collapse of
      atheist suppositions was medicine.

      According to results compiled by David B. Larson and his team at the
      National Institute for Healthcare Research, a comparison among
      Americans in relation to church attendance yielded very interesting
      results. Risk of arteriosclerotic heart disease for men who attended
      church frequently was just 60 percent of that for men who were
      infrequent church attenders. Among women, suicide was twice as high
      among infrequent as among frequent church attenders; smokers who
      ranked religion as very important in their lives were over seven
      times less likely to have normal diastolic pressure readings than
      were those who did not.28

      Secular psychologists generally explain such phenomena as having a
      psychological cause. In this sense, faith raises a person's morale
      and contributes to his well-being. There may be some truth in this
      explanation, but if we look more closely we see something much more
      dramatic. Belief in God is much stronger than any other influence on
      the morale. In comprehensive research on the relationship between
      religious belief and physical health, Dr. Herbert Benson of the
      Harvard Medical School came up with some interesting results.
      Although he did not have any religious faith, Benson arrived at the
      result that faith in God and worship had a much more positive effect
      on human health than could be observed in anything else. Benson
      concludes that he has "found that faith quiets the mind like no
      other form of belief."29

      Why is there such a special relation between faith and human spirit
      and body? The result arrived at by Benson, who is a secular
      researcher, was, as he put it, that the human mind and body
      are "wired for God."30

      This fact, that the medical world is slowly beginning to notice, is
      a secret revealed in the Qur'an with the verse, "Only in the
      remembrance of God can the heart find peace." (Qur'an, 13:28) The
      reason why those who believe in God, pray to Him and trust in Him
      are physically and mentally more healthy than others is that they
      behave in harmony with their nature. Philosophical systems opposed
      to human nature always bring pain, sorrow, anxiety and depression
      upon people.

      The basic source of the peace experienced by a religious person is
      that he acts in order to gain God's approval. In other words, this
      peace is the natural result of a person's listening to the voice of
      his conscience. A person does not live the morality of religion
      simply "to be more at peace" or "to be healthier"; a person who acts
      with this intention cannot find peace in its true sense. God well
      knows that what a person stores in his heart or what he reveals. A
      person experiences peace of mind only by being sincere and
      attempting to gain God's approval. God commands:

      So set your face firmly towards the [true] religion, as a pure
      natural believer, God's natural pattern on which He made mankind.
      There is no changing God's creation. That is the true religion—but
      most people do not know it. (Qur'an, 30:30)

      In the light of the discoveries that we have briefly indicated
      above, modern medicine is starting to become cognizant of this
      truth. As Patrick Glynn says, "contemporary medicine is clearly
      moving in the direction of acknowledging dimensions of healing
      beyond the purely material".31




      Society: The Fall of Communism, Fascism and the Hippie Dream

      The collapse of atheism in the 20th century did not occur only in
      the fields of astrophysics, biology, psychology and medicine; it
      happened also in politics and social morality.

      Communism may be considered the most important political result of
      19th century atheism. The founders of this ideology, Marx, Engels,
      Lenin, Trotsky or Mao, all adopted atheism as a basic principle. A
      primary goal of all communist regimes was to get society to adopt
      atheism and to destroy religious belief. Stalin's Russia, Red China,
      Cambodia, Albania and some Eastern block countries applied immense
      pressure on religious people to the point of committing mass murder.

      Yet, amazingly, at the end of the 1980s this bloody atheist system
      collapsed. When we examine the reasons for this dramatic fall, we
      see that what collapsed was actually atheism. Patrick Glynn writes:

      To be sure, secular historians would say that the greatest mistake
      of Communism was to attempt to defy the laws of economics. But other
      laws, too, came into play… Moreover, as historians penetrate the
      circumstances of the Communist collapse, it is becoming clearer that
      the Soviet elite was itself in the throes of an atheistic "crisis of
      faith". Having lived under an atheistic ideology—one that consisted
      of lies and that was based on a "Big Lie"— the Soviet system
      suffered a radical demoralization, in every sense of that term.
      People, including the ruling elite, lost all sense of morality and
      all sense of hope.32

      An interesting indication of the Soviet system's great "crisis of
      faith" was President Mihail Gorbachev's attempts of reform. Since
      the time that he assumed the presidency, Gorbachev was interested in
      moral problems as well as economic reforms. For example, one of the
      first things he did was to initiate a campaign against alcoholism.
      In order to raise the morale of society, for a long time he used
      Marxist-Leninist terminology but he saw that this was of no use.



