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Updated Bibliography of 139 Hum References, 1830-2004

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  • David Deming
    I have appended below an updated bibliography of Hum references. The list has also been added to the files area of the Hum Forum web page. The list contains
    Message 1 of 6 , Aug 3, 2004
      Updated Bibliography of 139 Hum References, 1830-2004 I have appended below an updated bibliography of Hum
      references.  The list has also been added to the "files"
      area of the Hum Forum web page.

      The list contains 139 references of articles published
      between 1830 and 2004.

      (It is highly questionable if the
      anomalous sounds discussed in the nineteenth century refs
      really refer to the Hum, but they are included for the sake
      of completeness.)

      Articles published in newspapers, tabloids, and scientific
      research journals are mixed in the list.  The list
      is sorted by date.

      A separate section of papers on "electrophonics"
      is added below the Hum list.

      Papers on possible sources of the Hum, such as TACAMO
      and HAARP are not included.  

      Some of the references are uncertain as to date,
      source, or even exact title.  These come from cases
      where I have copies of old newspaper clippings without
      proper attribution.

      This bibliography will always be a work in progress.

      I continue to need your help in adding references and
      checking facts such as publication date, page numbers,

      I especially need help from people living in the United
      Kingdom who can track down old newspaper articles.

      The first major mention of the Hum in the popular media
      appears to be in three stories that appeared in the Sunday
      Mirror in 1977.  The Hum itself appears to have originated
      in the UK around 1970 or perhaps the mid 1960s.

      --David Deming
      Norman, Oklahoma


      1. Duplicate newspaper reports. A story by Associated Press or the New York Times (for example) can be reprinted in a variety of US newspapers for as long as about 2 weeks after it initially appears in the primary source. The article's title is usually different in each publication, and the length is usually cut from the original. In these cases, I have tried to list only the original publication, not duplicates.
      2. In some instances below, citations are uncertain and incomplete.  These result from cases where people have sent me newspaper clippings where the publication date and/or source is not given or unclear.

      Nineteenth Century

      The following references are listed in Corliss (1983, p. 179).
      Anonymous, 1830, On Peculiar Noises Occasionally Heard in Particular Districts:  Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, v. 8, p. 258.
      Anonymous, 1832, Humming in the Air:  Magazine of Natural History, v. 5, p. 686.
      Dale, J. C., 1856, Humming in the Air:  Zoologist, v. 14, p. 5008.
      Bath, W. H., 1886, Humming in the Air Caused by Insects:  Nature, v. 34, p. 547.
      Blomefield, L., 1886, Humming in the Air Caused by Insects:  Nature, v. 34, p. 572.
      Tomlinson, C., 1895, Remarkable Sounds:  Nature, v. 53, p. 78.

      Wallace, P. H. W., 1970, Noisy Sub-Stations:  New Scientist, v. 45, p. 319.

      Coles, R. R. A., and Thornton, A. R. D., 1973, Audiology Research in the I.S.V.R.'s First Decade:  Journal of Sound and Vibration, v. 28, p. 313-332.
      Hanlon, J., 1973, Can Some People Hear the Jet Stream?  New Scientist, v. 60, p. 415-416.
      Anonymous, 1976, Hum:  Noise and Vibration Bulletin, October, 1976, p. 269-270. (after a story that appeared in the Brighton Evening Argus, September 13, 1976).

      Martin, G. (?), 1977, (title unknown):  Sunday Mirror (United Kingdom), June 19, 1977.
      Martin, G., and Barker, R., 1977, Hum, That Mystery Noise Drives Sobbing Wife Out of the House:  Sunday Mirror (United Kingdom), July 3, 1977.
      Martin, G. (?), 1977, (title unknown):  Sunday Mirror (United Kingdom), November 20, 1977.
      Vasudevan, R. N., and Gordon, C. G., 1977, Experimental Study of Annoyance Due to Low Frequency Environmental Noise:  Applied Acoustics, v. 10, p. 57-69.

