|By Mufti Taqi Usmani|
Nahmaduhu Wanusale Alaa Rasulihil Kareem
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
We praise Him and solicit blessings for His noble Messenger. Hundreds of Ulama have written a large number of books on the precepts of Hajj in different languages at different times. Some of them are very detailed while some are brief. The Purpose of this small treatise is only to give an account of the necessary dictates for Hajj in easy language with easy classification. These dictates have been derived from the same detailed books to which necessary reference have mostly been made. In edition to the generally referred books on 'Hadith' and 'Fiqh', the sources of this treatise are as follows: -
1. Manasik by Mulla 'Ali Qari.
3. Zubdat-ul-Manasik by Hazrat Maulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (along with its annotation by Haji Sher Mohammed Mohajir Madani). Most of the dictates have been derived from this very book.
As a matter of fact the real service in this respect has been rendered by these very 'Ulama'. My contribution therein rests only on facilitation and classification composed in 10 days of the month of Shawwal, 1387 A.H. This is in compliance with the orders of some of my elders through whose blessings it is not improbable to hope that Allah may approve my petty contribution as well.
(May Allah forgive him)
17th Shawwal, 1387 A.H.
Definitions Of The Terms Used In Connection With Hajj
And Explanations Of Sacred Places
Afaqi: Afaqi is the person who lives outside Miqat boundaries such as Indian, Pakistani, Egyptian, Syrian, Iraqi, Iranian and so on.
Ash-hur-E-Hajj: The months of Hajj i.e. complete months of Shawwal, Zi-Qa'da and half of the month of Zilhijja.
Ayyam-e-Tashriq: The days from 9th to 13th Zilhijja wherein Takbir-e-Tashriq is regularly proclaimed.
Bab-us-Salam: With this name there is a gate of Masjid-ul-Haram in Mecca. The first entrance to the Sacred Mosque is preferable through this gate. Another gate with the same name is in Madina. This is the gate of Masjid-e-Nabawi opening on the side of market.
Batn-e-'Urana: This is a jungle near 'Arafat wherein the observance of Waqof is not Lawful, for it is out of 'Arafat boundaries.
Bab-e-Jibril: Through this gate Hazrat Jibril, the angel, used to visit the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him). This is the gate through which we go to Jannat-ul-Baqi'.
Dam: During Ihram, perpetration of certain prohibited acts causes the obligation of offering sacrifice of a goat etc. It is called Dam.
Ghar-e-Hira: It is the cave where the first revelation was sent down to the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him). It is situated in Jabal-e-nor which is on the roadway to Mina. Its top is visible from far off.
Ghar-e-Thaur: In this cave the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) stayed for three days at the time of his migration (Hijrat)
Hajar-e-Aswad: The black stone. It is a stone from Paradise. It was white like milk when it came from the Paradise but the sins of the human beings rendered it black. It is fixed in the wall at about a man's height in the southeastern corner of Baitullah. It has a silver frame around it.
Hudaibia: It is the name of a place before the precincts of Haram on the way from Jedda to Mecca. Nowadays, it is known by the name of Sumaisiya. A mosque is situated on this very spot. Here, the Holy Prophet entered into a treaty with the infidels and it is the place where the Holy Prophet (Peace
be upon him) took an oath of allegiance, Bai'at-ur-Ridhwan by name from his noble companions. It is the starting point of the precincts of Haram.
Hatim: It is a piece of land surrounded by a wall of man's height adjacent to Baitullah on the north side. It is called Hatim as well as Ahjar or Hazira. While observing Tawaf it is Wajib (obligatory) to include this piece of land. It is a part of Ka'ba. In Pre-Islamic period when Quraish of Mecca started reconstruction of Ka'ba, they abandoned construction of this portion due to deficiency in Halal (lawfully acquired) funds.
Haram: Mecca and a small area around it is called the Land of Haram. Its boundaries have been distinctly marked. Hunting, cutting trees and grazing animals in Haram (unlawful) in this area.
Harami or Ahl-e-Haram: The person who lives in the land of Haram; whether in Mecca or outside Mecca within the precincts of Haram.
Hill: The land beyond the four sides
of Haram upto Miqat (i.e. outside the Haram boundaries but inside the Mawaqit) is called Hill, for the things prohibited (Haram) in Haram are permissible (Halal) here.
Hilli: The inhabitant of the land of Hill.
Halq: To get the hair of your head shaven or to shave them yourself. It releases you from the restrictions of Ihram.
Ihram: Means to declare a thing as Haram (Forbidden). When a Hajj Pilgrim determines his intention for Hajj, Umra or both collectively and proclaims Talbia, certain Halal (Permissible) things stand for him as Haram; hence it is called Ihram. This word is used figuratively for those sheets of cloth as well which are used by Hajj pilgrims in the state of Ihram.
Istilam: To Kiss as well as to touch Hajare-Aswad with hands or only to touch it or to touch Rukn-e-Yamani.
Idhtiba: To put the upper cover of Ihram on the left shoulder by way of taking the cover through the right armpit.
To observe Hajj practices with the Ihram of Hajj only.
Jamarat or Jimar: There are three places in Mina where pillars of the height of man have been erected. Here, pebbles are thrown. One of them which is towards the East near Masjid-e-Khaif is called Jamrat-ul'Ola. The next one to it is named as Jamrat-ul-Wusta and the one subsequent to it is known as Jamrat-ul-Kubra. The last one is also called as, Jamrat-ul-'Aqaba or Jamrat-ul-'Ukhra.
Juhfa: It is a place near Rabigh at a distance of three Manzils (encampment distances) from Mecca. This is the Miqat for those coming from Syria.
Jannat-ul-Ma'la: It is the graveyard of Mecca where Umm-ul-Mu'minin (The Mother of the faithful) Hazrat Khadijat-ul-Kubra and the dear son of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) and some of his faithful companions have been interred. The grave of Hazrat Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki is also situated here.
Jannat-ul-Baqi': It is the Graveyard of
Madina where the uncle the uncle of the Holy Prophet, (Peace be upon him) Hazrat Abbas, Hazrat Imam Hasan, Hazrat Uthman and thousands of other noble companions of the Holy Prophet have been interred. In addition to that, among those buried here are also the son of the Holy Prophet, Hazrat Ibrahim, Hazrat Fatima, Hazrat Halima Sa'dia and all other Ummahat-ul-Mu'minin (the Mothers of the faithful) with the exception of Hazrat Maimona as the place of her burial is Sarif.
Jabal-e-Thabir: It is a hill in Mina.
Jabal-e-Rahmat: It is a hill in 'Arafat.
Jabal-e-Quzah: It is a hill in Muzdalifa.
Jabal-e-'Uhud: It is a hill outside Madina at a distance of nearly three miles where the battle of 'Uhud was fought. Here are the graves of the martyrs.
Jabal-e-Abu Qubays. It is the name of a hill in Mecca near Safa. Here is a mosque called Masjid-e-Bilal. Some of the biographers have stated that the miracle of Shaqq-ul-Qamar
(splitting of the moon in two halves) was revealed here.
