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Re: [Immigration Canada] The History of Karbala

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  • koza
      What this exceptionally long letter has to do with Immigration Canada ????   If I receive such irrelevant message one more time, I will abandon my
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 7, 2009
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      What�this exceptionally long letter has to do with "Immigration Canada"????

      If I receive such�irrelevant message�one more time, I will�abandon�my membership.

      K,

      --- On Wed, 1/7/09, Nizamulislam .com <nizamulislam1@...> wrote:

      From: Nizamulislam .com <nizamulislam1@...>
      Subject: [Immigration Canada] The History of Karbala
      To: "Nizamulislam" <nizamulislam1@...>
      Date: Wednesday, January 7, 2009, 4:04 PM

      www.nizamulislam.com
      The History of
      Karbala
      By Abu�Ammar



      Preface

      In the name of Allah Most High, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All
      Praise be to Allah Most High, the Creator, the Provider. He has no Partners, and
      is in no need of any. He is Alone, He made the Heavens and the Earth, and He
      knows what was before time, what is present and what is after. He shows the
      straight path to whosoever He wishes, and whoever He chooses to bless, He makes
      them the best among the best. O Allah, send salutations on our Prophet (Allah
      bless him and give him peace), who is the last and final Messenger. After him
      there will be no Prophets to come until the Day of Judgement. Allah Most High
      has given him the highest excellence. On the Day of Judgement when every
      indi�vidual will be present, our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)
      will intercede on the behalf of the Muslims. Peace and blessings be upon our
      Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace), his family, his
      companions and all his followers.

      I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah Most High
      and Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) is His servant and His
      Messenger. I thank Allah Most High for giving me the strength and courage to
      write about Sayyiduna Imam Husain (Allah be well pleased with him).

      There are several reasons for writing this booklet. My main aim is to clarify
      the rituals performed during the first Islamic month, Muharram. During this
      month the Shi�ah (a sect) beat themselves on their chest with knives to show
      that they are mourning for Imam Husain. But the truth is that it was Shi�as of
      Kufa and Basra who invited Imam Husain and then left him, in Karbala, to be
      martyred.

      On this occasion, the people of Ahl Sunnah wal Jammat recite the Holy
      Qur'an and make Supplication (Dua); they gather together and their scholars
      explain about the events of Karbala. The event that took place in Karbala is a
      Sa'd occasion for all the Muslims. However, some take this occasion to the
      extreme, exaggerating and telling fabricated stories with the aim of making
      emotions high, causing crowds to become frantic and overcome with tears.

      Many stories are related and told with great favour, but contain untruths such
      as the following:

      (A)If any stone were to be lifted around Masjid Aqsa (Dome��� of the Rock
      Mosque in Jerusalem) there would be blood underneath it. The suggestion is that
      even the rocks were mourning the passing of Imam Husain.

      (B) It rained blood from the sky.

      (C) When the sun went down drops of blood fell from it.

      (D) The trees started to weep blood.

      (E)Imam Husain took his son Ali Asgar and begged the enemy for water, and while
      he was asking for water they shot an arrow and martyred him. However, this is
      not a true account of what actually happened. In actual fact his son was playing
      in his lap during the time of Karbala and an arrow struck him, from which he was
      martyred. Imam Husain did not in truth beg for water as he had a brave and
      courageous character, and� this would have been a sign of weakness.

      (F)Imam Husain had a daughter and he left her in Madina, telling her that he
      would call her in a few months after he reached Kufa. Some say that when he was
      in Karbala he received a letter from her, which was said to have been a sad
      letter asking him why he had not come to collect her.

      (G)Some people maintain that when Muslim bin Aqeel went to Kufa and took his
      two sons, who were five and seven year old, with him . After their father�s
      death, the two sons, out of fear for their lives, attempted to escape to Madina.
      But they were captured by the governor of Kufa, and martyred. However, the truth
      is that Muslim bin Aqeel�s two sons were not of that age, nor did they
      accompany their father. In fact, they went to� Karbala with Imam Husain and
      were martyred there.

      None of these accounts are to be found in the books of Tabari, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn
      Atheer, Usd al-Ghabah, or in the Tareekh of al-Khulafa, nor in Tareekh Ibn
      Katheer. No where is it mentioned that Imam Husain left his young daughter in
      Madina.

      In writing this booklet I intend to present authentic narrations regarding the
      events of Karbala. I also intend to collect them and compile them in one place
      so that the reader can understand the events with clarity.

      Another reason for writing this booklet is that there are those who, on the
      10th of Muharram, praise Yazid and speak ill of Imam Husain. They are called
      Nawaasib and Khawarij. These two sects are totally against Imam Husain. In their
      opinion� Imam Husain was wrong in opposing Yazid�s government, and he was
      killed in accordance with the rulings of the Holy Qur�an and Sunnah.

      Also, I have always had the desire to write of Imam Husain�s excellence, his
      bravery and the sacrifices that he made, and to refute the objections that have
      been made against him. In sha� Allah, I will try to fulfill these objectives
      to the best of my ability in this booklet.

      Allama Ibn Khuldun writes in al-Muqaddima about an event that occurred in his
      town. He wrote that in his area there was a Sayyid (a person from the family of
      the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) against whom people were making
      false accusations.. However, Ibn Khaldun relates that he supported him because
      on the Day of Judgement his grandfather would support him, in other words the
      Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace).

      When I read this I thought that if I were also to support the Sayyids and
      refute false allegations about the grandson of the Prophet (Allah bless him and
      give him peace), tomorrow on the day of judgement, Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless
      him and give him peace) may also intercede for me.����

      May Allah Most High make this booklet a useful source of knowledge for the
      reader and accept this work and reward me.


      THE BACKGROUND� OF
      KARBALA


      IMAM HUSAIN

      Imam Husain was born to the daughter of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give
      him peace), Sayyida Fatima, in the month of Shaban 4 Hijra, Sayyiduna Hasan,
      Husain and Mohsin were three brothers. Mohsin passed away in his infancy. When
      Sayyiduna Hasan, Imam Husain�s older brother, was born, Sayyiduna Ali named
      him Harb. When the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) enquired as to
      the chosen name, Sayyiduna Ali said that the name �Harb� had been chosen.
      However, the Prophet replied his name should be �Hasan�. When Imam Husain
      was born, Sayyiduna Ali again named Imam Husain �Harb�. The Prophet again
      said, �no his name is Husain.� When the third child was born Sayyiduna Ali
      again named him Harb, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) again
      said, �No his name is Mohsin.� Then the Prophet said,� �I have given the
      children the same names that the prophet Harun (alai his sallam) gave his
      children.� His childrens�
      names were Shaber, Sabbir, and Moshabir, in other words Hasan, Husain, and
      Mohsin. The names Hasan and Husain are from the people of Paradise. In the time
      of ignorance, before the time of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him
      peace) no one had been given these names.

      [Imam Ibn Atheer narrates the above incident in his book, Usdul-Gabah]�

      When Imam Husain was born, the Prophet (sallal ho alihi wasallam) came and
      recited the Adhan in his ear. Sayyiduna Hasan and Husain had the likeness of the
      Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), Sayyiduna Hasan from the chest
      upwards looked very� similar to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him
      peace), and Imam Husain looked identical from the waist down to our Prophet
      (Allah bless him and give him peace).

      Usdul Gabah fi Ma�refat-i- Sahabah - biography of Sayyiduna Imam Husain by
      Allama Ibn Atheer .

