Fw: ERADICATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
--- On Sat, 12/4/10, Robert Davis <kidsurvivalvaccination@...> wrote:
ERADICATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
I last ran this Wikipedia article in 2009. What has changed since then?
· Giant reductions in polio incidence, especially in India and Nigeria
· FAO declaration of rinderpest eradication
· Measles elimination targets set in five of WHO’s six regions
· Rubella elimination targets set in two of WHO’s six regions
· Shrinking of the onchocerciasis and dracunculiasis maps
Can the world go after more than one eradication target at one time? Whatever you may have heard to the contrary, the evidence says ‘yes.’
Eradication of infectious diseases
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero. It is sometimes confused with elimination, which describes either the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in a regional population to zero, or the reduction of the global prevalence to a negligible amount. Further confusion arises from the use of the term eradication to refer to the total removal of a given pathogen from an individual (also known as clearance of an infection), particularly in the context of HIV and certain other viruses where such cures are sought.
Eight attempts have been made to date to eradicate infectious diseases - four aborted programs targeting hookworm, malaria, yaws, and yellow fever, two successful programs targeting smallpox and rinderpest, and two ongoing programs targeting poliomyelitis and dracunculiasis. Five more infectious diseases have been identified as of April 2008 as potentially eradicable with current technology by the Carter Center International Task Force for Disease Eradication - measles, mumps, rubella, lymphatic filariasis and pork tapeworm.
So far, two diseases have been successfully eradicated - one specifically affecting humans (smallpox), and one affecting a wide range of ruminants (rinderpest).
Main article: Smallpox
Smallpox was the first disease to be eradicated by human undertakings, and the only human infectious disease to have been eradicated so far. It became the first disease for which there was an effective vaccination when Edward Jenner demonstrated in 1798 that inoculation of humans with cowpox could protect against smallpox.
The virus causing smallpox, Variola vera, has two variants: variola major, with a mortality rate around 30 percent, and variola minor, with a mortality rate less than 1 percent. The last naturally occurring case of variola major was diagnosed in October 1975 in Bangladesh, and the last naturally occurring case of variola minor was diagnosed in October 1977 in Somalia. The global eradication of smallpox was certified by a commission of scientists on December 9, 1979 and endorsed by the World Health Assembly on May 8, 1980.
Main article: Rinderpest
During the 20th century, there were a series of campaigns to eradicate rinderpest, a viral disease which infected cattle and other ruminants and belonged to the same family as measles, primarily through the use of a live attenuated vaccine. The final, successful campaign was led by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. On 14 October 2010, with no diagnoses for nine years, the FAO announced that the disease had been completely eradicated.
Global eradication underway
Main article: Poliomyelitis eradication
International Polio Cases by Year
A dramatic reduction of the incidence of poliomyelitis in industrialized countries followed the development of a vaccine in the 1950s. In 1960, Czechoslovakia became the first country certified to have eliminated polio.
In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) passed the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Its goal was to eradicate polio by the year 2000. The updated strategic plan for 2004–2008 expects to achieve global eradication by interrupting poliovirus transmission, using the strategies of routine immunization, supplementary immunization campaigns, and surveillance of possible outbreaks. The WHO estimates that global savings from eradication, due to forgone treatment and disability costs, could exceed one billion U.S. dollars.
The following world regions have been declared polio-free:
The Americas (1994)
Indo-West Pacific region (1997)
The lowest annual polio prevalence seen so far was in 2001, with 483 reported cases. However, following interruption of vaccination in Nigeria in 2003–4 and a reduction in immunisation in India in 2001–2, there was a resurgence of polio transmission: in the period of 2002 to 2009, the number of global reported cases has remained between 750 and 2000 per year, with 1,606 cases in 2009. Some of these cases were the result of new importations in 31 countries which had previously interrupted transmission, leading to many subsequent outbreaks; 19 of these countries reported cases in 2009. Four further countries remain in which poliovirus transmission has never been interrupted (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan).
International Guinea Worm Cases by Year