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Fw: Children's Environmental Health Newsletter - December 2012

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      Dr. Prasad Pore Pune Mobile No. 9921073540 ... From: heca To: HECANET@LISTSERV.WHO.INT Sent: Tuesday, 18 December 2012, 15:25 Subject:
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 18, 2012
      Dr. Prasad Pore
      Mobile No. 9921073540

      ----- Forwarded Message -----
      From: heca <heca@...>
      To: HECANET@...
      Sent: Tuesday, 18 December 2012, 15:25
      Subject: Children's Environmental Health Newsletter - December 2012

      You're receiving this newsletter because you have subscribed to the Healthy Environments for Children Alliance
      Children’s Environmental Health International Initiatives
      This is an international mailing list provided by WHO and UNEP
      dedicated to promoting healthy environments for children
      December 2012
      LEAD STORIES FOR 2012 – What we covered
      January: Employers' and Workers' Handbook on Hazardous Child Labour.
      February: Children in Hazardous Work: What we know, what we need to do
      Environmental Contaminants and Children's Health: Sustainable Health Science for Future Generations
      Book coverEndocrine Disrupters and Child Health
      http://apps.who.int/bookorders/MDIbookJPG/Book/11500849.jpgAnimal Waste, Water Quality and Human Health
      http://www.who.int/entity/globalchange/publications/Atlas_2012_cover.jpgAtlas of Health and Climate
      Air Pollution
      The authors explored whether birth weight at term is affected by PM2.5, PM10 (PM ≤ 10 µm), and gaseous pollutants. Several PM2.5 chemical components were associated with LBW. Risk increased 4.9% (95% CI: 3.4, 6.5%), 4.7% (3.2, 6.2%), 5.7%  (2.7, 8.8%), and 5.0% (3.1, 7.0%) per interquartile range increase of PM2.5 aluminum, elemental carbon, nickel, and titanium, respectively. Other PM2.5 chemical components and gaseous pollutants showed associations, but were not statistically significant in multipollutant models. The trimester associated with the highest relative risk differed among pollutants. Effect estimates for PM2.5 elemental carbon and nickel were higher for infants of white mothers than for those of African-American mothers, and for males than females. The authors noted that most exposure levels in their study area were in compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution standards; however, they identified associations between PM2.5 components and LBW. Findings suggest that some PM2.5 components may be more harmful than others, and that some groups may be particularly susceptible.
      Environmental Health Perspectives
      The authors prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with markers of placental growth and function among 7,801 pregnant women in the Netherlands. Higher PM10 and NO2 exposure levels were associated with lower second-trimester maternal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) levels. PM10 and NO2 exposures averaged over total pregnancy were associated with higher sFlt-1 and lower PlGF levels in fetal cord blood, consistent with an anti-angiogenic state. PM10 and NO2 exposures were not consistently associated with second- or third-trimester placental resistance indices. NO2 exposure was associated with third-trimester notching (odds ratio 1.33; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.78 per 10-μg/m3 increase in the prior 2 months). PM10 and NO2 exposures were associated with lower placenta weight (–11.8 g; 95% CI: –20.9, –2.7, and –10.7 g; 95% CI: –19.0, –2.4, respectively, per 10‑μg/m3 increase in the prior 2 months), but not with placenta to birth weight ratio. The results suggest that maternal air pollution exposure may influence markers of placental growth and function.
      Environmental Health Perspectives
      There is increasing interest in the potential effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on children’s neuropsychological development, but only a few small studies have evaluated such effects.
      The authors examined the association between PBDE concentrations in colostrum and infant neuropsychological development and assessed the influence of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on such association. Increasing Σ7PBDEs concentrations showed an association of borderline statistical significance with decreasing mental development scores. BDE-209, the congener present in highest concentrations, appeared to be the main congener responsible for this association. There was little evidence for an association with psychomotor development. After adjustment for other POPs, the BDE-209 association with mental development score became slightly weaker. The findings suggest an association between increasing PBDE concentrations in colostrum and a worse infant mental development, particularly for BDE-209, but require confirmation in larger studies.
      Environmental Health Perspectives
      Children and adults are still routinely exposed to very high levels of lead in developing countries, particularly in regions with a long mining history, such as the Andes. This study focuses on Peru, which ranks among the world’s top five producers of silver, zinc, lead and copper and has a long and conflict-ridden mining history. The objective of this study was to estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil. Spatial analysis indicated that 1.6 million people could be living within 5 km of an active or former mining operation. The authors concluded that soil contamination with lead is likely to be extensive in Peruvian mining towns but the level of contamination is spatially far from uniform. Childhood exposure by soil ingestion could be substantially reduced by mapping soil lead levels, making this information public and encouraging local communities to isolate contaminated areas from children.
      Bulletin of the World Health Organization
      Pesticide volatilization and vapor drift can have adverse effects on non-target, sensitive ecosystems and human health. Four approaches for pesticide volatilization screening based on Fick’s Law were investigated. In each approach, vapor pressures or environmentally relevant partition coefficients were used to describe pesticide behavior in an agricultural field system and to predict 24-h cumulative percentage volatilization losses. The multiphase partitioning approach based on soil-air  and water-air  partition coefficients was found to most accurately model literature-reported pesticide volatilization losses from soils.
      Environmental Science and Technology
      Global Change
      Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. The authors reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. They proposed a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health.
      Environmental Health
      Reproductive Health
      Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. The authors examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. The authors concluded that dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. The authors concluded that confirmation of  these findings would suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women.
      Environmental Health Perspectives