      EXCELLENCE OF IMAM HUSAIN

      Hafiz Ibn Katheer writes that one day an angel came and sat down by the Prophet
      (Allah bless him and give him peace). Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him
      peace)said to Umme Salma (the wife of the Prophet and the mother�s of the
      believers), �we have a guest, do not let any one enter as we are having a
      conversation.� In the meantime Imam Husain, who at the time� was very young,
      entered the room, and as children do, Imam Husain climbed on top of our
      Prophet�s shoulder. The angel said �Do you love him�; Our Prophet replied
      �Yes�. The angel then said �Your followers will at a later time martyr
      him. If you wish I can show you where he will be martyred. Our Prophet (Allah
      bless him and give him peace) said he would like to see where his grandson would
      be martyred. The angel then waved his hand and brought some red soil� and said,
      �This is the place where he will be martyred.� Our Prophet took some soil
      from his hand and gave it to
      Umme Salma. She put the soil in a bottle.

      After this it became known amongst the companions that Imam Husain would be
      martyred in a place called Karbala. Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him
      peace) told them that if any of them are present at the time, they should
      support him. Sayyiduna Anas bin Harris was with Imam Husain in Karbala and was
      martyred.

      Once when Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, was in Iraq
      and was passing the field of Karbala with Abu Abdullah. He shouted, �O Abu
      Abdullah stop! O Abu Abdullah go and stop near the river Euphrates�. Sayyiduna
      Ali then said, �One day I went to see the Prophet (Allah bless him and give
      him peace) and he had tears in his eyes. When I asked him why he had tears in
      his eyes, he said that the angel Gabriel had come to see him and had told him
      that Husain will be martyred near the river Euphrates, and the angel had given
      him some soil from there�.

      In another narration it is said that once Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be
      pleased with him, was passing by a place, he asked: �What is this place
      called? Someone said, �This is Karbala.� Sayyiduna Ali seighed, �O
      Karbala�. He stopped there and performed salah (prayer) and then said that the
      people who will be martyred here will have the highest status among martyrs,
      after the companions, and they will enter Paradise without any reckoning. While
      Sayyiduna Ali was there he pointed to the place where Imam Husain would be
      martyred. The narrator confirms that Imam Husain was in fact martyred in the
      exact spot Sayyiduna Ali had pointed to.

      Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, �Imam Husain and
      Sayyiduna Hasan are my two flowers of the world.� He also said,� �Whoever
      loves them loves me and whoever hates them, hates me. Abu Huraira, may Allah
      Most High be pleased with him, said that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give
      him peace) looked towards Sayyiduna Hasan, Imam Husain and Sayyiduna Fatima and
      said, �Whoever fights with you, I will fight with him and whoever loves you I
      will love him.�

      Sayyiduna Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, said, �One
      day the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) came to us, and on one of
      his shoulders was Sayyiduna Hasan and on the other Imam Husain. On the way to us
      we saw that sometimes he would kiss Sayyiduna Hasan and sometimes he would kiss
      Imam Husain. One person spoke and said, �Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give
      him peace) do you love them very dearly? The Prophet answered, �Yes, I love
      them dearly. Whoever loves them I will also love him and whoever holds a grudge
      against them, he in fact holds a grudge against me.��

      Sayyiduna Laila bin Murrah says, �The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him
      peace) said that Husain is mine and I am his. Whoever loves Husain, Allah Most
      High will love him because Husain is my grandson.�

      Sayyiduna Abu Sa'id Khudri says that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give
      him peace) said that Sayyiduna Hasan and Husain are the leaders of the youth in
      Paradise.

      Rabi bin Sa�d narrates that Imam Husain came into the Mosque. Sayyiduna Jabir
      bin Abdullah, who was the companion of the Prophet, said, �I have heard from
      the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) that whoever wants to see the
      leader of Paradise should look at Husain.�

      Sayyiduna Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, narrates that
      the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said that he loved Imam Husain
      and Sayyiduna Hasan and whoever loved him should love them. The Prophet made
      supplication to Allah Most High that I love Hasan and Husain and hope you also
      love and protect them. He also narrates that once Hasan and Husain came into the
      Mosque (Masjid-I-Nabawi) and the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)
      was performing his prayer. When he would go into� prostration Sayyiduna Hasan
      and Husain would jump onto his back, and when our Prophet (Allah bless him and
      give him peace) sat up from the prostration, he would slowly put them down. When
      he would go into prostration again they would jump on his back again, until he
      would finish the prayers. Sayyiduna Abu Huraira said that he went to the Prophet
      and said,� �Shall I take them to their mother as it is getting darker
      outside�. As soon as
      he finished saying this, a light lit up on the path from the Mosque to the
      house of their mother (Fatima). The light was so strong that we could see
      Sayyida Fatima�s house from where we were sitting. The Prophet (Allah bless
      him and give him peace) said to his grandsons �You may go home now.��

      [Tareekh Ibn Katheer by Hafiz Ibn Katheer � chapter on Karbala and Imam
      Husain ]

      These Ahadith written by Hafiz Ibn Katheer in the excellence of Imam Husain
      have been collected from Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi, Musnad Ahmed, and other books
      of Hadith. These ahadith have been accepted as authentic ahadith by all of the
      following scholars:
      (a) Hafiz Ibn Taimiyah��������
      (b) Hafiz Ibn Qayyim
      (c) Hafiz Ibn Katheer���������
      (d) Qadi Shuwkani
      (d) Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab.

      FOOTNOTE As some people do not accept the authenticity of a hadith unless it is
      accepted by particular scholars. Therefore, we have taken all these Ahadith from
      Hafiz Ibn Katheer�s book rather than original books of Hadith.


      �YAZID BIN MU�AWIYAH

      Yazid bin Mu�awiyah was the son of Amir, who was the companion of our Prophet
      (sallalaho alihi wasallam). He was born in either 26th or the 27th year of the
      Hijra. His mother, Maysun, was divorced from Amir but Yazid lived with his
      father. Yazid was a very clever, witty and intelligent boy.

      Yazid had a passion for music and alcohol. He always had a hangover in the
      morning due to his heavy drinking from the night before. When he hunted, he
      travelled with many dogs and enjoyed watching animals fighting one another. His
      fondness of his pets went to such extremes that his pets even travelled on
      horses laden with gold, and when a pet died, he would mourn for it.. Some
      historians claim that he died due to one of his pets actually biting him while
      he was playing with it. However, there are many versions as to how he actually
      died, and Allah ta�ala knows best.����

      Sayyidina Amir Mu�awiyah could do nothing but reprimand his son for his ways,
      and offer him advice. He advised him repeatedly, �O my son, why do you indulge
      yourself in these evil things? Your enemies will triumph at your actions, while
      your friends will never respect you.� As time progressed, so did the habits;
      all the father could do was to advise him, while the son ignored the advice his
      father gave.

      One day, Yazid asked his father if after his earthly departure, he would be
      made the King. Yazid promised that he would do nothing but righteous deeds and
      rule like �Umar Ibin al-Khatab. Amir was so surprised that he responded by
      saying, �Sub-han Allah! How can this be possible? I swear by Allah, the Most
      High, that I have tried my very best to even come near to what �Umar used to
      do, and I have not been able to do that!� History proves that Yazid did not in
      fact implement the Islmaic political, social and economic system like Umar Ibn
      al- Khattab.