Ka'ba the Sacred: The Ka'ba, which is also known as Baitullah, is a sacred house in the center of Masjid-e-Haram in Mecca. It is the first place of worship in the world. It was originally constructed by angels under the order of Allah the most high even before the birth of Hazrat Adam. Subsequently on its demolition Hazrat Adam reconstructed it. Thereafter it was reconstructed by the Holy Prophet Hazrat Ibrahim, then by Quraish, then by Hazrat Abdullah ibn Zubair (Radhi-Allahu 'anhu) and then by Abdul Malik. Even in the later ages, certain repairs continued to be carried out. It is the Qibla of Muslims. All the Muslims in the world turn their faces towards it while offering their prayers.
Muhrim: One who wears Ihram.
Mufrid: One who were Ibrahim for Hajj only.
Miqat: The place where Ihram wearing is Wjib for those who go to Mecca.
Miqati: The inhabitant of
Mataf: The place around Baitullah in Masjid-e-Haram to perform Tawaf.
Maqam-e-Ibrahim: It is a stone from Paradise. Standing on it, the Holy Prophet Hazrat Ibrahim had constructed
Baitullah: Nowadays, it is included in Mataf.
Masjid-e-Haram: The Mosque around Ka'ba.
Multazam: The wall between Hajar-e-Aswad and the gate of Baitullah. It is Masnon (prescribed as Sunnah of our Prophet) to invoke blessings of Allah while embracing this wall.
Mina: It is a vast open field between two hills at a distance of 3 miles from Mecca towards the East. Rami and Sacrifice are accomplished here. It is included in Haram. A stay of three days is observed here.
Masjid-e-Khaif: It is the name of big Mosque in Mina situated adjacent to the hill on the northern side of Mina.
Masjid-e-Namra: A Mosque on one side of 'Arafat.
Mad'a: The Place of invocation. It means the place, which is situated
between Masjid-e-Haram and the graveyard of Mecca and where invoking Allah's blessing is Mustahab (preferred) at the time of entering Mecca.
Muzdalifa: It is open field between Mina and 'Arafat at a distance of about three miles from Mina in the East. On having returned from 'Arafat, the Hajj Pilgrims stay here at night.
Muhassir: It is an open field adjacent to Muzdalifa. The Divine punishment had descended upon the people of Elephant (Ashab-ul-Fil) here, who had invaded Baitullah. That is why the pilgrims cross it running.
Marwa: It is a small bill near the northeastern corner of Baitullah. The Sa'i ends here.
Masjid-ul-Raya: This Mosque is on the way to Jannat-ul-Ma'la. On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Holy Prophet had erected this flag here.
Masjid-e-Quba: It is a Mosque three miles before the boundaries of Medina. The Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) himself participated in its construction. It is the
first Mosque of Muslims in the vicinity of Madina. Offering two Raka'at of Nafl (supererogatory) prayer, here is equivalent to one Umra in reward and it is Mustahab to visit this Mosque on a Saturday.
Masjid-e-Khandaq: There are some Mosques constructed on the place where, at the time of the battle of Ahzab, the ditch was dug. One of the Mosques is called Masjid-e-Ahzab and Masjid-e-Fath. Here, the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) prayed to Allah and Allah granted the prayer ; the Muslims were victorious. Around this mosque there are several other mosques attributed to the names of the Companions of the Holy Prophet.
Masjid-e-Qiblatain: It is mosque on the hillock near the valley of Aqiq in the North West of Medina. It has two arches, one towards Bait-ul-Maqdis and the other towards the Ka'ba, For, this is the mosque where the event of the change of Qibla occurred and that is why it is called Masjid-e-Qiblatain.
It is also called Masjid-e-Baghla. It is situated towards the East of Jannat-ul-Baqi'. The tribe of Bani Zafar used to live here. Once the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) honoured this place with his presence and at his desire, one of his Companions recited Sura-e-Nisa to him. Near the Mosque there is a hoof-mark of the mule of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) and that is why it is also called Masjid-ul-Baghla.
Masjid-ul-Ijaba. This mosque is in the northern side of Jannat-ul-Baqi'. The Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) had prayed here.
Mash'ar-e-Haram: It is a mosque in Muzdalifa but a hill of Muzdalifa, Jabal-e-Quzah by name is also called Mash'ar-e- Haram.
Mas'a: The place for performing Sa'r (running between Safa and Marwah.)
Mauqif: The place for having a stay. It means the place of stay in the open field of 'Arafat or in Muzdalifa.
Mizab-e-Rahmat: The water-outleft of the roof of Ka'ba falling in Hatim. One
should pray to Allah while standing beneath it as the invocations offered here are accorded approval.
Qiran: To Perform Umra and Hajj successively after wearing Ihram collectively for Hajj and Umra both.
Qarin: One who performs Qiran.
Qarn: It is a hill at a distance of about forty two miles from Mecca. It is the Miqat for those coming from Najd-e-Yemen, Najd-e-Hijaz and Najd-e-Tihama.
Qasr: To have your hair cut or to cut them yourself in order to be out of Ihram.
Rukn-e-Iraqi: The north eastern corner of Baitullah towards Iraq.
Rukn-e-Yamani: The south western corner of Baitullah towards Yemen.
Rukn-e-Shami: The northwestern corner of Baitullah towards Syria.
Ramal: To walk a bit fast in the first three rounds of Tawaf with steps close to each other shaking shoulders struttingly.
Rami: To throw pebbles on Jamarat.
Sa'I: To have seven rounds in a defined mode between Safa
Shaut: We complete seven circuits around Baitullah. Every circuit is called Shaut. At the time of Sa'i between Safa and Marwa the round made from Safa to Marwa is also known as shout. Similarly the back round from Marwa to Safa is the 2nd Shaut and so on upto the seventh Shaut.
Safa: A hill near Ka'ba towards the south werefrom the Sa'i takes a start.
Tamattu': To observe 'Umra in the months of Hajj in the first instance and then to perform Hajj in the same year with the Ihram of Hajj.
Takbir: To proclaim Allah-o-Akbar.
Talbiyya: To proclaim Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik; etc.
Tahlil: To proclaim La Ilaha Illallah.
Tan'im: It is a place where, at the time of their stay at Mecca, people wear Ihram for Umra. It is at a distance of 3 miles from Mecca and is the nearest place from the precincts of Haram. Here is a Mosque named Masjid-e-Aisha.
Tawaf: Circumambulation of the Ka'ba.
Tawaf-e-Qudom: The first Tawaf, observed by Hajj pilgrims immediately after reaching Mecca, is called Tawaf-e-Qudom or Tawaf-e-Tahiyya. It is Sunnat for a Qarin and a Mufrid Afaqi.
Tawaf-e-Ziyarat: The Tawaf performed after Waqof-e-Arafat. It is also known as Tawaf-e-Rukn for it is Fardh (Divine obligation) in Hajj.
Tawaf-e-Sadr: The Tawaf performed at the time of departure from Mecca is called Tawaf-e-Sadr or Tawaf-e-Wida.
Umra: To perform Tawaf of Baitullah alongwith Sa'i between Safa and Marwa after wearing Ihram from Hill or Miqat.
Yaum-e-Arafa: The ninth Zilhajja, the day when Hajj is performed and the pilgrims have to stay at 'Arafat.