      Then, in the later years of the regime, he even began to mention God
      in some of his speeches, even though he himself was an atheist.
      Naturally, these insincere words of faith were of no use and the
      crisis of faith in Soviet society continued to worsen. The result
      was the collapse of the gigantic Soviet empire.The 20th century
      documented not only the fall of communism, but also that of another
      fruit of 19th century antireligious philosophy—fascism. Fascism is
      the outcome of a philosophy which may be called a mixture of atheism
      and paganism and which is intensely hostile to theistic religions.
      Friedrich Nietzsche, who may be called the father of fascism,
      extolled the morality of barbarous idolatrous societies, attacked
      Christianity and other monotheistic religions and even called
      himself the "Antichrist." Nietzsche's disciple, Martin Heidegger,
      was an avid Nazi supporter and the ideas of these two atheist
      thinkers gave impetus to the terrifying savagery of Nazi Germany.
      (The Holocaust, one of the greatest act of evil in human history,
      was the result of Nazi anti-Semitism, an ideology that hated Jews
      and the monotheistic faith that has been the cornerstone of Judaism—
      and also Islam.) The Second World War, that caused the death of 55
      million people, is another example of the calamity that atheist
      ideologies like fascism and communism have brought upon humanity.

      At this point, we must recall another atheist ideology—Social
      Darwinism—which was among the causes for the outbreak of both the
      First and the Second World Wars. In his book entitled Europe Since
      1870, Harvard history professor James Joll states that behind each
      of the two world wars lay the philosophical views of Social
      Darwinist European leaders who believed in the myth that war was a
      biological necessity and that nations developed through conflict.33



      Another social consequence of atheism in the 20th century appeared
      in Western democracies. In the present day there is a tendency to
      regard the West as the "Christian world." However, since the 19th,
      century, a quickly growing atheist culture has held sway with
      Christian culture, and today there is a conflict between these two
      cultures in what we call Western civilization. And this atheist
      element has been the true cause of western imperialism, moral
      degeneration, despotism and other negative manifestations.

      In his book God: The Evidence, the American writer Patrick Glynn
      draws attention to this matter and, in order to compare the God-
      fearing and atheist elements in the West, he takes the examples of
      the American and French Revolutions. The American Revolution was
      carried out by believers; American Declaration of Independence
      states that all men "are endowed by their Creator with certain
      unalienable rights". Since the French Revolution was the work of
      atheists, the French Declaration of Human Rights was very different,
      with no reference to God and full of atheist and neo-pagan notions.

      The actual results of the two revolutions were quite different: in
      the American model, a peaceful, tolerant environment was created
      that respected religion and religious belief; in France the fierce
      hostility to religion drowned the country in blood and unleashed a
      savagery such as had never been seen before. As Glynn says, "there
      is an interesting historical correlation between atheism, on the one
      hand, and moral and political catastrophe, on the other hand."34

      Glynn notes that attempts to turn America into an atheist country
      have also caused harm to society. The fact that the sexual
      revolution (for example) that spread in the 60's and 70's caused
      immense social damage is accepted even by secular historians.35



      The hippie movement was a demonstration of this social damage. The
      hippies believed that they could find spiritual emancipation through
      secular humanist philosophy and by such things as unlimited drugs
      and sex. These young people who poured onto the streets with
      romantic songs—like John Lennon's Imagine in which he spoke of a
      world "with no countries, and no religion too"—were actually
      undergoing a mass deception.

      In fact, a world without religion actually brought them to an
      unhappy end. The hippy leaders of the 1960s either killed themselves
      or died from drug-induced comas in the early 1970s. Many other young
      hippies shared a similar fate.