      (Tarikh ibn Kathir, Biography of Yazid bin Mu�awiyah)

      There is also difference of opinion as to when Yazid died. Abu Bakra bin Ayash
      says that the people took bay�ah with Yazid in 60 Hijra, and he died in
      Rabi-ul-Awwal 60 Hijra. But in fact he died on 15th Rabi-ul-Awwal 64 Hijra; and
      he was 48 years old at that time.

      Lisanul Mizan Biography Yazid bin Mu'awiya by Hafiz Ibn Hajar
      Asqalanee��������

      ALLEGIANCE TO YAZID BIN MU'AWIY

      After the death of Amir Mu'awiya may Allah Most High be pleased with him,
      his son Yazid became the ruler of the Muslims. Most of the people had pledged
      their allegiance to him. However, three of the companions of the Prophet (Allah
      bless him and give him peace) in Madina had not done so. It was due to this fact
      that Yazid wrote a letter to The governor of Madina who at the time was Waleed
      bin Utbah. In it he wrote:
      �My father has passed away, making me the King. I hope that you can convince
      these three men to swear allegiance to me�.

      The three Sahabah he made refernecnce to:
      (1)��� Imam Husain, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.
      (2)��� Abdullah bin Zubair, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.
      (3) Abdullah bin Umar, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.�

      When Waleed bin Utbah received the letter, one of his friends Marwan was
      sitting with him. He asked his advice on the matter of the allegiance of these
      three men. Marwan said to The governor, �Send someone to call for Imam Husain
      and Abdullah bin Zubair immediately, and order them to swear allegiance to
      Yazid. If they obey then leave them, but if they refuse then you should have
      them killed. If they find out that Amir Mu'awiya,� may Allah Most High be
      pleased with him, has passed away each of them will claim that they are the
      Amirs (leaders). Do not worry about Abdullah bin Umar as he has no desire to
      fight or become a leader, unless all the people get together and ask him to
      become their leader.�

      IMAM HUSAIN AND ABDULLAH BIN ZUBAIR
      WERE CALLED

      The governor sent one of his men to call Imam Husain and Abdullah bin Zubair.
      He told him that he would find them in the mosque since he had just left the
      Mosque himself and had seen them sitting there. When the person reached the
      Mosque and told them that The governor wanted to see them both, they replied
      that they would come soon. When he left they discussed the reasons The governor
      would want to see them since The governor himself had very recently left the
      mosque. When they could not come up with any reason for his request to see them,
      they decided to leave and go home. When Imam Husain arrived home he called all
      the males from the house and asked them to accompany him to The governor�s
      house.� When they reached his house, Imam Husain instructed them to wait
      outside, and only enter the house if he called them or if The governor raised
      his voice.

      Imam Husain entered the house of The governor. After� greeting him, The
      governor and Marwan gave him the letter which they had received� from Yazid.
      After reading the letter Imam Husain was saddened by the news that Amir
      Mu'awiya had passed away and prayed to Allah Most High to shower his
      blessings upon his grave. The second part of the letter concerned their
      allegiance. Imam Husain said that it was not appropriate for a person of his
      status to pledge allegiance to Yazid secretely. But if they were to gather all
      the people of Madina together to swear their allegiance to Yazid, he would be
      the first among them to speak out about. The governor agreed to invite the
      people in the following morning. But Marwan spoke up immediately advising The
      governor,� �Ask him to swear allegiance to Yazid now, otherwise you will not
      be able to obtain allegiance from him later, until there are rivers of blood
      flowing between you and him. If you do not do this, I will
      kill Imam Husain right now.� Imam Husain spoke with anger and said�
      �Neither you or The governor can kill me as Allah Most High is with me.�
      Then Imam Husain left. On his departure Marwan said to The governor, �You have
      made a grave error in letting Imam Husain leave.�� Waleed said, �I swear by
      Allah Most High that I did not wish to kill Imam Husain for the reason of
      allegiance. And I also swear that if I were given all the possession of a
      kingdom I still would not have killed him.�

      ABDULLAH BIN ZUBAIR LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH

      After Abdullah bin Zubair arrived home he hid inside. The governor sent his
      people a number of times to call him. In the end they surrounded his house and
      called out that if� he did not come out they would come to see him the next
      morning. During the night Abdullah bin Zubair came out very upset and told the
      people to tell The governor that he would come the next morning to see him.
      During the night Abdullah bin Zubair and his brother left for Makkah through a
      road which was not very well known to the travellers. When The governor found
      out that he had been tricked, he sent his men to find them, but by that time
      they had gone. When Abdullah bin Zubair reached Makkah, some of his supporters
      were already there and he began living in Makkah with them. The governor of
      Makkah, Umar bin Sa'id, used to come to the Ka�bah to pray and circumblate
      it (do Tawaf). He would also lead the prayers. Abdullah bin Zubair and his
      supporters refused to join them in
      prayers.

      IMAM HUSAIN LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH

      After Imam Husain left The governor�s house, he returned home and discussed
      with his brother what he should do. Imam Husain�s brother, Muhammad bin
      Hanfiah, said, �You should go to another city and send your representative to
      different cities to convince people to swear their allegiance to you. If the
      people swear allegiance to you then you should thank Allah Most High and if they
      decide to choose someone else as their leader, it would� still not affect your
      religion or the respect people have for you. If you� cannot do this then you
      should stay in the desert or the mountains and send your representative to
      different cities, or even keep changing cities until all the people in each town
      accept you as their leader. I am also afraid that you may go to towns where only
      a few will support you and the majority will oppose you. If there were a
      conflict between them I would not like you to be there to get the blame.� Imam
      Husain then asked his brother
      which city he should go to. His brother replied, �Go to Makkah.��


      ABDULLAH BIN UMAR & ABDULLAH BIN ABBAS

      Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas were in Makkah at the time when Amir
      Mu�awiyya passed away. They were coming towards Madina. Between the road from
      Makkah to Madina they met Imam Husain and when they found out that Imam Husain
      was intending to leave for Kufa, they dissuaded him form undertaking this
      journey. They reminded him of the flick-mindedness and betraying mentality of
      Kufans. Imam Husain maintained that it was important to tear the mask of Islam
      from the face of unIslamic rulers, and to alienate the Muslims from their
      misguided rulers. He asserted that it was incumbent to uphold the banner of
      Islam and defend the fundamental principles of Islamic political system. They
      had a long conversation on this subject, and after a while they each carried on
      with their journey. When Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas reached Madina
      they swore allegiance to Yazid.

      THE NEW GOVERNOR OF MADINA

      Meanwhile, Yazid found out that The governor of Madina had not� forced Imam
      Husain or Abdullah bin Zubair to accept Yazid as the true ruler of the Muslims.
      He terminated his position as governor and appointed a new governor,� Umar bin
      Sa'id al-Ashraq. The new governor was appointed in the month of Ramadan in
      the 60th Hijra. As soon as he became The governor he found out that Abdullah bin
      Zubair and his brother Umar bin Zubair had a conflict between them. He saw an
      opportunity to exploit their conflict for his own benefit and� appointed Umar
      bin Zubair the chief of the police force, and told him to arrest all of his
      brother�s supporters. Some of the people he arrested were regarded as very
      pious and holy men and some of them were the companions or sons of the
      companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). He arrested all
      of them and punished them with 40 to 60 lashes per person.