Yaum-ut-Tarviya: The eighth Zilhijja.
Yalamlam: It is a hill at a distance of two Manzils (encampment distances) from Mecca towards the south. It is also known as Sa'diya nowadays. The sea traveling pilgrims from our country wear Ihram at this place when they
reach the point confronting to it.
Zulhulaifa: It is the name of a place situated at a distance of about six miles on the way from Madina to Mecca. It is the Miqat for those who come from Madina and is known nowadays by the name of Bir-e-'Ali.
Zat-u-'Irq: It is the name of place, which is desolate nowadays. It is as a distance of about three days journey towards Iraq from Mecca. It is the Miqat for those coming from Iraq.
Zamzam: In Masjid-e-Haram near Baitullah, it is a well to which Almighty Allah, out of his Devine power, made a spring of water to flow for the sake of His Prophet Hazrat Isma'il and his mother (peace be upon him). It has been running for thousands of years till now.
Hajj Is One Of the Fundamentals Of Islam
And A Basic Religious Obligation
There is a verse of the 'Holy Quran'
"And pilgrimage to the house is a duty unto Allah for mankind, for him
who can afford the journey thereunto. And whosever disbelieves (i.e. he does not come to the house despite his being able to do so) then (he does Harm only to himself) Allah stands not in need of any of his creatures." (3 : 97)
To afford journey to that House (i.e. the Ka'ba) means that apart from one's day-to-day necessities of life one has sufficient funds to meet all the expenses of journey to and from the house of Allah at Mecca as well as the Expenses during the period of one's stay there. Moreover, one should be able to manage the Wajib (obligatory) maintenance of one's dependants upto one's return from the journey. There are severe warnings in the 'Holy Quran' and 'Hadith' for a man who does not perform the 'Hajj' Pilgrimage despite his being capable as mentioned above.
Rule Of Action:
Suppose a person who, at any time of his life, possessed money sufficient to meet the Hajj expenses, was able to retain it as his property upto
the beginning of the Hajj season i.e. the beginning of the month of 'Shawwal'. If thereafter, instead of performing Hajj he spent the funds on raising a building or holding a function of marriage or on some other affairs, the Hajj already became obligatory as Fardh on him. He would be bound to collect sufficient funds again by doing his best in order to discharge the Hajj obligation.
Hadith: The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said, "One who performs Hajj for the sake of Allah and therein abstains from obscene acts and words, wickedness and sins, he returns so purified from sins as he was at the time when his mother gave him birth." (Bukhari and Muslim).
Hadith: The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said, "The Pilgrims for Hajj and Umra are the guests of Allah. If they Pray for a thing to Allah, He will grant it. (Ibn-e-Majah).
What greater blessing there could be for a Muslim than to be forgiven by Allah for All the
sins he committed throughout his life and to be blessed with Allah's granting to whatever he prayed for. By dint of this blessing he could easily be successful in achieving all his worldly and Heavenly objects.
A Very Important Warning:
The attainment of all these virtues and blessings is subject to the accomplishment of all the 'Fara'idh'. Wajibat' and Sunna of Hajj Pilgrimage must be abstained from; otherwise if one is at all relieved of the obligation of Hajj, deprival from its virtues and blessings is however indisputable. Hajj Pilgrims are usually careless in this respect. They do not care to acquire knowledge of dictates about Hajj and visiting sacred places and the religious instructions regarding them. On reaching the holy place they are put under the charge of inexperienced servants of Mu'allims. Neither they care for the correct fulfillment of Wajibat (obligatory acts) of Hajj nor they are
vigilant about refraining from sins during "Ihram. It may place be noted that after wearing Ihram for Hajj or Umra one comes under certain restrictions imposed by Shariat violation of which is a grievous sin. Moreover for a sin committed in the Haram of Mecca, the punishment is also extremely severe. After performing Hajj these ignorant people start reckoning that they have returned after being purified from sins and that they have stored plenty of divine rewards for the life hereinafter. But what happens in fact is that they return with a store of sins due to contravention of Wajibat and Sunnan of Hajj and with a stock of penalties for the omission of Wajibat of Ihram. Possibility is there of course that all these misdoings are forgiven by Allah out of His endless mercy and for the innumerable blessings of "Haramain Sharifain" but we have no right to be careless about them. Besides, sin not taken seriously and committed carelessly has less possibility
of forgiveness. That is why the 'Ulama' of every age have purposely composed the necessary dictates of Hajj after rendering them easy or the sake of Hajj after rendering them easy for the sake of Hajj pilgrims, only out of their well wishing and sympathy towards them. If these are kept under continuous study before the start of the journey as well as throughout its duration, if Almighty Allah wills, the Hajj will be accorded approval by Him.
Before The Start Of Hajj Journey
Please be careful about certain things: -
1. Purify your intention (Niyyat) for Hajj only for the sake of Allah and exclusively keeping in view the heavenly reward. Do not allow any worldly honour and vanity or any financial advantages or any worldly selfish design to mix up with your intention for Hajj. There is of course no Harm if even then some worldly benefits are attained to by Allah's grace (and according to Hadith
wordly benefits will also be certainly available), but you should not impurify your intention for their sake.
2. Turn to Allah in penitence from all sins small or grievous. There are three pre-requisites for a sincere penitence:-
a. Repentence and regret for the sins committed in the past in the possible redress of the omissions.
b. For the present, to give up all the sins.
c. For future, to resolve not to commit any sins.
These are the three requisites of a sincere penitence without which mere uttering the words of penitence will not be sufficient.
The omissions and short-doings of the past which can be accomplished after their due time are as under: -
1. Fasts and prayers which could not be fulfilled after your having attained to the age of puberty. They must be calculated correctly and if correct calculation is not possible, then they should be accomplished on the basis of a guess calculation.
2. If you
have not paid the 'Zakat' of your money and effects in the past, it should be paid now by way of calculations or a careful guess.
3. If you took an oath and violated it, it should be expiated for. Similarly if you made a vow to Allah but could not fulfill it, it should be fulfilled now.
The rights of human beings which can be redressed may be defined as for example you owe a debt to a person or you are under financial dues to any one; you have teased someone with your words or caused him trouble by your acts or you have spoken ill of someone in his absence ; for all such things you are to beg pardon of the rightful persons as well as well as to pay back all the dues which otherwise should be got remitted if the rightful persons willingly do so.
Rules Of Action:
If the person whom you owe a debt has died, pay it back to his heirs or get it absolved by them. If the creditors are numerous and their whereabouts are not known, give
as much amount as you owe to them to the poor as alms on their behalf. If you did any Haram to them with your words or acts, pray often for the remission of those whom you had harmed. You would, Allah willing, be relieved from the liability for all their rights.
If the missed prayers and fasts are too large in number to be accomplished before the 'Hajj' journey, or your liabilities to others are so excessive in quantity that, at present it is out of your power to pay them back or to get them absolved, then what you are to do is that you determine just now a firm resolution in your mind either to discharge all these obligations or to get them remitted by the rightful persons. At the same time, you are to pay back whatever dues you can. For the rest, you are to execute a will and appoint someone of your relatives or sincere friends as its executor, so that in case of your failure he may pay back all your liabilities.
