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Rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur City, India

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  • C. P. Kumar
    Dear Friend, Jodhpur, a major city of Western Rajasthan in India, has been experiencing the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the city for
    Message 1 of 6 , Aug 1, 2009
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      Dear Friend,

      Jodhpur, a major city of Western Rajasthan in India, has been experiencing the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the city for last 11 years, after commissioning of the Rajiv Gandhi Link Canal (RGLC) which brings canal water to Jodhpur city and stores water in Kailana lake located west of Jodhpur city. Basements of buildings are being flooded in many parts of the city. There can be one or more of the following probable reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city.

      (1) Seepage from Kailana lake due to presence of lineaments/joints in Rhyolite rock.

      (2) Presence of impervious sandstone basement at shallow depth below the porous Rhyolite aquifer in the city area.

      (3) Seepage from pipelines carrying lake water.

      (4) Leakage of used household water from unlined drain system.

      (5) Reduced groundwater extraction from existing borewells and handpumps after commissioning of RLGC.

      For the above case, what would be the appropriate methodology to find the actual reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city and appropriate short-term and long-term management plans for maintaining the groundwater levels at a safe level.

      Regards
      Kumar
    • Robert Gourlay
      Kumar, it is most likely that Jodhpur is experiencing impedence to soil water flow or increased soil water flows and not groundwater rising. It is my view
      Message 2 of 6 , Aug 2, 2009
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        Kumar, it is most likely that Jodhpur is experiencing impedence to soil water flow or increased soil water flows and not groundwater rising. It is my view that the process of groundwater rising (eg as a cause of salinity) is unsubstantiated. See research papers at

        http://www.eric.com.au/html/papers_salinity.php

        Suface saturation is generally caused by soil degradation and the loss of soil carbon and the diversity and abundance of soil microbes. This gives rise to compaction or poor soil structure that increases the lateral flow of soil water and impedes inflitration (due to loss of soil structure/health). Also, urban contruction processes (eg. soil disturbance with sewage and stormwater drainage in pipes, including seepage from pipes) can impede or channel soil water to ponding areas. Hydrologists need to examaine soil water issues in urban and agricultural areas as a process of soil water saturation or ponding, rather than the use of peizometers that penertrate the aquidtard of soil clay (B2 layer) and therefore project the increasing head from this peizometer measurement as a reason for rising groundwater that is generally confined by the clay aquidtard.

        Restoration of the soil bilogy and soil carbon levels is generally a very good solution to the issue described.

        Rob Gourlay
        MD ERIC


        ----- Original Message -----
        From: C. P. Kumar
        To: hydforum@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Sunday, August 02, 2009 4:08 AM
        Subject: [hydforum] Rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur City, India

        Dear Friend,

        Jodhpur, a major city of Western Rajasthan in India, has been experiencing the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the city for last 11 years, after commissioning of the Rajiv Gandhi Link Canal (RGLC) which brings canal water to Jodhpur city and stores water in Kailana lake located west of Jodhpur city. Basements of buildings are being flooded in many parts of the city. There can be one or more of the following probable reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city.

        (1) Seepage from Kailana lake due to presence of lineaments/joints in Rhyolite rock.

        (2) Presence of impervious sandstone basement at shallow depth below the porous Rhyolite aquifer in the city area.

        (3) Seepage from pipelines carrying lake water.

        (4) Leakage of used household water from unlined drain system.

        (5) Reduced groundwater extraction from existing borewells and handpumps after commissioning of RLGC.

        For the above case, what would be the appropriate methodology to find the actual reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city and appropriate short-term and long-term management plans for maintaining the groundwater levels at a safe level.

        Regards
        Kumar
      • jhaman lalchandani
        Dear Sir, Water balance model of the area can be prepared. Water in, water out and net balance. The satellite images of all inflow sources will be gotten from
        Message 3 of 6 , Aug 2, 2009
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          Dear Sir,

          Water balance model of the area can be prepared. Water in, water out and net balance. The satellite images of all inflow sources will be gotten from any agency (govt-I don't know that what is the name of that) and calculation will be made accordingly. Total rainfall data for the decade. The agriculture area (total, CCA, Waste land, types of crops) during last decade. The bore/wells used for water supply or irrigation and evaporation losses in the area. The will show the surplus/deficit per year. If there is deficit then the soil structure will be of count and if surplus then the plan for reducing the surplus will be made.  

          regrads,

          JHAMAN LALCHANDANI
          Senior Manager CPI
          Thardeep Rural Development Programme
          Near Dargah Hussain Shah, Siran, Mithi-69230
          SINDH, PAKISTAN

          Phone (Work):    92  232  261462, 262174
          Mobile:          92  333  3772328
           


          --- On Sat, 8/1/09, C. P. Kumar <cpkumar@...> wrote:


          From: C. P. Kumar <cpkumar@...>
          Subject: [hydforum] Rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur City, India
          To: hydforum@yahoogroups.com
          Date: Saturday, August 1, 2009, 11:08 PM

          Dear Friend,

          Jodhpur, a major city of Western Rajasthan in India, has been experiencing the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the city for last 11 years, after commissioning of the Rajiv Gandhi Link Canal (RGLC) which brings canal water to Jodhpur city and stores water in Kailana lake located west of Jodhpur city. Basements of buildings are being flooded in many parts of the city. There can be one or more of the following probable reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city.