      The governor then called a meeting to discuss who should be sent to Makkah to
      arrest Abdullah bin Zubair. Umar bin Zubair volunteered to go to Makkah to his
      brother. The governor gave him an army of 700 men and ordered him arrest
      Abdullah bin Zubair and his followers. When Umar bin Zubair was ready to leave
      with his army the friend of the old governor (Marwan) said to Umar bin Zubair,
      �Makkah is a city where even hunting a bird is Haram (forbidden), so how are
      you going to fight in Makkah?� Your brother Abdullah bin Zubair is a fragile
      old man of sixty. What risk can he pose to somone in your position?� Umar Bin
      Zubair said,� �I swear by Allah Most High that I will fight with my brother
      even if he is in the Ka�bah itself.�

      While this conversation was taking place, Abu Shureah Khuzaei, a companion of
      our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), said to The governor, �I
      have heard a Hadith from our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), that
      fighting in Makkah is Haraam, even for him it was only allowed for a very short
      time and then it was made Haraam again. So you should not go to Makkah and
      fight.�� Upon hearing this, The governor replied to Abu Shureah, �We know
      more about the respect of Makkah than you.�

      Nevertheless, Umar bin Zubair left towards Makkah with his army. When they
      neared Makkah they camped outside and Umar bin Zubair sent a messenger to his
      brother. The messenger said to Abdullah bin Zubair, � I have been sent to you
      by The governor of Madina to arrest you and take you back with me, so that you
      may swear allegiance to him in person as he will not accept it in writing or
      verbally. If you give yourself up to me I will put a very thin collar round your
      neck so that it cannot be noticed by your people and they will� not lose�
      respect for you. I will then take you back to Syria to King Yazid. You and I
      both know� it is forbidden to shed blood in Makkah.��

      When Abdullah bin Zubair received this message from his brother he replied by
      saying, � You have come here with the intention to fight so we will fight, I
      will send my people to fight with you outside Makkah.�� Umar bin Zubair�s
      army was defeated in the battle; some of his army men either escaped or were
      killed, and others, including Umar bin Zubair, were captured. Abdullah bin
      Zubair told his brother that all of his followers would be lashed in the same
      way as Abdullah�s supporters were lashed in Madina previously. After the
      lashing took place Abdullah bin Zubair�s brother, Umar bin Zubair, died.

      IMAM HUSAIN IN MAKKAH

      While on his way to Makkah Imam Husain also met Abdullah bin Muti�; when he
      discovered that imam Husain may undertake a journey to Kufa, he warned Imam
      Husain about the Kufans, �Do not go near the city of Kufa under any
      circumstances because the people of Kufa are very disloyal. The people of Kufa
      martyred your father, Sayyiduna Ali, and also contested with your brother,
      Sayyiduna Hasan.� He advised Imam Husain not to leave the surroundings of
      Makkah under any circumstances. �You are the leader of the Arabs, therefore
      whoever loves you and accepts you as their leader will come to you without you
      having to go to them. Unless the people of Makkah tell you to leave, do not
      leave Makkah�, He added.

      After listening to this advice Imam Husain carried on with his journey to
      Makkah and remained and settled there. Time and time again people used to come
      to him and tell him about the situation of Kufa and the evil ways of Yazid. At
      that time Abdullah bin Zubair was also settled in Makkah and spent much time in
      the Ka�bah praying and worshiping Allah. Abdullah bin Zubair recognised the
      higher religious status and elevated� rank of Imam Husain and knew that whilst
      Imam Husain� was in Makkah nobody was going to swear allegiance to him as the
      leader of the Muslims.


      INVITATION TO IMAM HUSAIN FROM
      THE PEOPLE OF KUFA�

      When the people of Kufa heard that Imam Husain had migrated to Makkah, they�
      gathered in Sulaiman bin Surad�s house and discussed how to invite Imam Husain
      to Kufa from Makkah. It was decided that a letter of invitation would be sent to
      Imam Husain. In the letter they wrote: �Yazid has appointed Nu'man bin
      Bashir as The governor of Kufa and none of us has sworn allegiance to him; nor
      do we pray any salah, Friday prayer or Eid prayer behind him. If you come to us
      we shall swear allegiance to you and we will remove him from his post.��
      Signatures of many people supported the letter. Within two days of sending this
      letter another letter was sent again with similar contents to Imam Husain and
      this time backed by 150 signatures. After that a third letter then a fourth, and
      so on; every two days a letter was sent to Imam Husain. Some people even went to
      invite Imam Husain to Kufa in person. On receiving all the letters and personal
      invitations, Imam
      Husain�s opinion of the people of Kufa began to change.

      Imam Husain wrote a letter to the people of Kufa, stating that he appreciated
      the situation in Kufa and was sending one of his cousins,� Muslim bin Aqeel, to
      them, so he could assess the situation of Kufa and inform him of his opinion. He
      further added that he would himself come to Kufa soon because only he who
      follows the book of Allah Most High and establishes justice in the country could
      be the leader of the Muslims.

      MUSLIM BIN AQEEL GOES TOWARDS KUFA

      Muslim bin Aqeel left for Kufa with the letter. He reached Madina, which was on
      his journey; he prayed salah in the Prophet�s Mosque. After saying the prayer
      he acquired two guides to go to Kufa with him.. It seems that misfortune
      overtook Muslim bin Aqeel�s journey to Kufa; they ran out of water and the two
      guides passed away due to dehydration. Muslim bin Aqeel survived and reached an
      oasis and found water. Later, he wrote a letter to Imam Husain explaining all
      the difficulties that he had encountered during the journey to Kufa. In
      addition, he wrote that the journey was cursed and requested� for a proxy to be
      sent in his place.

      When Imam Husain received the letter from Muslim bin Aqeel he replied by
      telling him to stop being so cowardly and continue with the journey to Kufa.
      Upon receiving this letter, Muslim continued with his journey to Kufa. It was
      1st of Zil-Hijjah 60 A.H. when he reached Kufa. He settled in Kufa and the
      Shi'ah people used to come and visit him. Muslim bin Aqeel used to read the
      letters from Imam Husain to them. When the people would hear these letters, they
      would weep and pledge to support Imam Husain to their last breath.

      THE GOVERNOR OF KUFA WAS INFORMED

      Nu�man bin Bashir was The governor of Kufa at the time and he had found out
      that Imam Husain had sent Muslim bin Aqeel as his representative and that the
      Shi�ah people of Kufa were visiting him and swearing allegiance to him. Upon
      hearing this The governor gathered the people of Kufa and gave a a speech
      warning the people of the consequences of opposing the government. He asserted,
      �Causing trouble, disturbance and fighting amongst ourselves is not right. I
      will not fight, arrest or cause any kind of hardship to any of you, even for
      suspicion, unless any of you start a conflict or cause trouble. Also I will
      fight with the person who breaks the allegiance with our King Yazid even if it
      means that I would personally have to fight with him.� After he had given this
      speech some of the members of his group started saying to him, �You did not
      give strong indications in your speech and because of this the enemy will be
      encouraged rather than
      frightened.�� The governor replied to them saying, �I can show weakness
      and at the same time be obedient to Allah Most High. I did not want to show the
      kind of strength with which Allah Most High is not pleased with me..�

      After listening to The governor�s reply Abdullah bin Muslim and Ammarah bin
      Waleed and Amar bin Sa�d wrote a letter to the King Yazid, stating that Imam
      Husain had sent a representative to Kufa and the Shi�ah people were swearing
      allegiance to him. The governor gathered the people and gave a lecture and
      instead of discouraging and frightening them he encouraged the enemies� hopes.
      �Therefore, if you feel that you require the city of Kufa, then we suggest
      that you appoint a governor who can implement your commands firmly, safeguard
      your city and keep the enemies at bay..� After� reading this letter, Yazid
      asked advice from one of his men named Sarjoon Roomi.