For an indebted person
who cannot spare funds after paying his debts, it is better not to intend to go for 'Hajj' before the payment of his debts. He should first avail of all his resources in relieving himself from all the liabilities. If before payment of the debts he performed 'Hajj' , the 'Hajj' obligation would however stand discharged. This, of course, excludes the usual current commercial loans for which Hajj cannot be postponed.
If an indebted person has no effects, whatsoever, which can suffice the payment of his debts, his proceeding to 'Hajj' will not be lawfull without the permission of his creditors. (Manasik, Mulla Ali).
3. Be careful in legitimate collection of funds for 'Hajj'. The 'Hajj' performed with ill gotton funds stands unapproved and loses the Heavenly reward, though even then it stands discharged.
Rule Of Action:
A person with doubtful resources of his funds should borrow sufficient money for 'Hajj' expenses from a
non-Muslim and then he should pay it back out of his own funds, so that he may not be deprived of the divine bounties and Heavenly rewards.
4. At the time of preparations for 'Hajj', do not forget to arrange for necessary cloth for 'Ihram'. A sheet and a loin-cloth (i.e. two sheets of cloth) suffice the dress for 'Ihram'. It is better to be of white cloth. An 'Ihram' comprising of two big towels, which can be easily used in place of the necessary sheet and loin, is far better for the days of intense summer or chilly winter seasons. If conveniently possible, arrange two or three 'Ihrams' for use one by one in case of their being dirty.
On Proceeding To Journey
1. A 'Hajj' pilgrim should get his faults excused by his friends and relatives at the time of taking their leave and request them to pray for his well being. When he intends to get out of his house, he should offer two 'Rak'at of Nafl
prayers. On getting near the exit of his house he should recite Surah Inna Anzalna. (ch.97).
When he comes out he should give whatever he can afford as charity and should recite 'Ayat-ul-Kursi'.
Thereafter he should pray to Allah in these words: -
"O Allah : I seek Thy protection against that I go or be led astray, or that I oppress or be oppressed ; and against that I do an act of ignorance or fall a victim thereto" :
This invocation should also be pronounced: -
"O Allah! Weask Thee for righteousness and piety in this journey of ours. We request Thee to bless us with the acts that may please Thee."
"O Allah! Make this journey of ours convenient for us and help us in crossing over its distance easily."
"O Allah! Thou art our companion in this journey and the care-taker of our family behind us."
"O Allah! I seek Thy protection against the troubles in this journey; against beholding my property
and family in bad condition on my return and against being impaired after being settled and against the malediction of the oppressed one."
2. If the Arabic text of the invocations is not safe in memory, their subject matter written in the translation underneath may be repeated in one's own language.
3. On taking leave of the relatives this invocation should be repeated:
"I commend you to Allah's protection under whose charge the things are not lost."
4. At the time of getting into the traveling carriage 'Bismillah...' along with the following invocation should be pronounced:
"Praise be to Allah who made it submissive to our control and we were not to control it (without the help of His omnipotence). No doubt we are certainly to return to our Lord."
Inadmissible and absurd talks should be abstained from. As for as possible, one should keep oneself busy in
the remembrance of Allah or in the study of the religious books which induce deep concern for the life hereinafter and mend one's ways.
To Begin With The Dictates For Hajj:
As the 'Takbir-e-Tahrimah' i.e. saying (Allah-o-Akbar) is meant to begin with the prayers (Salat), so is the 'Ihram' with which 'Hajj' or 'Umra' begins. The detailes of the 'Ihram' are to follow hereafter. But before this, the difference between Hajj and Umra and the kinds of Hajj should be learnt.
'Hajj And Umra
In relation to Baitullah there are two kinds of adorations. Firstly, the 'Hajj', most of the practices of which are performed within the five days of the month of 'Zilhijja'. In other than these particular five days these practices cannot be performed. Its details are given in the following pages. Secondly the Umra which can be performed at all times and in all the months of year except the five days of
'Hajj'. It includes only 3 practices:
1. Wearing 'Ihram' of Umra at or before Miqat.
2. Performing Tawaf (circumambulating 'Baitullah') on reaching Mecca.
3. Performing Sa'i (walking fast seven rounds) between Safa and Marwah. Thereafter, on having the hair cut or shaven, the 'Ihram' formalities come to an end.
Taking into consideration the performance of 'Hajj' and 'Umra' collectively or separately, 'Hajj' is divided into three kinds.
Three Kinds Of Hajj
Defining one's intention (Niyyat) exclusively for 'Hajj' Pilgrimage on starting the journey and wearing 'Ihram' with this very intention. 'Hajj' and 'Umra' are not added together. The Hajj of this kind is called 'Ifrad' and its' observer is named as 'Mufrid'.
Adding 'Hajj' and 'Umra' together and defining one's intention for both of them from the very beginning. 'Ihram' is also to be worn
jointly for both. It is called 'Qiran' and one who performs this kind is termed as 'Qarin'.
Adding Umra and Hajj together in a way that from Miqat the Ihram is first worn only for Umra. Hajj is not intended with this Ihram. On reaching Mecca the obligations of : Umra are discharged and the pilgrim has his hair cut or shaven, thus ending his Ihram of Umra. On the 8th of the month of Zilhijja the Ihram for Hajj is worn a fresh from 'Masjid-ul-Haram' This kind of Hajj is named as 'Tamattu' and its performer is called as 'Mutamatte'.
A 'Hajj' pilgrim is at liberty to choose anyone of these three kinds but Qiran is pre-eminent among them. All the three kinds differ with one another in respect of one's defining intention and wearing 'Ihram' therefor. They are also at variance with one another in some practices of performing them. Their distinctions should therefore be carefully instilled in mind.
The Difference Between The
Abovementioned Three Kinds Of Hajj:
The first point where these three kinds are at variance with one another lies in determining one's intention therefor. In the first kind of Hajj that is to say in 'Ifrad' at the time of wearing 'Ihram' one has to intend to perform Hajj only. In the Hajj of the 2nd nature, the intention is to be determined for 'Hajj' and Umra both. In the third that is in 'Tamattu' at the time of wearing first 'Ihram', the intention is to be particularized to Umra only.
The other prominent difference liesin 'Ihram' wearing the duration of which in the first two kinds lasts upto the fulfillment of all the practices of 'Hajj', while in the third it ends on reaching Mecca when one has one's hair cut or shaven after being free from the essentials of Umra i.e. Tawaf of Ka'ba and Sa'i between Safa and Marwah. He will be able to stay in Mecca without the restriction of 'Ihram' upto the 8th 'Zilhijja' on which date he will again
wear 'Ihram' on Masjid-ul-Haram (or from his residence in Mecca etc.) for the purpose of 'Hajj'. the third kind of 'Hajj' is, of course, comparatively more convenient but 'Qiran' is pre-eminent provided one successfully sticks to the long-lasting restrictions of 'Ihram'. Otherwise, it is better perform 'Tamattu'. Anyhow, the practices and dictates for Hajj, Umra and Ihram are similar to one another in all the three kinds. the only difference lies in the fact that for a 'Qiran' and 'Mutamatte', an offering of sacrifice in Mina on the 10th Zilhijja is wajib (essential) while for a 'Mufrid' it is only 'Mustahab' (desirable).