      Broner, N., 1978, The Effects of Low Frequency Noise on People--a Review: Journal of Sound and Vibration, v. 58, no. 4, p. 483-500.


      Wilson, S., 1979, Mystery of People who Hear the Hum:  New Scientist, v. 84, p. 868-870.

      Britons Hunt for Source of Noise, San Gabriel Valley Tribune, March 18, 1980.
      Walford, R. E., 1980, Hums, Research into Low-Frequency Tinnitus:  Newsletter of the British Tinnitus Association, no. 9, Nov-Dec, 1980, p. i-iv.

      Corliss, W. R., 1983, Earthquakes, Tides, Unidentified Sounds and Related Phenomena, a Catalog of Geophysical Anomalies, Section GSH5, Unidentified Humming Sounds:  Glen Arm, Maryland, Sourcebook Project, p. 178-179.
      Walford, R. E., 1983, A Classification of Environmental "Hums" and Low Frequency Tinnitus:  Journal of Low Frequency Noise and Vibration, v. 2, no. 2, p. 60-84.

      Associated Press, 1985, Is Something Fishy Going On?  The Mysterious Hood Canal Hum:  The Seattle Times, August 25, 1985, p. J-8.
      Rubenstein, S., 1985, Strange Hum in Pacific Heights:  San Francisco Chronicle, September 23, 1985, p. 17.
      Rubenstein, S., 1985, S. F. Cops Baffled by the Nighttime Hum:  San Francisco Chronicle, September 24, 1985, p. 18.
      Rubenstein, S., 1985, Detours on the Trail of Mysterious Hum:  San Francisco Chronicle, September 25, 1985, p. 3.

      Anonymous, 1989, Hum Could Kill, Demon Din is Driving Sufferers to Brink of Suicide (title uncertain):  London Star, December, 1989 (source, date of publication uncertain).
      Fox, B., 1989, Low-frequency Hum may Permeate the Environment:  New Scientist, December 9, 1989, p. 27 (volume number uncertain).
      Hart, P., 1989, Suffering in Noisy Silence:  Sunday Express (United Kingdom), November 26, 1989.
      Todd, R., 1989 (?), Hum in the Night, It's Only Those Noisy Gas Pipes:  (date and source uncertain.  may be Sunday Express, 1989).

      Anonymous, 1990, National Action on the Largs Hum:  Largs and Millport Weekly News (United Kingdom), May 18, 1990.
      Durham, D., 1990, The Hum, Victims Who Suffered in Silence Speak Out: Daily Star (United Kingdom), March 15, 1990.
      Griggs, E., 1990, The Low Frequency Noise Sufferers Association:  Journal of Low Frequency Noise and Vibration, v. 9, no. 4, p. 149-155.
      Mann, R., 1990, Hum Group (letter to the editor):  Southampton Reporter

      Anonymous, 1991, Hum Hunters Plan to Solve Mystery:  Southampton Advertiser (United Kingdom), November 28, 1991.
      Mann, R., 1991, Low Frequency Hum (letter to the editor):  Romsey Advertiser, May 24, 1991.
      Various Authors, 1991, Eight Letters to the Editor from Hum Hearers:  The Mail (United Kingdom), March 21, 1991.