      ADVICE OF SARJOON ROOMI

      Sarjoon told the King� he would give him the same advice he would have offered
      if his father had been alive. Sarjoon instructed the King to appoint�
      UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, the present governor of Basra, the new Governor of Kufa.
      Yazid heeded this advice despite the fact that he disliked UbayduLlah bin Ziyad.
      He wrote a letter to Yazid stating, �I am appointing you as the new governor
      of Kufa, as well as Basra. You may appoint someone else as your deputy in Basra.
      I would like you to go to Kufa immediately and take full charge there. The
      situation is urgent because Imam Husain has sent a representative, Muslim bin
      Aqeel, to Kufa on his behalf, who is seeking allegiance from the people of Kufa
      and turning them against� the government. I give you full authority to deal
      with the matter as you see best;� you may ask Muslim bin Aqeel to leave Kufa,
      or you may execute him.�

      When UbayduLlah bin Ziyad received this letter from the King he gathered the
      people of Basra and told them that he had been appointed the new governor of
      Kufa. He appointed his brother, Uthman, as deputy governor of Basra. He
      instructed the people of Basra not to cause any friction or rebel against the
      King since he would not tolerate such actions and would execute anyone, even
      members of his family, for causing such troubles.��

      UBAYDULLAH BIN ZIYAD GOES TOWARDS KUFA

      UbayduLlah bin Ziyad departed for his journey to Kufa with some of his family
      members and servants. When they had almost reached Kufa he separated from them
      and told them to remian at the outskirts of Kufa,� as he wanted to enter the
      city by himself. When the people of Kufa saw UbayduLlah bin Ziyad entering the
      city they immediately thought that it was Imam Husain, and started to sing a
      song welcoming him into their city. � Welcome, son of our Prophet, welcome son
      of our Prophet.� UbayduLlah bin Ziyad did not respond to their chanting but
      continued riding his horse towards The governor�s house. When The governor of
      Kufa, Nu�man bin Bashir, heard all the people singing� in celebration of Imam
      Husain coming to Kufa, he got frightened and locked the doors of his house
      thinking Imam Husain was here to take his position and kill him. When UbayduLlah
      bin Ziyad reached his house and knocked on the door, Nu�man would not open
      it.. UbayduLlah bin Ziyad
      shouted that if he did not open the doors then they would open the doors by
      force. When UbayduLlah bin Ziyad uttered these words, someone from the crowd
      recognised his voice and said, �This is not Imam Husain, it is UbayduLlah bin
      Ziyad, The governor of Basra�. The crowd immediately dispersed. Nu�man also
      heard this and he opened his doors to let UbayduLlah bin Ziyad enter his house.

      �The next day UbayduLlah bin Ziyad told Nu'man to gather all the people of
      Kufa, and he gave a speech telling them that he was the new governor of Kufa
      appointed by the King. He told the people, � I will be lenient on the poor,
      and the people who are loyal to the King, but I will arrest and punish anyone
      who shows disloyalty to the King. They will feel my sword against their necks. I
      am here to implement the laws and the orders of the King. I will live amongst
      you as a law-abiding citizen..�� He gave a lengthy speech to the people.
      People who were in favour of Muslim bin Aqeel began to feel frightened of
      UbayduLlah bin Ziyad. When Muslim bin Aqeel heard that the� people had been so
      frightened by the speech, he too felt fear of the person whose house has was
      staying at.

      MUSLIM BIN AQEEL MOVES PREMISES

      Muslim bin Aqeel began making arrangements to move to someone else�s house.
      He went to Hani bin Urwah�s house, and knocked on his door, asking whether he
      could stay there. The expression on Hani bin Urwah�s face told him he was not
      welcome. He said,� �You should not have come here as you might be creating
      trouble for me and my family.�� Muslim bin Aqeel replied,� �I have come to
      your house as a guest and you are telling me that I am not welcome.�� Hani
      told him that if he felt that way, he should come and live with him as his
      guest.. After that Muslim bin Aqeel began living there.

      UBAYDULLAH BIN ZIYAD�S DETECTIVE SLAVE

      UbayduLlah bin Ziyad asked one of his slaves to act as a detective to find out
      where Muslim bin Aqeel was staying. He gave him 3,000 dinars and said �Use
      this money in any way that will help you find the house where Muslim bin Aqeel
      is hiding.� �The slave took the money and started the search. His first stop
      was at the Mosque as it was time to perform salah, and while he was there he saw
      a person performing his salah in the distance. He asked who it was, and was told
      that it was Muslim bin Awsaja-Asdi, and that he was the right-hand man of Muslim
      bin Aqeel.. When Awsaja-Asdi finished saying his prayers the slave approached
      him and said, �I am a traveller from Syria, and I am so honoured that Allah
      Most High has given me the love of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and his family. I have
      found out that a relative of the Prophet is staying in Kufa and the people of
      Kufa are swearing their allegiance to him. I will give you 3,000 dinars if you
      can tell me where
      he is. If you think I cannot be trusted or am spying on behalf of the
      government,� I am willing to swear by Allah Most High to reassure you that all
      I want is to meet him. I would be very honoured if you could arrange this..�
      They had a lengthy conversation but� Muslim bin Awsaja-Asdi disclose Muslim bin
      Aqeel�s residence. After that day they started to see each other on a daily
      basis and became friends. Occasionally, Awsaja-Asdi took the slave with him when
      he went to Hani�s house. In the meantime, Hani had become very ill and The
      governor, UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, came to visit him. At the same time another
      person, Amarah bin Abdur-Rahman, was visiting Hani. He told Hani that it was the
      perfect opportunity to kill The governor, but Hani refused saying, �No, he has
      come to visit me.�

      �After a few days another person called Shareek bin A�uoor who was well
      respected and popular amongst the people also became ill, and came to live with
      Hani.. When The governor found out about his illness he sent a message to
      Shareek that he would come to visit him that evening. Shareek bin A�uoor�
      told� Muslim bin Aqeel that The governor was planning to visit him, and
      suggested they have him killed so that Muslim could take his position as
      governor of Kufa and have complete control over the city.

      Hani was listening to all this; he warned them that the time was not right for
      this action As the day passed and the evening approached The governor arrived to
      visit Shareek at Hani�s house. They welcomed him and greeted him as their
      guest. After quite a lengthy stay he left. Shareek turned to Muslim bin Aqeel
      and said, �You should have killed him while you had the opportunity.��
      Muslim bin Aqeel replied, �I did not kill The governor for two reasons.
      Firstly, Hani did not want any blood-shed in his house and I have to respect
      that. Secondly, our Prophet (p.b.u.h.) has told us that it is not permissible
      for a Muslim to kill another Muslim.�

      Within three days Shareek�s health had deteriorated rapidly� and sadly he
      passed away. A lot people came to Hani�s house to pay their respects and also
      came to see Muslim bin Aqeel. Amongst these visitors was Muslim bin Awsaja-Asdi
      who used to come and bring the slave (detective) along with him. The slave had
      been continuously reporting back to Ibn Ziyad and informing him of Muslim bin
      Aqeel�s activities.