The intention detailed above for all the three kinds of 'Hajj' stands determined only by way of making up one's mind and by uttering the words thereof in one's own language. However it is better to pronounce it in Arabic language. For instance, in 'Ifrad' the intention is to be pronounced as follows:
"O Allah: I intend
'Hajj' Render it easy for me and accord it Thy approval. "
The intention for 'Qiran' should be pronounced as under :
"O Allah! I intend Hajj and Umra both. Render them easy for me and accord them Thy approval."
In case of 'Tamattu' the intention at the time of wearing first 'Ihram' is to be pronounced with these words :
" O Allah: I intend Umra. Render it easy for me and accord it Thy approval."
The intention has been depicted herein both the languages, Arabic and English. If one feels and difficulty in cramming up the words of the Arabic text, the pronouncement of its subject matter in one's own language is permissible irrespective of its being in any of the languages, English, Urdu, Persian, Panjabi, Bangla, or Pushto.
How To Wear Ihram
When you intend to wear 'Ihram' you should at first take a bath though only making an ablution (Wudhu) will also suffice. It is
Sunnat (Tradition of the Holy Prophet) before bath or Wudhu to have the nails pruned, to lower down the moustaches by trimming, to undershave, to shave the armpits and to have a hair cut or shaven if it has been usual; otherwise to comb the long grown hair. For 'Ihram' It is Sunnat to comprise of two sheets of cloth, new or used but washed. One sheet should be used as a loin-cloth and the other as an upper cover. The sheets of black or any other colour are also permissible. When it is cold, blankets or towels can also be used.
It is neccessary for the loin sheet to be raised above the ankles. It is 'Sunnah' to say two 'Rak'at Nafl' prayers after wearing the 'Ihram' sheets; provided it is not offered in the prohibited times, that is to say at the time of rising or setting of the sun or the time of exact noon or the time after 'Fajr' (morning) prayers but before sunrise and the time after 'Asr (afternoon) prayers but before setting of the sun. In
the first Rak'at of the Nafl it is preferable to recite Surah 109 (Kafiroon) and in the 2nd, Surah 112 (Akhlass) after Surah no 1 (Al-Fatiha i.e.) reciting any other Surah is however also permissible.
At the time of saying this prayer, the head should be covered with the sheet under use as upper cover because the 'Ihram' formalities, which necessitate to keep the head uncovered, have not yet commenced, After saying these two Rak'ats of Nafl you are to determine your intention for 'Hajj' with specific reference to one of three kinds of 'Hajj' you intend, by way of making up your mind as well as by pronouncing the words of intention formula mentioned here before. Thereafter you are to utter the words of 'Talbiya' the accepted Masnon text of which is as given below. These words must be carefully crammed up Abridgement or omission of any word therefrom stands Makroh (undersirable).
"Here I am! at Thy service ! O Allah! I am present! I am
present! No partner Thou hath, I am present! Surely, all praise and graciousness as well as the whole universe is thine while no partner Thou hath."
The 'Ihram' does not begin by merely defining your intention therefor, but instead it commences with your utterance of the words of 'Talbiya'. As the 'Ihram' starts as soon as you pronounce the words of 'Talbiya', you should therefore remove the covering sheet from your head and let it remain uncovered before your saying 'Talbiya'. From this point of time throughout your journey the aforementioned words of 'Talbiya' should be often repeated with a loud voice. The 'Talbiya' should be repeated aloud particularly at the time of change of circumstances, e.g. in the morning and evening, while sitting down or standing up, going out and entering, meeting people and departing from them, while rising from bed, riding and alighting, while ascending a height or descending from it to a depression, it is Mustahab
Moakkad (an 'emphatically desirable' act) as it is emphasized more than one ordinary Mustahab (desirable act). The women are, however, not allowed to pronounce it loudly. They should repeat it with a low voice. In Mosques, it should not be so loud that it may disturb those saying their prayers. Whenever you prono-unce 'Talbiya', repeat it three times and after it’s three times loud repetition you better recite Darod Shareef (soliciting blessings of Allah for the Prophet) with a low voice. Thereafter you may pray to Allah for your wishes and objects. 'Masnoon' invocation after 'Talbiya' is: -
"O Allah! I ask Thee for Thy pleasure and Paradise and I Seek Thy Protection against Thy wrath and the Hell."
Restrictions Of Ihram
In the state of Ihram the following practices are inadmissible and unlawful:
1. For males, wearing stitched or knitted clothes of the shape of one's body, such as
shirt, trousers, underwear, Achken and coat etc. There is no harm to have stitched patching to the 'Ihram sheets as well as sewing of the loin in the middle. A sewn money-purse or belt is also an exception.
2. To cover head and face for males.
3. To apply any kind of scent to body or clothes; to used perfumed soap, to eat odoriferous tobacco. To smell any sweet smelling flower or fruit intentionally is also Makroh (undesirable). Unintentional feeling of any smell has however no significance.
4. To cut the hair of any part of the body.
5. To prune the nails.
6. While in Ihram, every sort of kissing and embracing with one's wife as well as enjoining a sexual intercourse with her is unlawful.
7. In the state of Ihram, even to mention sexual intercourse in the presence of women is unlawful.
8. Quarrelling and wrangling.
9. To hunt or to help a hunter.
10. To kill the louse of one's body
11. To kill the locust.
Ihram For Women
Women's Ihram as well as their 'Hajj' is similler to those of men. The only difference is that women should remain clad with sewn clothes. They should also cover their heads. Only the face should be left uncovered, but in the presence of male strangers, the veil of 'Burqa' should be dropped in such a way that it may not touch the face. A woman is allowed to wear stockings and gloves. Wearing ornaments is also permissible. She can enter into the state of blood-discharge of childbirth, but in this position she should not say two Nafl prayers of 'Ihram'.
All the above-mentioned practices and abstinences of 'Ihram' are to be observed strictly. To do otherwise is a sin and, in most cases, for its expiation one falls under the obligation of 'Dam' i.e., an offering of sacrifice, full details of which can be known through some comprehensive
book or by asking Ulama. However the details mostly needed have been given even in this treatise.
Contravention of the above-mentioned rules is sin. Moreover it also renders one's 'Hajj' as defective, though the Hajj obligation stands discharged. Sometimes the state of affairs becomes so grave that Hajj is totally nullified and its accomplishment next year becomes obligatory. That gravity lies in enjoying a sexual intercourse before one's stay in Arafat. In cases other than sexual intercourse, though kissing and embracing are also sinful acts yet they do not render a Hajj nullified.