      Anonymous, 1992, Humming is a Sound of the Times:  Eastern Daily Press (Norwich, United Kingdom), March 31, 1992.
      Anonymous, 1992, Humdrum Hum (editorial): Eastern Daily Press (Norwich, United Kingdom), March 31, 1992.
      Anonymous, 1992 (?), Getting to the Bottom of Those Bad Vibrations:  Eastern Daily Press (?) (Norwich, United Kingdom), date uncertain.
      Anonymous, 1992 (?), Natural Suggestion for Humming Noises: Eastern Daily Press (?) (Norwich, United Kingdom), date uncertain.
      Haddad, C., 1992, Mysterious Hum is Driving Alabama Town Nuts:  The Atlanta Constitution and Journal, April l, 1992, p. A-3.
      Harwell, H., 1992, A Hum of a Mystery Town Looks for Noise's Source: Philadelphia Inquirer, April 26, 1992, p. B-7.
      Lambert, P., and Haederle, M., 1992, HMMMMMMMMMMMM...?  The Riddle of the Sands in Taos, N. Mex., is a Humdinger:  What on earth is making that unearthly sound?  People, v. 38, no. 12, September 21, 1992, p. 61.
      Long, H., 1992, Artist's Life Ruined by Mystery Noises:  Southern Evening Echo (Southampton, United Kingdom), October 27, 1992.
      Newman, S., 1992, Hueytown Hum:  The Atlanta Constitution and Journal, April 18, 1992, p. E-1.
      Olinger, D., 1992, Hueytown's Mysterious Hum:  St. Petersburg Times, May 10, 1992, p. D-1.
      Saltmarsh, A., 1992, Calls Pour in From Hearers of that Mystery Humming: Eastern Daily Press (Norwich, United Kingdom), April 1, 1992.
      Saltmarsh, A., 1992, Residents Driven to Despair by Humming: Eastern Daily Press (Norwich, United Kingdom), April 1, 1992 (date uncertain).
      Smothers, R., 1992, Hueytown Journal; Humming Along, and Howling Mad: The New York Times, April 14, 1992, p. A-16.
      Watts, S., 1992, Hummers Win Fight for Inquiry, Scientists are Trying to Trace the Low-Frequency Noise that is Ruining Thousands of Lives:  The Independent (United Kingdom), March 30, 1992.
      Watts, S., 1992, Tape Recordings May Help to Pinpoint Cause:  The Independent (United Kingdom), March 30, 1992.

      Anonymous, 1993, Catching the Hum Bug; Readers Across the State Hear Strange, Unexplained Sounds:  The Arizona Republic, September 24, 1993, p. E-12.
      Anonymous, 1993, Strange Hum Isn't Caused by Normal Sound:  San Antonio Express-News, June 6, 1993, p. A-13.
      Associated Press, 1993, Hum-Hearers Now Focus of Taos Mystery Noise as Study Finds No Source:  Austin American-Statesman (Texas), August 26, 1993, p. A-20.
      Baker, D., 1993, Mysterious Low-Level Noise Destroys Peace, Serenity of Taos Residents; New Mexico:  Scientists' Search for Source of Hum has Been Fruitless, Though One Heard Sound Himself.  Some Victims Suspect a Secret Military Project:  Los Angeles Times, July 18, 1993, p. B-3.
      Begley, S., Meyer, M., and Glick, D., 1993, Do You Hear What I Hear? Newsweek, v. 121, no. 18, May 3, 1993, p. 54.
      Crenson, M., 1993, Hear Today, Hear Tomorrow; Mysterious Taos Hum Keeps Experts Abuzz with Theories:  Dallas Morning News, October 11, 1993, p. A-1.
      Davidson, K., 1993, Scientists Debate Taos Hum, Some Belive It's Latest Cause of Mass Suggestion, Others Say the Noise is Real:  San Francisco Examiner, September 5, 1993, p. A-36.
      Dellios, H., 1993, Taos Residents Making Noise Over Mystery Hum:  Chicago Tribune, December 26, 1993, p. 6.
      Donnelly, J., 1993, Hum-Dinger of a Mystery:  What is that Annoying Sound?  Miami Herald, July 6, 1993, p. A-1.
      Essertier, E., 1993, What's That Hum? (letter to the Editor):  The Washington Post, July 3, 1993.
      Farley, C. J., 1993, Grapevine:  Bad Vibes:  Time, v. 141, no. 10, March 8, 1993, p. 15.
      Haederle, M., 1993, In Taos, Researchers Can Hum It, But They Can't Name That Sound:  Los Angeles Times, September 1, 1993, p. A-5.
      Howell, K., and Weatherilt, P. F., 1993, A Review of Low Frequency Noise Investigations by British Gas:  Journal of Low Frequency Noise and Vibration, v. 12, no. 2, p. 45-66.
      Lambert, P. & Haederle, M.,1993, HMMMMMMMMMMMM...?  The Riddle of the Sands in Taos, N. Mex., is a Humdinger:  What on Earth is Making that Unearthly Sound?  People, September 21, 1992, p. 61.
      Meyers, D., 1993, Hmmm.  Just What is That Noise?  Keeping Ears to Ground for Mystery Hum:  Philadelphia Inquirer, December 27, 1993, p. A-1.
      Miniclier, K., 1993, Taos Hum Stirring Up a Ruckus; Mysterious Noise Spurs Inquiry to House Panel:  Denver Post, February 28, 1993, p. C-6.
      Pressley, S. A., 1993, "Taos Hum" Disturbs Artistic Colony's Good Vibrations:  The Washington Post, June 24, 1993, p. A-3.
      Ruxton, B., 1993, What's That Hum?  (letter to the Editor).  The Washington Post, July 3, 1993.
      Sheppard, L., and Sheppard, C., 1993, The Phenomenon of Low Frequency Hums, in, Tinnitus:  Lower Gresham, Norfolk (United Kingdom) Tinnitus Society.
      Smith, C., 1993, Baffling Taos Drone Hits Utah, Drives Hum-Sick Pair from Home: Salt Lake Tribune (Utah), December 6, 1993, p. A-1.