      As Hani�s health improved he began attending meetings at The governor�s
      house daily as he had done before Musim bin Aqeel�s arrival in Kufa. However,
      as time progressed he began using the excuse that he was ill so that he would
      not have to attend the meetings. But the slave would report back and tell The
      governor that there was nothing wrong with Hani and that he was lying. One day
      The governor asked the people why Hani had not been attending the daily
      meetings. They answered that he was not feeling well. The governor said, �I
      have evidence to believe that� he is not ill at all and he meets a lot of
      people daily in his own house. I would like one of you to go and call him, and
      tell him that The governor would like to see him.�

      HANI WAS ARRESTED

      When Hani arrived at The governor�s house he was arrested and questioned
      about why he had opposed King Yazid, and why he had alllowed Muslim bin Aqeel to
      stay at his house, and why he had held meetings in his home trying to persuade
      others to also oppose Yazid. Hani denied the allegations but The governor told
      him that he had got the information from someone who attended those meetings.
      Hani told The governor that his informant was lying, upon which The governor
      pointed to his slave and asked Hani if he recognised him. Hani had no choice but
      to confirm that he did, but swore by Allah that he had not invited� Muslim bin
      Aqeel into his house, but had felt too ashamed to turm him away when he
      presented himself� as a guest. He promised that he would immediately tell
      Muslim bin Aqeel to leave his house, but The governor replied, � I cannot let
      you go until you hand Muslim bin Aqeel over to me.� However, Hani refused to
      hand Muslim over to him saying
      that Muslim was his guest and if he handed him over, he may be executed. An
      argument ensued between the two during which The governor threatened to have
      Hani killed. Hani reminded him that he had a large tribe of followers who would
      not allow The governor to get away with such an evil act.

      Because Hani refused to comply with the authorities, The governor ordered that
      he should be locked up in prison. By the time the news of Hani�s arrest
      reached his tribe, it had been exaggerated to the degree that people were saying
      that he had been executed. When Hani�s people heard of this they came and
      surrounded The governor�s house. The governor started to panic. He called the
      judge of Kufa, Qadi Shuraih, to come and tell Hani�s people that he was alive
      and had been detained temporarily. After listening to Qadi Shuraih�s version
      of events, the people dispersed.

      MUSLIM BIN AQEEL SURROUNDS THE
      GOVERNOR�S HOUSE

      When Muslim bin Aqeel heard of what had happened he gathered together all
      18,000 people who had sworn allegiance to him, and who were from different
      tribes. Four thousand of them were already at Hani�s house and soon all 18
      thousand men had surrounded The governor�s house. The governor saw that he
      could not contend with such a vast crowd as his police force consisted of only
      30 men, so he locked himself inside his house. The people surrounded the house
      all day.

      The governor again managed to fool the people and exploit the situation to his
      advantage. He knew that among the people in his presence were leaders of some of
      the well-known tribes, so he told them to climb on the walls of his house and
      instruct the people of their tribes to leave� Muslim bin Aqeel and go home.
      Those who followed their instructions and went home would be pardoned by The
      governor and the King, but those who did not would be arrested and punished. The
      leaders managed to convince their followers to go home, and the crowd began to
      disperse.

      PEOPLE OF KUFA BROKE THEIR PROMISE

      Eventually there were only a few people left with Muslim bin Aqeel. He thought
      he might as well tell these people to go to their homes and he should go to the
      Mosque. When he turned to go to the Mosque only 30 men had remained with him. By
      the time he had reached the Mosque he turned to look back and saw that he was
      left alone.

      He decided to enter the Mosque and say his prayers. Afterwards, he left the
      Mosque and started to walk through the streets of Kufa like a stranger who had
      just entered the city. Whilst walking around he became very thirsty; he reached
      a house and knocked on a door to ask for some water. A woman named� Tu�ah
      answered the door. Her son worked for The governor as a detective. Muslim bin
      Aqeel asked the woman for some water and the woman gave him some. After
      quenching his thirst he sat down at her doorstep to have a rest. Tu�ah asked
      him if he had a home in the city. Muslim bin Aqeel did not answer her question.
      She asked the same question again. After she had asked him a number of times, he
      replied,� �I do not have any home or relative in this town. I would
      appreciate it if you could provide me refuge in your house, maybe I will be able
      to repay you for this favour.� Tu�ah invited Muslim bin Aqeel into her home
      and told him that he could stay in
      a part of the house which was reserved for� guests. She then offered him some
      food but Muslim bin Aqeel did not feel like eating. Up until now she was not
      aware of who he was, and decided to ask �Who are you?� Muslim bin Aqeel told
      her who he was, and also said that he had been abandoned by the people of Kufa.

      Tu�ah�s son, Bilal, came back from work and noticed that every now and then
      his mother would go to the part of the house that was reserved for guests. He
      asked his mother why she kept going there. She made him promise that he would
      not tell anyone what she was about to tell him. She told him that she had
      invited Muslim bin Aqeel to stay in their house as a guest and had agreed to
      give him refuge. After listening to his mother, Bilal became very quiet.

      MUSLIM BIN AQEEL WAS ARRESTED

      The governor came out of his house when he saw that the crowd had dispersed,
      and made an announcement that he wanted everyone to gather at the Mosque. When
      all the people had gathered at the Mosque The governor began his speech and
      stated, �All the people who have supported Muslim bin Aqeel are forgiven.
      Muslim bin Aqeel had tried to turn the people against the government but had not
      succeed. At present he is hiding in someone�s house in our city. I will give
      the person who finds him a reward for any information leading to his arrest. I
      will also give pardon to the person whose house he is seeking refuge in. I have
      informed the police to block all the exits leaving out of Kufa to stop Muslim
      bin Aqeel escaping. Tomorrow a house-to-house search for him will commence.�

      The following morning Bilal went to the governor�s house to inform him that
      Muslim bin Aqeel had been seeking refuge in his house. When the governor heard
      about this he immediately sent 72 of his policemen to arrest Muslim bin Aqeel.
      When the police reached Bilal's house they asked Muslim bin Aqeel to hand
      himself over to them. When they heard no reply from the house, they entered and
      tried to confront Muslim bin Aqeel� to arrest him but Muslim bin Aqeel forced
      them out of the house. The police tried to enter the house on several occasions
      but the outcome was always the same. Finally Muslim bin Aqeel was struck on the
      face by the sword of Bakar bin Humran. His upper lip was cut and two of his
      teeth were broken. Upon this he retaliated and struck Bakar bin Humran across
      the shoulder with his sword, causing him to fall to the ground. The officers
      then climbed onto the roof of the house and started to throw stones and fire
      balls inside the house. Muslim
      bin Aqeel got on top of the roof of the house and started to fight with the
      police. One of the people named Mohammed bin Ash�at called out to Muslim bin
      Aqeel and told him to stop fighting and come down and promised he would offer
      him protection. As there were so many policemen opposing him, Muslim bin Aqeel
      decided to come down. He was reciting a poem as he decended.

      The meaning of the poem was:

      ��Everyone must die one day, but I do not wish to die,
      �as I am afraid that I will be branded a liar and
      will not be given protection..�

      Muhammad bin Ash�at said, �I promise that I will not go back on my word.�
      Muslim bin Aqeel was so tired from fighting that he had to lean against a wall
      to rest. Some friends of The governor were present at the time and asked Muslim
      bin Aqeel to hand over his sword. They assured him that if he accompanied them
      to the governor�s house, he would be guaranteed protection and would not be
      harmed.