Mawaqit Where And When To Enter Into The State Of Ihram
In this connection this is worth noticing that on all the four sides of Mecca, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam): blessings of Allah and peace be on him) has assigned some distinct places on reaching where Ihram wearing becomes obligatory for
the pilgrims to Mecca irrespective of the Ihram being for Hajj or Umra. These places are called Miqat, the plural number of which is Mawaqit. Fixation of Mawaqit has been narrated in Ahadith-e-Sahi-ha (Authentic traditions of the Holy Prophet) The above restriction of wearing Ihram on Miqat is general in its imposition on all residing outside Miqat. Whenever they enter into the precincts of Miqat with the intention to go to Mecca; whether their entrance is with some commercial purposes or in order to pay a visit to their friends or relatives; in any case they are under obligation, in relation to the rights of Bait-Ullah, that they enter Mecca after wearing Ihram from Miqat. If it is Hajj period, they are to wear Ihram for Hajj, other-
wise they should wear Ihram for Umra and thus pay due homage to Bait-Ullah first. Only then they are supposed to look after their own business, (Badae). Anyhow, if the journey to Jedda is not with the intention to go
to Mecca, but instead it is with the intention to reach Jedda or Madina ; in that case, it is not necessary to wear Ihram from Miqat.
Mawaqit Are Five:
Zulhulaifa: For the persons arriving from the side of Madina. It is at a distance of about 6 miles from Madina on the road way leading to Mecca. A mosque is situated here. The place is known as Bir-e-Ali nowadays.
Juhfa: For the pilgrims arriving from the side of Syria. It is near 'Rabigh', the well known 'Manzil' (station) on the road way of 'Madina'.
Qarn-ul-Manazil: For those coming from 'Najd'.
Yalamlam: For the persons arriving from the direction of 'Yemen'. It is a hill situated at a distance of about 15 to 20 miles from seashore. It is in fact a Miqat for the people of Yemen and Aden. In early times when there was no port at Jedda, the Hajj pilgrims arriving through the sea passage from India, Pakistan and other eastern
countries had to adopt this route. That is why this is generally understood to be the Miqat for the people of Pakistan and India as well.
Zat-u-Irq: For the persons coming from the side of Iraq.
The persons traveling on a route not passing through these places will have to wear 'Ihram' for their entrance in Mecca on the points, which may confront any of these places. This Ihram wearing will, however, be before entering into these confronting points.
These 'Mawaqit' have been fixed for all those who live anywhere in the world outside the precincts of Miqat. The whole world outside the precincts of Miqat is termed to be, as Afaq and its inhabiltants are known by the term of Afaqi.
The Inhabitants With In The Miqat Boundaries
In this respect it is advisable to note that the Sacred Ka'ba is an exceedingly august and sublime place. Allah the Exalted has drawn three circles around it
as a sign of its veneration. There are some distinct and specific dictates relating to every circle thereof. The first circle is that of 'Masjid-ul-Haram' (the Mosque around Ka'ba), in the centre of which Baitullah is situated. Next to Baitullah, the place held to be the most distinguished and venerable is the place, which has been encircled by 'Masjid-ul-Haram'. Related to this place there are many particular precepts but as they have no special relation with Ihram they need not be mentioned here. The 2nd circle is that of the boundaries of Haram. This circle is formed by some fixed territorial around Mecca where some marks of the boundries of Haram have been raised. The distance of these boundries of Haram from Mecca is three miles from one side, nine from another, and some what more or less from other sides. People living within this circle are named as 'Ahl-e-Haram' (the people of the sacred place). The 3rd circle is that of the Mawaqit mentioned
here before. People living within the 2nd circle that is to say with in the boundaries of Haram are called Ahl-e-Haram while those who live outside the Haram but within the circle of Mawaqit, they are called 'Ahl-e-Hill' (people of the place of admissibilities).
The inhabitants of out-side the precincts of Mawaqit are known as Ahl-e-Afaq.
Regarding Ihram, particular instructions for Ahl-e-Afaq have already been explained that whenever they intend to go Mecca they are under obligation of wearing 'Ihram' before the time they step forward beyond the precincts of Miqat or their confronting points. This obligation is irrespective of one's intention being for the purpose of 'Hajj' and 'Umra' or for some commercial purposes or in order to pay a visit to friends etc.
For the inhabitants of 2nd circle that is to say for persons living within the Miqat boundaries but outside the precincts of Haram, (who are called Ahl-e-Hill), the rule
of action in this respect is that in case they intend to go to Mecca for the Purpose of 'Hajj' or 'Umra' they are to wear 'Ihram', at the time they leave their home or at the most before reaching the precincts of Haram. If their proceeding to Mecca is for some commercial purposes or for any other need, they are not obliged to observe 'Ihram' formality. They can go to Mecca without Ihram whenever they like.
The inhabitants of the first circle, that is to say the persons living within the precincts of Haram, are also under no restrictions of 'Ihram'. When they desire to perform 'Umra' they should go outside the precincts of Haram and wear Ihram. When they intend to perform Hajj they are to wear 'Ihram' from the Haram itself.
Pakistan And Indians Where To Wear Ihram
It is noteworthy that for the Afaqi people Ihram is obligatory to be worn on Miqat or on the point confronting Miqat. It is not
permissible to step forward towards Mecca without Ihram beyond Miqat or the point confronting Miqat. If anyone does so, he will be under obligation to offer Dam.
Yet it is not only permissible but also preferable to wear Ihram before Miqat or the point confronting Miqat.
Since the introduction of traveling by aeroplanes, there have been two routes for Pakistani and Indian travellers. One is the sea route and the other is the air route. There are separate rules of action regarding Ihram for both the routes.
Rule Of Action By The Sea Route:
As the steamer sails on the sea along the coast, there is no Miqat on the way upto Jedda, nor such a point as to confront the Miqat so as the wearing of Ihram may become obligatory while saailing on the sea. But, of course, after passing by the port of Aden, the point confronting Yalamlam, the Miqat for the people of Yemen, is well known. For that very reason, the pilgrims on board wear
Ihram, at this place considering it as confronting point. It is not only permissible, but also preferable to wear Ihram at this confronting point. But since the traveller has to reach Jedda from outside, without crossing the point confronting Yalamlam facing towards the venerable Mecca; and until he reachers Jedda, he does not confront the Miqat while going towards Ka'ba, it is also permissible if anyone delays to wear Ihram till the reachers Jedda, and wears it on arriving at Jedda. Detailed arguments on this rule will be found in my Urdu treatise "Ahkame Mawaqit".
For Pilgrims Travelling By Air:
It is well understood that the pilgrims travelling by air have to cross, often unknowingly, the Miqat of Najd or Iraq or their confronting points. Even, sometimes proceeding to Jeddah, they have to cross the very precincts of Haram. They, therefore, have no choice to wear their Ihram after landing on Jeddah. It is incumbent upon them to wear
Ihram at Karachi Air port or during their voyage, not later than one or one and half hour after the aeroplane takes off. It is the only way to avoid the risk of crossing Miqat without Ihram. If they fail to do so, they will be sinful as well as under an obligation to offer a 'Dam'.
For Indian Pilgrims Proceeding Form Bombay:
On consulting the map it is estimated that their aeroplane also reaches Jedda after crossing the confronting point of the Miqat for Najd or Iraq. Therefore these gentlemen should also wear Ihram at Bombay Air port or at the time when an hour or one and a half hour passes after the aeroplane takes off.