      Brooker, E., 1994, What's That Terrible Noise?  All over the Country People are Plagued by a Strange Hum.  Are Their Ears Playing Up, or is it Something Sinister?  The Independent (London), June 22, 1994, Living Section, p. 21.
      Crenson, M., 1994, On the Same Wavelength, Survey Attmpts to Find Distinguishing Characteristics Among People Who Hear Taos Hum:  Dallas Morning News, August 8, 1994, p. D-6.
      Floyd, E. R., 1994, Strange Taos Hum Puzzles Hummers, Stumps Experts: San Antonio Express-News (Texas), April 12, 1994.
      Rice, C. G., 1994, Annoyancy Due to Low Frequency Hums (editorial): British Medical Journal (BMJ): v. 308, February 5, 1994, p. 355-356.

      Anonymous, 1995, Weird Tales from the Extraordinary Files:  Sunday Herald Sun (Australia), September 24, 1995.
      Mullins, J. H. and Kelly, J. P., 1995, The Mystery of the Taos Hum:  Echoes, v. 5, no. 3, p. 3-6.

      Davies, T., 1996, The Back Page:  Noises off that are still too near Parish Pump:  The Daily Telegraph, April 6, 1996, p. 34.
      Mann, R., 1996, The Hum--a Debilitating Phenomenon (letter to the editor): The Romsey Advertiser (England), October, 18, 1996.
      Sharpe, T., 1996, Mysterious Taos Noise Now Rouses a Ho-Hum:  Albuquerque Journal (New Mexico), August 27, 1996, p. A-1.
      Sharpe, T., 1996, Taos Hum Generates Further Buzz:  Albuquerque Journal (New Mexico), September 14, 1996, p. 1.
      Sieveking, P., 1996, Strange But True:  Why They Can't Get to Sleep in Blackness:  The Daily Telegraph, May 12, 1996, p. 17.
      Weber, D., 1996, Experts Mum on Hull Hum; Residents Mull Source of Mystery Vibrations:  The Boston Herald, April 21, 1996, News Section, p. 23.

      Montany, G. P., 1997, Hum's Cause Still a Mystery, Hmmm:  The Caledonian-Record (St. Johnsbury, Vermont), March 18, 1997.