      They sat Muslim bin Aqeel on a donkey and took him towards the house of the
      governor. Tears were flowing from Muslim bin Aqeel�s eyes. Amer bin UbayduLlah
      asked him, �Why are you crying?� You are the one who wished to take control
      of Kufa. Those who try to gain power� will always have obstacles in their way
      which cause them problems.�� Muslim bin Aqeel replied,� �I am not crying
      for myself,� but because I have written to Imam Husain telling him to come to
      Kufa. At that time the people were pledging allegiance to Yazid. . He should be
      getting ready to leave for Kufa and he does not even know that the people of
      Kufa have broken their allegiance. I am afraid that Imam Husain will be treated
      in the same way I am being treated.� Then he turned towards Muhammad bin
      Ash�at and said, �Do you remember your promise about giving me refuge, and
      also that The governor will not harm me. I know that you will not be able to
      keep that promise. The
      governor will have me executed. I would like you to do me one favour. Could
      you write a letter from me to Imam Husain telling him not to come towards
      Kufa.�� Muhammad bin Ash�at promised he would do that for Muslim bin Aqeel.


      When they reached The governor�s house Muhammad bin Ash�at said �Wait
      outside. I will go and inform The governor that we have captured Muslim bin
      Aqeel.�� When he went inside and told the governor, he also told him that he
      had promised that he would give Muslim bin Aqeel refuge and that he would not
      harmed. The governor said, �Who are you to make such promises? You were sent
      to arrest him not to protect him. Go and bring him to me.� The governor then
      sent his men outside to bring Muslim bin Aqeel in front of him. When Muslim bin
      Aqeel entered the room he did not say salaam.FOOTNOTE �One of his men asked why
      he had not greeted The governor with salam . He replied, �How can I greet him
      when he is going to execute me, if he were not then I would greet him with
      plenty of salaams.�� When the governor heard this he replied �There is no
      doubt that I am going to have you executed.�� Muslim bin Aqeel said, �I
      knew this would happen to
      me.�� He then asked permission to make the last testimony, and the governor
      granted him permission. As Muslim bin Aqeel was looking around he saw that one
      of his relative, Umar bin Sa�d was standing amongst the crowd. Muslim bin
      Aqeel called him over. Before he walked over to Muslim bin Aqeel, Umar bin
      Sa�d looked at the governor to see his reaction. The governor knew that he was
      looking at him for his permission to have a conversation with Muslim bin Aqeel.
      The governor� told Umar Bin Sa�d that he may proceed.

      They went into the corner of the room and had a long conversation. At the end
      Muslim bin Aqeel asked whether he could do him a few favours. First he said �I
      have borrowed� �X� amount of money from so and so; could you repay them.
      Second, when the governor executes me� could you take my body and bury me.
      Third, can you write a letter to Imam Husain telling him that when I arrived in
      Kufa I was greeted with respect and comfort, and in no time I had more than
      18,000 people swearing allegiance to him, daily the numbers were increasing. But
      they have now all broken their promises and their allegiances and run away. Tell
      him that I will be executed soon and I am writing to him so that he does not
      come to Kufa as the situation here is really bad. After he had made his
      requests, they both came back. The governor asked Umar Bin Sa�d what Muslim
      bin Aqeel had been saying to him. He told him everything. The governor told him
      that he could do as he wished
      about paying the money back and about writing the letter to Imam Husain, but
      refused to give permission to bury Muslim bin Aqeel�s body. The governor
      started to abuse Muslim bin Aqeel in front of everyone and ordered him to be
      taken to the roof of the building and executed. Muslim bin Aqeel started to
      recite Tasbeah (prayers) as he was being led up to the roof. When they reached
      the top of the building they executed him and threw his body into the street.
      The governor ordered Hani to be brought and also executed in the same manner.
      The date was 9th Zil-Hijjah 60 Hijra.

      IMAM HUSAIN RECEIVES MUSLIM BIN AQEEL�S LETTER AND DECIDES TO GO TO KUFA

      Imam Husain received Muslim bin Aqeel�s letter, in which he had written that
      more than 18,000 people had sworn allegiance to him and the numbers were
      increasiung daily, and had encouraged him to come to Kufa immediately. After
      reading this letter Imam Husain firmly decided to leave for Kufa. The people
      again tried to dissuade him, reminding that the� Kufans could not be trusted
      and would turn against him at any time. Imam Husain�s friends would come up to
      him individually and aske him not to undertake this journey. Abdullah bin Umar
      came to Imam Husain and said, �It is not in your character to become a very
      powerful man. Also remember that Allah Most High� asked our Prophet (p.b.u.h)
      whether he would chose worldly possession or the Hereafter, and the Prophet
      replied that he wanted to enjoy the hereafter. You are also a part� of the
      Prophet�s family, therefore you should not get so involved in the material
      aspect of this world.� After saying
      this he started to cry. After listening to Abdullah bin Umar, Imam Husain also
      had tears in his eyes, and said that although his advice had been sound, he had
      already made up his mind to go to Kufa.

      Abdullah bin Zubair also came and said, �Stay in the province of Hijaz
      (Makkah) and continue seeking allegiance from the people of Makkah.� Imam
      Husain replied to Abdullah bin Zubair� saying �Our Prophet (p.b.u.h.) has
      said that one day the Kabah will be insulted by a lamb (man) and I do not want
      to be that lamb (person) that is why I am leaving Makkah. In any case, you
      should be happy that I am embarking on such a good cause.�

      FOOTNOTEWhat Imam Husain meant that he did not want to cause of any bloodshed
      in Makkh.


      The reason Imam Husain told Abdullah bin Zubair this was that he knew that he
      wanted to become leader of Makkah and was himself seeking the allegiance of the
      people of Makkah. Imam Husain also knew that while he was in Makkah Abdullah bin
      Zubair would not be able to take allegiance from the Makkans.

      The next day Abdullah bin Abbas came to see Imam Husain and� asked him whether
      he was leaving for Kufa .Imam Husain replied �This is true; I am going to Kufa
      because the people of� Kufa� dearly request me to come and� help them
      overthrow Yazid,� and Muslim bin Aqeel has reassured me about the sincerity of
      the people of Kufa. Abdullah bin Abbas said, �If they sincerely wanted you to
      come to Kufa, the people of Kufa by now should have overthrown the governor and
      made the position of governor vacant for you. You should write to them telling
      them that if they want you to come to Kufa then they should vacate the position
      of the governor and his house for you. If you go there while the governor is
      still there then they are not your supporters but your enemies, and they are
      inviting you to your death. If� you still insist on going then my advice will
      be not to take your wife and children but to go on your own, as I am afraid that
      you are going to be
      martyred in Kufa. And after your death they will miss you dearly and if they
      are not present there they will not suffer as much harm. If you insist on
      leaving Makkah then I advise you to go to Yemen as there is plenty of land and
      mountains there where you can stay. Also from there you can send your
      representatives to different cities on your behalf to take allegiance for
      you.���

      The reason he advised him to go to Yemen was that Imam Husain�s father,
      Sayyiduna Ali,� may Allah Most High be pleased with him, was appointed the
      judge of Yemen by our Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and therefore Imam Husain would have
      had a lot of supporters there, and those people would have helped Imam Husain to
      overthrow the unjust ruler, Yazid. After listening to all this Imam Husain said,
      �I am still determined to go to Kufa.�� When Abdullah bin Abbas felt that
      Imam Husain had made up his mind, he rose and said, �O Martyr, I leave you in
      the hands of Allah Most High,�� as he knew in his heart that when Imam Husain
      reached Kufa his supporters would� leave him and expose him to the governor�s
      brutalities, and he would� be killed.




