Beginners in Ido
- Beginners in Ido.
MAY, MIGHT, CAN, MUST.
May (and might), are used in very different ways:
(1) To refer to the future but expressing some doubt.
Use the word "forsan", (perhaps). Thus:
Forsan il venos = Perhaps he will come = He might come
Forsan pluvos = Perhaps it will rain = It might rain.
(Today, in English, we seem to use "might" rather than "may" when we
are talking about a happening in doubt).
(2) To ask for permission, or to be allowed, Ido uses "darfar", a
special verb, for this meaning: Thus:
Ka me darfas ekirar la chambro? = May I leave the room? = Am I
allowed to leave the room?
Curiously this time, "may" is more often used but English is now
rather careless and "can" is commonly used instead. In Ido it is
essential to use "darfar" when expressing permission.
We use "povar" for "can" or "to be able to". It refers to "be capable
of", when physically or otherwise. It must not be used to
To express "must": (1) Use "mustar" (it is essential to...)
Me mustas departar = I must go (or depart).
(2) However, when speaking impersonally, (without a subject), a
different verb is useful:
Oportas departar nun. = It is necessary to go now.
(3) A further variation is to use the suffix "-end"
Libro lektenda = A book that must be read.
- R. A. Stevenson