      Those young people of the same generation who turned to violence
      found themselves on the receiving end of violence. The 1968
      generation, who turned their backs on God and religion and imagined
      they could find salvation in such concepts as revolution or selfish
      Epicureanism, ruined both themselves and their own societies.




      The Dawn of the Post-Atheist World

      The facts that we have briefly summarized to this point shows
      clearly that atheism is undergoing an inevitable collapse. In other
      words, humanity is — and will be — turning towards God. The truth of
      this assertion is not limited only to the scientific and political
      areas that we have written about here. From prominent statesmen to
      movie stars and pop artists, those who influence opinion in the West
      are much more religious than they used to be. There are many people
      who have seen the truth and come to believe in God after having
      lived for years as atheists. (Patrick Glynn from whose book we have
      quoted is one of these ex-atheists).

      The fact that the developments which have contributed to this result
      began in the same period, that is from the second half of the 1970s,
      is quite interesting. The anthropic principle first appeared in the
      1970s. Scientific criticism of Darwinism started to be loudly voiced
      at that same time. The turning point against the atheist dogma of
      Freud was a book entitled The Road Less Traveled published in 1978
      by Scott Peck. For this reason, Glynn, in the 1997 edition of his
      book writes that "over the past twenty years, a significant body of
      evidence has emerged, shattering the foundations of the long-
      dominant modern secular worldview."36

      Surely, the fact that the atheist world-view has been shaken means
      that another world-view prevails, which is belief in God. Since the
      end of the 1970's, (or, from the beginning of the 14th century
      according to the Muslim calendar) the world has seen a rise in
      religious values. Like other social processes, this does not happen
      in a day and the majority of people may not notice it because it has
      been developing over a long period of time. However, those who
      evaluate the development a little more carefully see that the world
      is at a major turning point in the realm of ideas.

      Secular historians try to explain this process according to their
      own principles but just as they are in deep error with regard to the
      existence of God, so they are greatly mistaken about the course of
      history. In fact, as the following verse reveals, history moves as
      God as determined: "...You will not find any changing in the pattern
      of God. You will not find any alteration in the pattern of God."
      (Qur'an, 35: 43) It follows, then, that history has a purpose and
      unfolds as God has commanded. And God's command is the perfection of
      His light:

      They desire to extinguish God's Light with their mouths. But God
      refuses to do other than perfect His Light, even though the
      disbelievers detest it. (Qur'an, 9: 32)

      This verse means that God has sent down His light upon humanity
      through the religion that He has revealed. Those who do not believe
      want to extinguish this light by their "mouths"— intimations,
      propaganda and philosophies, but God will finally perfect His light
      and give dominion to religious values on earth.

      This may be the "turning point in history" mentioned at the
      beginning of this article as also indicated by the evidence we have
      provided here, as well as the implications of various hadiths and
      statements by scholars. Surely, God knows best.




      Conclusion

      We are living at an important time. Atheism, which people have tried
      for hundreds of years to portray as "the way of reason and science,"
      is proving to be mere irrationality and ignorance. Materialist
      philosophy that sought to use science for its own ends has been in
      turn defeated by science. A world rescuing itself from atheism will
      turn to God and religion. And this process has begun long ago.

      It is clear that believers have important duties in this period.
      They must be aware of this major change in the world's way of
      thinking, interpret it, make good use of the opportunities that
      globalization offers and effectively represent the truth along this
      road. They must know that the basic conflict of ideas in the world
      is between atheism and faith. It is not a struggle between East and
      West; in both East and West there are those who believe in God and
      those who do not. For this reason, faithful Christians, as well as
      faithful Jews are allies of Muslims. The main divergence is not
      between Muslims and the "People of the Book" (Jews and Christians),
      but between Muslims and the People of the Book on the one hand, and
      atheists and pagans on the other. Of course, we must not show
      hostility to such people but view them as people who need to be
      rescued from their error.

      The time is fast approaching when many people who are living in
      ignorance with no knowledge of their Creator will be graced by faith
      in the impending post-atheist world.
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