      IMAM HUSAIN LEFT MAKKAH FOR KUFA

      Imam Husain gathered all his family members and his friends and followers who
      were going with him and left for Kufa. When the governor of Makkah, Amir bin
      Sa'id, found out about Imam Husain�s decision, he tried to stop him as he
      thought that� he would take over Kufa and overthrow the governor there. He sent
      his police to stop and arrest Imam Husain.. There was a greater struggle between
      the two sides, but eventually Imam Husain and his supporters were able to defeat
      the police and continue with their journey to Kufa. Along the route they
      frequently met travellers who pleaded Imam Husain not to undertake this journey
      as no reliance could be placed upon the promises made by the Kufans.

      IMAM HUSAIN MET FARZOOQ

      During the journey, Imam Husain met with a poet called Farzooq who was on his
      way to Makkah. Imam Husain asked about the conditions of Kufa. He said,
      �Listen to me carefully, as I have only just left the city. The people�s
      hearts are still with you, but because of the fear of Yazid, their swords are
      with Yazid. If the time comes when you need them to fight with you, they will
      take the side of the government.� Imam Husain replied, �Whatever fate is
      going to bring us will be from Allah Most High. If the people are with me it
      will be a gift from Allah Most High, and we will thank Allah Most High although
      Allah Most High does not need our thanks. If fate is written against us and the
      people turn against us then we will be patient.�

      LETTER FROM ABDULLAH BIN JAFFER

      Abdullah bin Jaffer was in Makkah. He was the brother in-law of Imam Husain as
      he was married to Imam Husain�s sister,Zainab. When he found out that Imam
      Husain had left Makkah and gone to Kufa, he wrote a letter and sent it to him
      with his two sons, Oun and Muhammad. In the letter he wrote:
      ��� �By Allah Most High I am pleading with you to��� come back to
      Makkah and not go to Kufa, as when you reach Kufa you will be killed and your
      family will be destroyed. And Allah forbid, if you are martyred then your light
      of guidance, which is shining on the world, will extinguish. When the people are
      in� desperate trouble they come to you in hope of seeking protection, and you
      are the beaconlight of faith and the centre of the Believers� hopes. So please
      do not delay in returning back to Makkah. I have left Makkah to meet you on the
      way.��

      When Imam Husain read the letter he did not take much notice of it but instead
      he told his two nephews, �I had a dream and saw our Prophet (Allah bless him
      and give him peace) and he has given me an order. Whether I will benefit or not
      I will obey what our Prophet has said. His nephews asked �What is the
      dream?�� He replied, �I have not told anyone nor will I tell anyone until I
      meet my Lord.�� After that they carried on with the journey to Kufa and he
      took his nephews with him.�

      UbayduLlah Bin Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, found out the Imam Husain was fast
      approaching Kufa. He sent his forces out to the entrance of Kufa and told them
      that if Imam Husain or any of his representatives tried to enter Kufa they
      should be arrested and brought to him.

      MARTYRDOM OF QAIS BIN MUSHIR

      Qais bin Mush'ir was one of the people with Imam Husain. Imam Husain wrote
      a letter to the leaders of the tribes of Kufa, and said to Qais, �Take this
      letter to the leaders of the tribes of Kufa and tell them that I will reach Kufa
      in a few days time.� When Qais was near the entrance of the gate of Kufa, the
      governor�s men arrested him and took him to the governor. The governor read
      the letter and told him that he was going to execute him unless he climbed on
      top of the house and shouted� abuse to Imam Husain so that everyone could hear.
      Only then� will he forgive him and spare his life.�� Qais got on top of the
      roof and started to shout, �O people listen to me. Imam Husain has arrived and
      is very near Kufa. Obey him, as his mother was the daughter of our Prophet
      (p.b.u.h.) and his father was Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with
      him, and may Allah Most High curse and destroy this governor, as he is a liar
      and a cheat.� When
      the governor heard this he ordered his men to throw Qais off the roof. One of
      the governor�s men pushed Qais off the roof; and he fell so hard that both his
      arms and legs were broken and he split his skull open, as a result of which he
      was martyred.

      Imam Husain continued with his journey and sent another person named Abdullah
      bin Baqtr, with a similar letter to take to Kufa and give to the leaders of the
      tribes. He was also arrested and taken to the governor and executed in the same
      way as Qais was.

      IMAM HUSAIN WAS INFORMED OF THE
      DEATH OF MUSLIM BIN AQEEL

      Imam Husain found out about Muslim bin Aqeel�s death at a place called
      Tha�labiyya where he met a person who had recently come from Kufa. He
      explained in great detail to what had been happening in Kufa; how the people had
      left Muslim bin Aqeel and later how the governor martyred him. Afterwards he
      started to give advice,� �If I were you I would not go to Kufa. You have no
      support left there and the governor knows that you are coming to Kufa and is
      prepared to fight with you until you surrender to the will of Yazid;� he will
      execute you and your followers in the same way as he executed Muslim bin
      Aqeel.�

      �Imam Husain, for a moment, began to reconsider his decision to go to Kufa. At
      the same time Muslim bin Aqeel�s sons rose and said, �We swear by Allah Most
      High that we will seek revenge on behalf of our father or die in the attempt and
      we will not leave until then.� Imam Husain said, �There is no no charm in
      life without you.�� Some of the other people in the alos said, �We should
      carry on with the journey to Kufa, as there is a lot of difference between you
      and Muslim bin Aqeel. The people will change their minds when they would see you
      there and will come and support you and seek revenge for Muslim bin Aqeel�s
      death.� Imam Husain started to head towards Kufa.
      Along the journey Imam Husain and his group came to a place called Zubala,
      there he received information about the death of the two representatives whom he
      had sent earlier to Kufa. (Qais and Baqtr). When Imam Husain heard this he was
      greatly saddened and went into bereavement . He gathered the people together and
      told them about the problems that they were going to face when they reached
      Kufa. He also said, �Those who were to be trusted proved unfaithful, many of
      you might want to leave and can gladly do so.� A lot of people had joined Imam
      Husain along the journey thinking that he would gain full control of Kufa, and
      when they reached Kufa they would benefit from this. But when they heard this
      they started to disperse slowly until the only people left were those who had
      initially come with Imam Husain from Makkah.

      �They continued with the journey, and met a person called Abdullah bin
      Muti�. He said the same about Kufa, and also gave his view that they should
      turn back and not go to Kufa, because at this time the governor and his people
      were still afraid of Imam Husain and his followers, and if they were to go there
      now, the governor of Kufa would have victory and become more oppressive towards
      the people, and also more powerful.

      HUR� TA�MEMI CAME

      Haseen bin Numear was put in charge of the police and was ordered to stop
      people entering Kufa. He found out that Imam Husain was very near Kufa and
      appointed Hur the leader of an army of 1,000 men, sending him towards Imam
      Husain to arrest him and his followers. When Hur reached Imam Husain he told his
      men to surround him and his followers. Imam Husain instructed his people to set
      up camp there, and upon noticing this Hur also commanded his army to camp in the
      area and keep Imam Husain and his followers surrounded so that they could not
      escape. Both groups stayed in their respective camps. The time for Zohar prayer
      approached, and a member of Imam Husain�s group gave the call for prayer. Upon
      hearing this Imam Husain came out of his tent and approached Hur, telling him:
      ������ "I did not come here of my own accord but was called by the
      people of Kufa. They sent me messages and letters and even came in person to
      invite me to Kufa. If you insist that I should return to Makkah and not go to
      Kufa then y<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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