      Mullins, J. H., and Kelly, J. P., 1998, Environmental Noise, in, McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology, 1998:  McGraw-Hill, New York,  p. 120-122.
      Sieveking, P., 1998, Strange but True:  There's a Terrible Hum Around Here:  Sunday Telegraph (London), November 1, 1998, p. 19.

      Anonymous, 1999, Mystery Hum Would Even Fox Moulder:  Aberdeen Evening Press (United Kingdom), February 19, 1999, p. 5.
      Firstenberg, A., 1999, The Source of the Taos Hum:  No Place to Hide, v. 2, no. 2, p. 3-5.
      Palfreyman, L., 1999, Family's Life of Hell with a Mystery Hum:  Sunday Mercury, (Birmingham, United Kingdom) January 24, 1999, p. 29.
      Quigley, B., 1999, Mysterious Sound Keeps Some Residents Awake, Defies Explanation Despite Scientific Investigation.  The Norman Transcript (Norman, Oklahoma) November 14, 1999.
      Quigley, B., 1999, Source of Sound Sought by Residents:  The Norman Transcript (Norman, Oklahoma), December 2, 1999.
      Webber, S., 1999, Misery of the Mystery Hum:  Western Daily Press (Bristol, United Kingdom) January 18, 1999, p. 44.
      2000 (none)


      Anonymous, 2001, Germans to Investigate Nationwide Mystery Hum:  Hamburger Evening Paper (Hamburg, Germany), August 14, 2001 (uncertain source, date, title).
      Anonymous, 2001, Mysterious Humming -- Hamburg is Completely....: Hamburger Evening Paper (Hamburg, Germany), August 23, 2001 (uncertain source, date, title).
      Barton, L., 2001, Health:  What's That Noise?  It's a Constant, Irritating Hum that Makes Life Miserable for all who Hear it--but Nobody Knows What it is.  Laura Barton Investigates:  The Guardian (London), October 18, 2001, p. 16.
      Gibson, I. M., 2001, Largs Mystery Hum (letter to the editor):  The Herald (Glasgow, United Kingdom), January 30, 2001, p. 17.
      Hindley, C., 2001, Barry's Plea to Solve Mystery Noise Riddle:  Manchester Evening News (United Kingdom), February 7, 2001, p. 17.
      Kozarovich, L. H., 2001, Residents Complain of Illness, Cite Factory Hum: The Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), July 17, 2001.
      Kozarovich, L. H., 2001, World Media Focus on Kokomo Mystery:  The Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), August 2, 2001.
      Kozarovich, L. H., 2001, Little Done to Solve Hum Mystery:  The Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), August 5, 2001.
      Mcquillan, R., 2001, Mystery Hum Forces Couple out of Home; Call for Low Frequency Noise Phenomenon to be Investigated by Holyrood Committee:  The Herald (Glasgow, United Kingdom), March 19, 2001, p. 9.
      Mcquillan, R., 2001, Torture of the Twilight Zone; the Largs Hum is a Phenomenon that Wreaks Pain and Misery on Many.  Now Sufferer Georgie Hyslop has Turned Detective to Try to Solve this Mystery:  The Herald (Glasgow, United Kingdom), September 28, 2001, p. 19.
      Mcquillan, R., and Martin, L., 2001, Mystery of the Largs hum drones on; MSP calls for executive investigation into low-frequency noise that causes sickness and pain:  The Herald (Glasgow, United Kingdom), January 26, 2001, p. 3.
      Oeder, J., 2001, Mysterious Maddening Buzzing Probed in Southwest Germany: Agence France Presse, August 22, 2001.
      Perry, J., 2001, Couple Flee the House that Hums:  The Express (London, England), December 11, 2001.
      Sharpe, T., 2001, Pondering the Hum:  The Santa Fe Mexican, July 24, 2001, p. B-1.
      Sieveking, P., 2001, Mystery Hum Rattles Teeth Across Scotland:  Sunday Telegraph (London), May 6, 2001, p. 31.
      Uyttebrouck, O., 2001, Not Much is Heard About the Taos Hum:  Albuquerque Journal (New Mexico), January 3, 2001, p. B-2.