      Press Releases
      After a rapid expansion of malaria prevention and control programmes between 2004 and 2009, global funding to fight malaria levelled off between 2010 and 2012. According to the World malaria report 2012, a funding slowdown could reverse recent gains in the fight against one of the world’s leading infectious killers. WHO (17/12/12)
      In Moscow the five Caspian states have reaffirmed their strong commitment to protect the Caspian marine environment and pledged to maintain close cooperation in addressing common environmental challenges. UNEP (14/12/12)
      WHO welcomes the data gathering and methodological innovations of the Global Burden of Disease 2010 which has relied on the contributions of many researchers and scientists, including some from WHO. WHO (13/12/12)
      In the fight against climate change, forests play a crucial role. Worldwide, deforestation contributes more than transport to global greenhouse gas emissions. UNEP (11/12/12)
      The UNICEF progress report says early funding by donors meant crucial supplies of ready-to-use therapeutic food were purchased in good time and pre-positioned. However, there were significant challenges in the year due to people being displaced into neighbouring countries because of conflict in Mali, insecurity and severe flooding.  UNICEF (11/12/12)
      Countries have successfully launched a new commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, agreed a firm timetable to adopt a universal climate agreement by 2015 and agreed a path to raise necessary ambition to respond to climate change. UNEP (9/12/12)
      Six new countries joined an international effort aimed at fast action on reducing black carbon, methane, some hydrofluorocarbons  and other short-lived climate pollutants. UNEP (6/12/12)
      A new UNEP report provides countries with a practical guide on how indicators can measure progress towards an inclusive, resource-efficient, green economy, and support new national policies to assess human well-being and quality of life. UNEP (3/12/12)
      Bolivia, Comoros, Guinea Bissau, Kuwait and Yemen have endorsed the ‘Paris Commitments’ to end the recruitment and use of children by armed forces and groups, bringing the list of endorsers to 105 Member States. UNICEF (3/12/12)
      While vulnerability to climate change poses risks to all communities, the impacts are likely to be tilted against many of the world’s poorest regions, which have the least economic, institutional and technical ability to adapt and cope. “Seeds of Knowledge” aims to show that grassroots, community-led responses are already playing an essential role in building resilience to climate change across all regions of the world. UNEP (1/12/12)
      In the Media
      According to doctors and environmental activists, the alarming increase in childhood asthma cases in the city is not just due to genetic predisposition but largely because of rising environment pollution. Times of India (17/12/12)
      The largest ever study into the state of the world's health has revealed that, for the first time, the number of years of healthy living lost as a result of people eating too much outweigh the number lost by people eating too little. New Scientist (14/12/12)
      High blood pressure has become the world's deadliest disease-causing risk factor. But for Indians, indoor air pollution – from chulhas burning wood, coal and animal dung as fuel – has been found to be a bigger health hazard, claiming 500,000 lives in India every year, according to the WHO. Times of India (14/12/12)
      The world has made huge progress fighting killer infectious diseases, but as a result we now lead longer and sicker lives, with health problems that cause us years of pain, disability and mental distress. Reuters (14/12/12)
      Though the prevalence of cigarette smoking among California high school students has declined over the past decade, smokeless tobacco use has risen among high school students. Sacramento Bee (14/12/12)
      Spurred by mounting scientific evidence, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is initiating a new effort to examine whether low doses of hormone-mimicking chemicals are harming human health and whether chemical testing should be overhauled. Environmental Health News (13/12/12)
      A study of pregnant women in France found that on-the-job exposure to chemical solvents during pregnancy increased the risk of certain types of birth defects. Metabolites of two large classes of organic solvents -- glycol ethers and chlorinated solvents -- were linked to occupational use of cleaners and cosmetics in jobs such as hairdressers, chemists and nurses. Environmental Health News (11/12/12)
      A new Dartmouth-led study into mercury in the environment from the source of contamination to the seafood people eat is the first comprehensive study of its kind. Manchester Union Leader (10/12/12)
      Continuing declines in air pollution are linked to increasing life expectancy, a national study has found. New York Times (10/12/12)
      A new nationwide survey of 2,600 obstetricians and gynecologists in the United States found that most do not warn their pregnant patients about chemicals in food, consumer products or the environment that could endanger their fetuses. Environmental Health News (10/12/12)
      A major policy report released last month by the American Academy of Pediatrics said there is a growing body of evidence showing the relation between pesticides and negative health impacts to children. Portsmouth Herald (9/12/12)
      Countries – especially those with a long mining history -- can substantially reduce lead poisoning in children by mapping contamination levels in the soil to identify high-risk areas and by taking measures to keep children away from those areas, according to a study published this month in the public health journal, the Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Montevideo MercoPress (6/12/12)
      High school might be a bit early to start thinking about bone loss and osteoporosis, but a new study finds that teenage girls who smoke may put themselves on a trajectory to accrue less bone mineral than those who don’t light up. Science News (6/12/12)
      Teens may be less likely to buy cigarettes at convenience stores if they aren't sold in plain sight behind the counter, according to a U.S. study conducted using a virtual reality game. Reuters (4/12/12)
      With gas wells in some states being drilled near schools and homes, scientists see a need for better chemical disclosure laws and follow-up research. Inside Climate News (4/12/12)
      Exposure to even low levels of organophosphates in pesticides can cause lasting harm to the brain, scientists have concluded. The Telegraph UK (4/12/12)
      A widely reported Stanford University study concluding there is little difference in the healthfulness and safety of conventional and organic foods has been criticized by experts in the environmental health sciences for overlooking the growing body of evidence on the adverse effects of pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives (3/12/12)
      A report released by the Biodiversity Research Institute in Gorham evaluates the amount of mercury in fish species around the world and suggests that levels of the toxin previously deemed safe are probably not. Portland Press Herald (3/12/12)
      January 13th – 18th , 2013, Geneva, Switzerland
      July 28th – August 2nd 2012, Edinburgh, Scotland

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