On Reaching Jedda:
The travellers by the routes; air and sea, first reach Jedda. It is not therefore improper to call Jedda as the geteway to Haramain. On reaching Jedda thanks should be offered to Allah as the cherished destination has drawn nearer, Ihram would either be
already worn, otherwise it may be worn on reaching here. Talbiyah should be repeated with a loud voice at suitable intervals. The whole of the time spared from necessities of life should be kept busy with the remembrance of Allah the Now, the journey from Jedda to Mecca is very short by motor vehicles. At a short distance beyond the intermediate travelling destination 'Bahra' the two pillars of the 'Haram' boundaries will become visible. Herefrom onward begins the Haram of Mecca.
Entrance InTo The Precincts Of Haram
Entrance into the precincts of Haram is, in fact, the rarely allowed admission into the magnificent sanctuary of the Lord of Glory, the Sublime. One should enter these precincts with careful vital feelings of His megnificence and dignity. The preceding Prophets (peace be on them) and virtuous eminent people in the past have accustomed to walk from here onward bare-footed. If it was not
from 'Zee-Tuwa', a place outside the city of Mecca, or at the most on entering the Holy city of Mecca (Hayatul Qulob of Makhdom Hashim Sindi). But nowadays, we generally travel by motor vehicles and a dropping of our own choice is not possible. Moreover, our luggage in the bus certainly keeps our mind attached to it. Hence we enter the Haram while travelling in a motor vehicle but at the time of entrance one should be particular about repeating Talbiya again and again and about craving mercy of Allah with utmost expression of humiliation.
Entrance In To The Holy City Of Mecca
Rule Of Action:
Taking a bath before entering the Holy place of Mecca is a tradition of the Holy Prophet. This tradition can stand followed if, nowadays, a person takes a bath on taking a start from Jedda because nowadays, on account of motor vehicles this distance is covered in a very short time. On entering Mecca he
should at first look after his luggage and manage his lodging so that his mind does not remain attached therewith. Thereafter he should come in 'Masjid-e-Haram.
Rule Of Action:
It is Mustahab (desirable) for a pilgrim to enter 'Masjid-e-Haram' through Babussalam (one of the gates of Masjid-e-Haram). The original Babussalam still remains on the very place where it was in the times of the Holy Prophet. A new gate, however, has been built confronting the old Babussalam when Masjid-e-Haram was widened. This new gate, too, is called Babussalam. Now one should enter Masjid-e-Haram through this new gate, but there is no harm to enter through some other gate. Entrance should be with constant repetition of Talbiya and most humbly and submissively, considering the dignity abd sublimity of Baitullah.
Rule Of Action:
The entrance to the Mosque should be with your right step forward and after saying Darood Sharif, you should pray in
the following words:
"O Allah ! Open unto us the gates of Thy mercy and render easy for us Thy gates of (our) livelihood."
If the actual words of the invocation are not preserved in memory, one may pray to Allah by repeating the subject matter there of in one's own language.
At The Time Of Your First Glance On Baitullah
You should proclaim (Allah-o-Akbar La Ilaha Ilallaho)
three times and pray in the following words, which have been narrated from Hadith:
"O Allah ! Thou art the Peace and from Thee is the peace. O, our Lord! Keep us alive with peace";
"O Allah ! Elevate this House of Thee in reverence, dignity, honour and awefulness and raise those who perform 'Hajj' or 'Umra' towards it, in dignity, honour, reverence and heavenly reward."
Invocation in the above words is 'Mustahab' (desirable). In case it is not memorised you may pray to Allah in your own words for your good desires. Praying to Allah
at this proper time stands approved.
Rule Of Action:
At the time of entering Masjid-ul-Haram one should not say two Nafl of 'Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid' because those who come here for the sake of a 'Tawaf', their 'Tahiyya' (token of veneration to the mosque) is the 'Tawaf' itself instead of 'Nafl'.
The First Thing Tawaf
One who enters Mecca from outside, with any intention whatsoever, since it is obligatory for him not to cross the Miqat without Ihram, therefore, one who comes here will have to enter the state of Ihram either for any of the kinds of Hajj or for Umra and then he will reach Mecca. In any case, the first thing for him, after getting himself relieved of the arrangement of his luggage, is so enter Masjid-e-Haram and perform Tawaf. But the nature of Tawaf will, of course, differ in each case. It will be the Tawaf of Umra for one who performs Hajj-e-Tamattu; for Mufrid it will be
Tawaf-e-Qudom, which is Sunnst and not Wajib. One who enters the Ihram of Qiran, he will first perform Tawaf of Umra and Sa'i. Then he will perform Tawaf-e-Qudom for Hajj.
To Go To Multazam And Pray
The part of Baitullah which is between 'Hajar-e-Aswad' and the gate of Baitullah is called Multazam. Invocations at this place are specially granted. According to 'Sunnat' you are to go to Multazam after Tawaf. There, you are to place your both hands upright in the direction over your head-on the wall of this particular part of Ka'ba. You are also to touch the wall with your breast and cheeks, and pray to Allah humbly and submissively. It is an experienced act that such invocation is never rejected.
To Have A Drink Of ZamZam Water
After Tawaf it is 'Mustahab' to go to the well of Zamzam and have a bellyful drink of Zamzam water while you are facing
Baitullah. This drink should be in three breaths, reciting 'Baitullah' in the beginning and 'Alhamd-u-lillah' at the end.
Rule Of Action
Taking a bath or making an ablution with the water of Zamzam is not proper yet a person without ablution is allowed to make an ablution. Doing Istinja or cleaning out the pollution of your body or clothes is not lawful with this water (Ghunya).
Idhtiba' and Ramal During Tawaf
The practices of Tawaf so far mentioned are equally necessary for the observers of every kind of Tawaf, whether it may be a Tawaf of Umra or a Tawaf of Hajj and similarly its observer may be a Mufrid or a Qarin or a Mutamatte. It may be a Wajib Tawaf or 'Sunnat' or 'Nafl'. But the Tawaf wherein you have to observe Sa'i between Safa and Marwah requires you to perform two more practices: -
Firstly the Idhtiba, that is, you are to put the upper sheet of your Ihram on your left
shoulder; taking it through your right armpit. In Tawaf followed by Sa'i, Idhtiba is Sunnat only for males from the very beginning upto the end. But at the tine of saying two Rak'ats of Tawaf the sheet is to cover both your shoulders as usual (Zubda). The second practice is that of 'Ramal' which is Sunnat in the first three circuits of Tawaf. The way of performing Ramal is to walk hurriedly with forceful and narrow paces while shaking the shoulders like a brave soldier going to battlefield. But he is not required to run. (Hayatul Qulob).
Rule Of Action:
Idhtiba and Ramal both are Sunnat for males only. Females are exempted.
Rule Of Action:
The first Tawaf performed by a Qarin or a Mutamatte will be treated as a Tawaf of Umra whereafter Sa'i of Umra becomes obligatory. As such, Idhtiba and Ramal are necessary for both of them, unlike a 'Mufrid' who wore Ihram' only for 'Hajj'. His first Tawaf will be treated as Tawaf-e-Qudom
whereafter Sa'i for 'Hajj' is not necessary to be observed at that very time because he has the choice to perform Sa'i at that time or after Tawaf-e-Ziyarat on the 10th day of the Zilhijja. Anyhow, in case he desires to perform the Sa'i for Hajj with Tawaf-e-Qudom, He will also have to observe the Sunnat of Idhtiba and Ramal in his first Tawaf-e-Qudom. But it is preferable to perform Sa'i of Hajj after Tawaf-e-Ziyarat.
