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Fw: ERADICATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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  • surendernikhil gupta
    ... Dear All, ERADICATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES I last ran this Wikipedia article in 2009. What has changed since then? ·         Giant reductions
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 4, 2010
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      --- On Sat, 12/4/10, Robert Davis <kidsurvivalvaccination@...> wrote:

      Dear All,

      ERADICATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

      I last ran this Wikipedia article in 2009. What has changed since then?

      ·         Giant reductions in polio incidence, especially in India and Nigeria

      ·         FAO declaration of rinderpest eradication

      ·         Measles elimination targets set in five of WHO’s six regions

      ·         Rubella elimination targets set in two of WHO’s six regions

      ·         Shrinking of the onchocerciasis and dracunculiasis maps

      Can the world go after more than one eradication target at one time? Whatever you may have heard to the contrary, the evidence says ‘yes.’

      Good reading.

      BD

       

      Eradication of infectious diseases

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.[1] It is sometimes confused with elimination, which describes either the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in a regional population to zero, or the reduction of the global prevalence to a negligible amount. Further confusion arises from the use of the term eradication to refer to the total removal of a given pathogen from an individual (also known as clearance of an infection), particularly in the context of HIV and certain other viruses where such cures are sought.

      Eight attempts have been made to date to eradicate infectious diseases - four aborted programs targeting hookworm, malaria, yaws, and yellow fever, two successful programs targeting smallpox and rinderpest, and two ongoing programs targeting poliomyelitis and dracunculiasis. Five more infectious diseases have been identified as of April 2008 as potentially eradicable with current technology by the Carter Center International Task Force for Disease Eradication - measles, mumps, rubella, lymphatic filariasis and pork tapeworm.[2]

      Contents

      1 ERADICATED

      1.1 Smallpox

      1.2 Rinderpest

       

      2 GLOBAL ERADICATION UNDERWAY

      2.1 Poliomyelitis (polio)

      2.2 Dracunculiasis

       

      3 REGIONAL ELIMINATION ESTABLISHED OR UNDER WAY

      3.1 Malaria

      3.2 Lymphatic filariasis

      3.3 Measles

      3.4 Rubella

      3.5 Onchocerciasis

      3.6 Yaws

      3.7 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and new variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD)

      4 In fiction

      5 See also

      6 References

      7 External links

      Eradicated

      So far, two diseases have been successfully eradicated - one specifically affecting humans (smallpox), and one affecting a wide range of ruminants (rinderpest).

      Smallpox

      Main article: Smallpox

      Smallpox was the first disease to be eradicated by human undertakings, and the only human infectious disease to have been eradicated so far. It became the first disease for which there was an effective vaccination when Edward Jenner demonstrated in 1798 that inoculation of humans with cowpox could protect against smallpox.[3]

      The virus causing smallpox, Variola vera, has two variants: variola major, with a mortality rate around 30 percent, and variola minor, with a mortality rate less than 1 percent. The last naturally occurring case of variola major was diagnosed in October 1975 in Bangladesh, and the last naturally occurring case of variola minor was diagnosed in October 1977 in Somalia. The global eradication of smallpox was certified by a commission of scientists on December 9, 1979 and endorsed by the World Health Assembly on May 8, 1980.[3]

      Rinderpest

      Main article: Rinderpest

      During the 20th century, there were a series of campaigns to eradicate rinderpest, a viral disease which infected cattle and other ruminants and belonged to the same family as measles, primarily through the use of a live attenuated vaccine.[4] The final, successful campaign was led by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. On 14 October 2010, with no diagnoses for nine years, the FAO announced that the disease had been completely eradicated.[5]

      Global eradication underway

      Poliomyelitis (polio)

      Main article: Poliomyelitis eradication

      International Polio Cases by Year

      Year

      Estimated

      Recorded

      1975

      -

      49,293

      1980

      400,000

      52,552

      1985

      -

      38,637

      1988

      350,000

      35,251

      1990

      -

      23,484

      1993

      100,000

      10,487

      1995

      -

      7,035

      2000

      -

      2,971[6]

      2001

      -

      483

      2002

      -

      1,922

      2003

      -

      784

      2004

      -

      1,258

      2005

      -

      1,998

      2006

      -

      1,985

      2007

      -

      1,315

      2008

      -

      1,652

      2009

      -

      1,606

      References:[7][8][9][10][11]

      A dramatic reduction of the incidence of poliomyelitis in industrialized countries followed the development of a vaccine in the 1950s. In 1960, Czechoslovakia became the first country certified to have eliminated polio.

      In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) passed the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Its goal was to eradicate polio by the year 2000. The updated strategic plan for 2004–2008 expects to achieve global eradication by interrupting poliovirus transmission, using the strategies of routine immunization, supplementary immunization campaigns, and surveillance of possible outbreaks. The WHO estimates that global savings from eradication, due to forgone treatment and disability costs, could exceed one billion U.S. dollars.[12]

      The following world regions have been declared polio-free:

      The Americas (1994)

      Indo-West Pacific region (1997)

      Europe (1998)

      Western Pacific region, including China (2000)

      The lowest annual polio prevalence seen so far was in 2001, with 483 reported cases. However, following interruption of vaccination in Nigeria in 2003–4 and a reduction in immunisation in India in 2001–2, there was a resurgence of polio transmission: in the period of 2002 to 2009, the number of global reported cases has remained between 750 and 2000 per year, with 1,606 cases in 2009. Some of these cases were the result of new importations in 31 countries which had previously interrupted transmission, leading to many subsequent outbreaks; 19 of these countries reported cases in 2009. Four further countries remain in which poliovirus transmission has never been interrupted (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan).[13][14][15]

      Dracunculiasis

      International Guinea Worm Cases by Year [16]

      Year

      Reported Cases

      Countries

      1989

      892,055

      16

      1995

      129,852

      19

      2000

      75,223

      16

      2001

      63,717

      16

      2002

      54,638

      14

      2003

      32,193

      13

      2004

      16,026

      13

      2005

      10,674

      12

      2006

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