          (1) Seepage from Kailana lake due to presence of lineaments/joints in Rhyolite rock.

          (2) Presence of impervious sandstone basement at shallow depth below the porous Rhyolite aquifer in the city area.

          (3) Seepage from pipelines carrying lake water.

          (4) Leakage of used household water from unlined drain system.

          (5) Reduced groundwater extraction from existing borewells and handpumps after commissioning of RLGC.

          For the above case, what would be the appropriate methodology to find the actual reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city and appropriate short-term and long-term management plans for maintaining the groundwater levels at a safe level.

          Regards
          Kumar
        • jothi prakash
          Dear Professor Kumar One way of identifying the source is to use dyes at source, if the dye is detected at end use, indicates the presence of source. In one
          Message 4 of 6 , Aug 2, 2009
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            Dear Professor Kumar

            One way of identifying the source is to use dyes at source, if the dye is detected at end use, indicates the presence of source. In one of the studies at IIT Madras, with the help of NGRI, Hydrabad, radioactive material (tritium) was used to estimate the extent of recharge by a percoaltion pond. 

            At IIT bombay food dye was used to detect the seepage rate from an earthern dam.

            http://www.cse.iitb.ac.in/~ctara/
             
            Regards
            Jothiprakash

            Dr.V.Jothiprakash
            Associate Professor
            Department of Civil Engineering
            Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
            Powai, Mumbai 400 076

            Phone: 91-22-25767315 (O)
            91-22-25768315 (R)
            vprakash@...
            jothiprakash@..., vprakash@...


            --- On Sat, 1/8/09, C. P. Kumar <cpkumar@...> wrote:


            From: C. P. Kumar <cpkumar@...>
            Subject: [hydforum] Rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur City, India
            To: hydforum@yahoogroups.com
            Date: Saturday, 1 August, 2009, 7:08 PM

            Dear Friend,

            Jodhpur, a major city of Western Rajasthan in India, has been experiencing the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the city for last 11 years, after commissioning of the Rajiv Gandhi Link Canal (RGLC) which brings canal water to Jodhpur city and stores water in Kailana lake located west of Jodhpur city. Basements of buildings are being flooded in many parts of the city. There can be one or more of the following probable reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city.

            (1) Seepage from Kailana lake due to presence of lineaments/joints in Rhyolite rock.

            (2) Presence of impervious sandstone basement at shallow depth below the porous Rhyolite aquifer in the city area.

            (3) Seepage from pipelines carrying lake water.

            (4) Leakage of used household water from unlined drain system.

            (5) Reduced groundwater extraction from existing borewells and handpumps after commissioning of
            RLGC.

            For the above case, what would be the appropriate methodology to find the actual reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city and appropriate short-term and long-term management plans for maintaining the groundwater levels at a safe level.

            Regards
            Kumar
          • srigiriraju sriharirao
            Dear Shri Kumar, All the reasons you had indicated would effect the groundwater level rise. But I consider 1,2, and 5 are the main reasons. As you are in a
            Message 5 of 6 , Aug 2, 2009
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              Dear Shri Kumar,

              All the reasons you had indicated would effect the groundwater level rise. But I consider 1,2, and 5 are the main reasons. As you are in a research organisation, you would not be satisfiled unless they are quantified.The follwong points may be considered

              1. Collect the date of starting the canal water entering the neighbourhood of Jodhpur and plot a graph time versus groundwater level. This would indicate the critical time when the recharge started in the area.

              2. Collect the yearwise discharge in the canal and Plot a graph of  Cummulative Discharge Vrs groundwater rise to find out the relation between discharge vrs rise

              3. Draw water table / Piezometric level contour maps and findout the direction of groundwater movement especially from the tank side.

              4. Conduct a few pump tests and estimate the T and S and Sy and quantify the actual groundwater recharge and plot Cummulative Discharge Vrs Groundwater recharge.

              5. As per the control of geology on groundwater movement, use GIS model for identifying the geological control and then use Modflow for quantifying.

              I have done a part of the above work when I was in CGWB long back and I could quantify the canal contribution to groundwater recharge in Mahrashtra.