Sai Between Safa And Marwah
Safa and Marwa are two hills in the neighbourhood of Masjid-ul-Haram. The literal meaning of Sa'i is to run. In the terminology of Shari'at (Islamic Law) to make seven rounds between Safa and Marwah, in a particular way, is called Sa'i. It is observed as a memorial of a particular action of Hazrat Isma'il (peace be upon them). This Sa'i is 'Wajib' both in 'Hajj' and Umra.
Rules And Conditions For Sai:
It is a condition for Sa'i to be performed
after Tawaf. A Sa'i performed before Tawaf is not valid. It will have to be performed again after Tawaf. (Zubda). It is not, however necessary to perform a Sa'i immediately after Tawaf. Though it is a Sunnat to do so yet there is no harm if there is a pause in between due to one's being tired or on account of some other requirement (Zubda).
Rule Of Action:
For a Sa'i performed after the stay at Arafat and along with the Tawaf of Ziyarat, Ihram not a condition. It is even preferable and desirable to perform Tawaf-e-Ziyarat, after taking off Ihram in Mina on the 10th of Zilhijja when you already become free from offering a sacrifice and having your head shaven, although it is also permissible to perform Tawaf-e-Ziyarat before putting off Ihram. But Ihram is a condition for the Sa'i of Hajj which is performed before the stay at Arafat. Similarly, Ihram stands a condition for a Sa'i of Umra as well.
Rule Of Action:
If Sa'i was
not performed after Tawaf-e-Qudom, it must be performed within Ayyam-e-Nahr after the Tawaf-e-Ziyarat. It is Makroh to delay Sa'i after the days of Nahr (Hayat-ul-Qulob).
Rule Of Action:
Though Sa'i is 'Wajib' to be performed on foot yet in case of some excuse it is allowed with the help of some sort of conveyance like rickshaw etc. If someone performs Sa'i on a vehicle without any excuse, he falls under the obligation of Dam i.e. offering a sacrifice.
Masnon Mode Of Sai:
After Tawaf when you become free from having a drink of Zamzam Water and ready to go for Sa'i you should go again to Hajar-e-Aswad and offer an Istilam for the 9th time, i.e. you kiss Hajar-e-Aswad if possible, otherwise touch Hajar-e-Aswad with some stick or your hand and then kiss it. In case it is also not possible, kiss both your hands while keeping them in a confronting position to Hajar-e-Aswad and proclaim.
Thereafter, according to the traditions of the Holy Prophet you come out through 'Babus Safa', though it is also permissible through some other gate. Then you are to ascend Safa so high as you may have a look of Baitullah. Thereupon you are to stand with your face towards Ka'ba and make up your mind as follows to perform Sa'i:
"O Allah! for the sake of Thy pleasure I intend to complete seven rounds of Sa'i between Safa and Marwah. Now render it easy for me and accord it Thy approval."
Vitalizing this Niyyat (your intention) in mind is sufficient, but to pronounce it in words is however preferable. Then you are to raise your hands as they are raised at the time of invocation and not to raise them in a position similar to that of Takbir-e-Tahrima in prayers as most of the ignorant people do (Manasik, Mulla Ali Qari). Thereafter, pronounce Takbir and Tahlil loudly and Darod Sharif with a tender voice, and Pray to Allah, humbly and
submissively. This is also a place attracting Allah's approbation. Though it depends upon your own choice, you may Praise Allah with whatever words you like and you may pray to Him whatever you are desirous for, yet the invocation narrated from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), particularly for this place is preferable. The invocation is:
"There is no God but Allah, He is Unique, He hath no partner; The whole universe is only for Him and for Him is the praise. He gives life and He brings death."
"He hath power over all things. There is no God but Allah. He is Unique. He fulfilled His promise and helped His slave and He alone defeated the enemies."
Following this invocation there is another invocation to be recited, narrated from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).
"O Allah! Thou said, 'Call on me, I would respond' and Thou never breakest Thy promise ; and I ask Thee that as Thou hath guided me to Islam,
do not derive me of it till thou takest me unto Thee while I am a Muslim."
These Takbirat and invocations are to be repeated three times. Besides this, you may invoke whatever blessings you desire as it is a place of approbation. Hereafter you are to walk, while reciting the name of Allah, from Safa to Marwah with usual pace. When you reach within a distance of six cubits from the place where green pillars have been erected within the wall, you are to start running and keep running even after crossing the other green pillars, upto a distance of six cubits from these latter pillars. Then again you are to walk with usual steps. For this occasion the following invocation has been narrated from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him):
"My Lord! Forgive and have mercy! Thou art Most Powerful, Most Gracious. (Zubda)"
You may however pray for whatever else you desire as prayers are granted at this place also.
If you are performing Sa'i by means of some carriage you should speed it up between the two green pillars provided it does not hurt others. To run whether on foot or on a carriage is Sunnat only upto such an extent that it does not cause annoyance to others. When you reach Marwah, the hill confronting to Safa, you are to ascend it and stand there with your face towards Baitullah. Here also you are to repeat the practice you observed on Safa like raising your hands, pronouncing Takbir-o-Tahlil and praying. You have thus completed a round of Sa'i. Thereafter you are to walk back from Marwah to Safa. This time as well you are to start running a short while before reaching the green pillar and upto a short distance beyond the other green pillar you are to continue running. Then walking on usual steps, you are to ascend Safa and as detailed above you are to raise your hands in the position of invocation, repeat Takbir-o-Tahlil and pray as
before, Thus you have completed the 2nd round. In this way you are to complete seven rounds. Sa'i commences from Safa and ends on Marwah.
Rule Of Action:
It is a Sunnat of the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) to complete seven rounds of Sa'i and then to offer two Rak'ats of prayers by the side of 'Mataf' (where Tawaf is performed in the Haram. It is howover permissible to offer two Rak'ats somewhere at Bab-ul-Umra.
Rule Of Action:
Cleanliness, ablution and wearing clean clothes are treated to be Mustahab for the observance of Sa'i though it stands accomplished otherwise as well (Ghunya).
On Being Free From Sai:
Now all the practices pertaining to Ihram and Umra have come to end provided the 'Ihram' was worn with the intention of Umra or of Tamattu in Hajj. After being free from Sa'i you may have your head shaven or at least have its hair cut equal to a finger's joint
(about an inch) in length. To shave the head is called 'Halq' and to cut the hair is called Qasr. With this Halq or Qasr, Ihram formality has ended. Now, the observer of Umra alone has become free. Similarly the observer of Umra pertaining to Hajj-e-Tamattu has now stood relived from the obligation of Umra or Tamattu. Formalities of Ihram have now ended for both of them. They may now stay in Mecca, like common inhabitants and wait for the days of Hajj, which will commence from the 8th day of Zilhijja. During this intervening period they should not stroll unnecessarily in Bazars or in meetings. Presences in Haramand frequent Nafl Tawafs should be treated as Allah's great bounty.
On the other hand, if a person is Mufrid that is to say he has worn Ihram from Miqat for Hajj only or if he is a Qarin and has
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