      Albrecht, B., 2002, Constant Hum Rattles Lives in Indiana Town:  The Plain Dealer (Cleveland), May 12, 2002, p. A-1.
      Anonymous, 2002, HUMMMMMMM (Editorial):  The Boston Globe, June 17, 2002, p. A-10.
      Anonymous, 2002, Kokomo Residents Frustrated with Lack of Action Over Humming Noise:  Associated Press, January 21, 2002.
      Anonymous, 2002, Largs Hum is Real, and it's no Joke; Consultants Investigating Distressing Low-Frequency Noises Call for Authorities to take Crank Phenomenon Seriously:  The Herald and Sunday Herald (Glasgow, Scotland), February 17, 2002.
      Associated Press, 2002, Kokomo Residents Frustrated with Lack of Action over Humming Noise:  Associated Press, January 21, 2002.
      Associated Press, 2002, Kokomo Residents Blame Strange Hum for Health Woes: The Journal Gazette (Fort Wayne, Indiana), February 27, 2002, p. C-6.
      Associated Press, 2002, Companies Bid to Research Low-Frequency Kokomo Hum: Cincinnati Post (Ohio), September 27, 2002, p. A-5.
      Deming, D., 2002, Another Hum Theory (letter to the Editor):  The Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), July 28, 2002.
      Falda, W., 2002, Bad Vibrations in Kokomo Lead to Illness and Even Death, Some Say; Others Skeptical: The South Bend Tribune (Indiana), August 25, 2002.
      Fountain, J. W., 2002, Hum Haunts Indiana City; It's Source is a Mystery: The New York Times, June 23, 2002, Section 1, p. 14.
      Glen, S., 2002, Mysterious Hum Dedevils Victims:  Times Colonist (Victoria, Canada), July 22, 2002.
      Huppke, R. W., 2002, In Indiana Town, It's Not Hum, Sweet Hum; Mystery Noise Fuels Kokomo Complaints:  The Washington Post, June 9, 2002, p. A-17.
      Kozarovich, L. H., 2002, Residents Ask for Help:  The Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), February 10, 2002.
      Libaw, O., 2002, The Kokomo Hum:  ABCnews.com, February 13, 2002.
      Siegel, R., 2002, City Council in Kokomo, Indiana, Authorizes a Study to Investigate the Source of a Sound that has Caused Many Residents to Become Ill: National Public Radio, All Things Considered, May 22, 2002.
      Stuteville, G., 2002, Kokomo is Abuzz over Real Humdinger:  Indianapolis Star (Indiana), February 19, 2002.


      Anonymous, 2003, Kokomo Hum Blamed on Industrial Fans:  Associated Press, September 19, 2003.
      Anonymous, 2003, Things that go Hum in the Night:  Littlehampton Gazette (United Kingdom), November 6, 2003.
      Associated Press, 2003, Consultant Releases Findings from Study of Kokomo Hum:  Associated Press, September 19, 2003.
      Associated Press, 2003, Companies Try to End Irritating Industrial Hum: Associated Press, November 9, 2003.
      Astley, C., 2003, Riddle of a Rumble:  Manchester Evening News (England), August 8, 2003.
      Cowan, J. P., 2003, The Kokomo Hum Investigation:  Acentech Project No. 615411, Acentech Inc., 33 Moulton St., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138.  October, 2003.
      Curry, B. P., and Fleming, G. V., 2003, RF Radiation Measurements in Selected Locations in Kokomo, Indiana:  EMSciTek Consulting, 22W101 McCarron Road, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, 60137. Report prepared for Acent Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 17, 2003, revised August 29, 2003.
      Henderson, D., 2003, Hum-thing Strange Disturbs Residents:  UK Newsquest Regional Press--This is Dorset (United Kingdom), November 13, 2003.
      Leventhall, G., 2003, The Hum, in, A Review of Published Research on Low Frequency Noise and its Effects, Chapter 11:  Report prepared for Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA):  London, p. 43-45.
      Mell, C., 2003, Don't Lose Sleep Over the Source of Taos' Hum: Albuquerque Journal (New Mexico), June 28, 2003, p. 3.
      Sink, M., 2003, Here and There, Mysterious Hum Dedevils Unlucky Few:  The New York Times, December 2, 2003, Section F, p. 2.
      Stedman, L., 2003, City Wants to Muffle Kokomo Hum:  Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky), December 29, 2003.
      Uyttebrouck, O., 2003, Hmmm...What's That Hum?  Albuquerque Journal (New Mexico), May 29, 2003, p. A-1.

