Beginners in Ido (2)
- BEGINNERS IN IDO (2)
(By Richard Stevenson).
(a) Word stress answers (from last week):
amAR; aMIta; espeREbla; FOlio; boAo; POrtuo;
akaDEmio; LInguo; euROpa; aLOo; Olu.
(i) The definite article is "la" (the).
An indefinite article (a, an) is not written, but "some" or "any" may
be understood. So "lakto" = "milk" or "some milk" or "any milk".
(ii) If the word has a plural meaning such as a family or a group
then we may show this with a different article "le". Thus "le Borgia"
(the Borgias), "le X" (the X's).
If we used "la Borgia" or "la X" we would be referring to only one
member of the family or group.
(i) These end in "-o" when singular and in "i" when plural. But the
names of countries follow international usage by ending in "a", or
sometimes "-lando": Thus Brazilia, Nederlando.
(ii) Some differences from English practice exist:
(1) "La" is used with all members of a species, thus:
"La uceli flugas e la fishi natas" (birds fly and fish swim)
(2) Capital letters are not used for days of the week or for months,
thus: "La duesma lundio en septembro"
(The second Monday in September).
(iii) People and animal nouns have no sex or gender, but if required
we may add "-in" for female or "ul" for male.
Thus "bovo" (any cattle ), "bovino" (cow), "bovulo" bull
puero (child), "puerino" (girl), "puerulo" (boy).
For the inhabitants of a country we use the suffix "-an",
thus "Chiliano" (a Chilian).
(iv) Some nouns have only one gender. Thus:
"viro" (man), "muliero" (woman), "patro" (father),
"matro" (mother). For both sexes together we use the plural with "ge-
" in front: "gesiori" (ladies and gentlemen), "gefrati" (brothers
(v) Proper and geographical names are usually spelt as in their
original language instead of being laboriously converted to Ido
spelling. Thus "Cambridge", not
"Kembridjo". Most modern atlases use the names familar to the
inhabitants, like Moskva (Moscow),
Den Haag (the Hague) or Beijing (Peking).