              With best wishes
              Dr.S.S.Rao


              ________________________________
              From: C. P. Kumar <cpkumar@...>
              To: hydforum@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Saturday, August 1, 2009 11:38:59 PM
              Subject: [hydforum] Rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur City, India

              Dear Friend,

              Jodhpur, a major city of Western Rajasthan in India, has been experiencing the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the city for last 11 years, after commissioning of the Rajiv Gandhi Link Canal (RGLC) which brings canal water to Jodhpur city and stores water in Kailana lake located west of Jodhpur city. Basements of buildings are being flooded in many parts of the city. There can be one or more of the following probable reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city.

              (1) Seepage from Kailana lake due to presence of lineaments/joints in Rhyolite rock.

              (2) Presence of impervious sandstone basement at shallow depth below the porous Rhyolite aquifer in the city area.

              (3) Seepage from pipelines carrying lake water.

              (4) Leakage of used household water from unlined drain system.

              (5) Reduced groundwater extraction from existing borewells and handpumps after commissioning of RLGC.

              For the above case, what would be the appropriate methodology to find the actual reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city and appropriate short-term and long-term management plans for maintaining the groundwater levels at a safe level.

              Regards
              Kumar
            • UmayadossSaravanaKumar
              Dear All, an environmental isotopic study (18O, 2H, 3H, 14C) on the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the Jodhpur city was carried out by
              Message 6 of 6 , Aug 4, 2009
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                Dear All,

                an environmental isotopic study (18O, 2H, 3H, 14C) on the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the Jodhpur city was carried out by the Isotope Hydrology Section of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai during 1999-2000. The study indicated the possibility of percolation of used household water from unlined drain systems and the work has been published and the citation of the same is given below:

                Sinha UK, Kulkarni KM, Sharma S, Ray A, Bodhankar N.2002. "Assessment of aquifer system using isotope techniques in urban centres Raipur, Calcutta and Jodhpur". International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Document (IAEA-TECDOC) No. 1298, 72-94.


                With my best regards
                U. Saravana Kumar


                On Mon, 03 Aug 2009 09:28:53 +0530 wrote
                >Dear Shri Kumar,
                >
                >All the reasons you had indicated would effect the groundwater level rise. But I consider 1,2, and 5 are the main reasons. As you are in a research organisation, you would not be satisfiled unless they are quantified.The follwong points may be considered
                >
                >1. Collect the date of starting the canal water entering the neighbourhood of Jodhpur and plot a graph time versus groundwater level. This would indicate the critical time when the recharge started in the area.
                >
                >2. Collect the yearwise discharge in the canal and Plot a graph of  Cummulative Discharge Vrs groundwater rise to find out the relation between discharge vrs rise
                >
                >3. Draw water table / Piezometric level contour maps and findout the direction of groundwater movement especially from the tank side.
                >
                >4. Conduct a few pump tests and estimate the T and S and Sy and quantify the actual groundwater recharge and plot Cummulative Discharge Vrs Groundwater recharge.
                >
                >5. As per the control of geology on groundwater movement, use GIS model for identifying the geological control and then use Modflow for quantifying.
                >
                >I have done a part of the above work when I was in CGWB long back and I could quantify the canal contribution to groundwater recharge in Mahrashtra.
                >
                >With best wishes
                >Dr.S.S.Rao
                >
                >
                >________________________________
                >From: C. P. Kumar
                >To: hydforum@yahoogroups.com
                >Sent: Saturday, August 1, 2009 11:38:59 PM
                >Subject: [hydforum] Rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur City, India
                >
                >Dear Friend,
                >
                >Jodhpur, a major city of Western Rajasthan in India, has been experiencing the problem of rising groundwater levels in many parts of the city for last 11 years, after commissioning of the Rajiv Gandhi Link Canal (RGLC) which brings canal water to Jodhpur city and stores water in Kailana lake located west of Jodhpur city. Basements of buildings are being flooded in many parts of the city. There can be one or more of the following probable reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city.
                >
                >(1) Seepage from Kailana lake due to presence of lineaments/joints in Rhyolite rock.
                >
                >(2) Presence of impervious sandstone basement at shallow depth below the porous Rhyolite aquifer in the city area.
                >
                >(3) Seepage from pipelines carrying lake water.
                >
                >(4) Leakage of used household water from unlined drain system.
                >
                >(5) Reduced groundwater extraction from existing borewells and handpumps after commissioning of RLGC.
                >
                >For the above case, what would be the appropriate methodology to find the actual reasons for rising groundwater levels in Jodhpur city and appropriate short-term and long-term management plans for maintaining the groundwater levels at a safe level.
                >
                >Regards
                >Kumar
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