      Anonymous (editorial), 2004, Kokomo Hum:  Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), June 4, 2004.
      Associated Press, 2004, Consultant Says Kokomo Hum Nearly Silenced: Associated Press, May 25, 2004.
      Associated Press, 2004, Health Problems Persist Despite Quieting of Mysterious Hum:  Associated Press, June 7, 2004.
      Lewis, K., 2004, Expert Claims Hum Almost Gone:  Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), May 25, 2004.
      Lewis, K., 2004, Hum Researcher Reports to City:  Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), June 2, 2004.
      Lewis, K., 2004, Expert Says Hum is Not a Sound:  Kokomo Tribune (Indiana), June 3, 2004.
      Perlman, E., 2004, Wishing They Were Tone Deaf:  Governing Magazine, February, 2004, p. 16.
      Pilkington, M., 2004, Life:  Far Out:  Humdingers:  The Guardian (London), July 22, 2004, Guardian Science Pages, p. 11.
      Webber, T., 2004, Making Noise Over the Hum; In Kokomo, Complaints Remain: Indianapolis Star (Indiana), March 28, 2004, p. A-1.

      References on Electrophonics (Human Hearing of Electromagnetic Energy)

      Elder, J. A., and Chou, C. K., 2003, Auditory Response to Pulsed Radiofrequency Energy [Review Article]:  Bioelectromagnetics Supplement, v. 6, p. S162-S173.
      Frey, A. H. (1962).  Human Auditory System Response to Modulated Electromagnetic Energy. J. Appl. Physiol., 17, 689-692.
      Keay, C. S. L., 1980, Anomalous Sounds from the Entry of Meteor Fireballs: Science, v. 210, October 3, 1980, p. 11-15.
      Keay, C. S. L., 1980, Audible Sounds Excited by Aurorae and Meteor Fireballs: Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, v. 74, no. 5, p. 253-260.
      Keay, C. S. L., 1992, Electrophonic Sounds from Large Meteor Fireballs: Meteoritics, v. 27, p. 144-148.
      Keay, C. S. L., 1993, Progress in Explaining the Mysterious Sounds Produced by Very Large Meteor Fireballs:  Journal of Scientific Exploration, v. 7, no. 4, p. 337-354.
      Keay, C. S. L., 1994, Audible Fireballs and Geophysical Electrophonics: Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of Australia, v. 11, no. 1, p. 12-15.
      Keay, C. S. L., 1994, Rate of Observation of Electrophonic Meteor Fireballs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 99, no. E-6, p. 13,163-13,165.
      Keay, C., 1995, Continued Progress in Electrophonic Fireball Investigations: Earth, Moon, and Planets, v. 68, p. 361-368.
      Keay, C., 1998, Electrophonic Sounds from Large Meteor Fireballs:  Meteorite! August, 1998, p. 8-10.
      Leitgreb, N., and Schröttner, J., 2003, Electrosensibility and Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity:  Bioelectromagnetics, v. 24, p. 387-394.
      Liakouris, A. G. J., 1998, Radiofrequency (RF) Sickness in the Lilienfeld Study: an Effect of Modulated Microwaves? Archives of Environmental Health, v. 53, no. 3, p. 236-238.
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