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Re: The Overman as Philosopher-King.

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  • moodylawless
    Brown s book possibly offers the key to understanding James Douglas Morrison s take on Nietzsche; - it seems that Jim followed-up many of the books mentioned
    Message 1 of 20 , Jan 1, 2009
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      Brown's book possibly offers the key to understanding James Douglas Morrison's take on Nietzsche; - it seems that Jim followed-up many of the books mentioned by Brown as further reading [this is a hunch of mine, I am still in the midst of reading Brown's book at present].

      Brown's take on art - and particularly on poetry - is vital to that understanding.

      Also there is the link with Nietzsche's Child and Freud's emphasis on childhood [and its polymorphously perverse sexuality] made there, which we could valuably connect with the pagan theme of childhood in mythology.

      It is possible that it may re-ignite your interest in the Mad God.

      Madness is the Royal Disease.


      --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, "Sauwelios" <sauwelios@...> wrote:
      >
      > Brown's book seems very interesting (no irony intended). By the little
      > I've read about it (and not even *from* it), I'm reminded of
      > Heidegger's amazing description of the contradictory nature of the
      > will to power: as on the one hand, a will to overcome, and on the
      > other hand, a will to *preserve*. Freud's "life" and "death instincts"
      > seem related to those two wills, respectively. According to Heidegger,
      > these two wills correspond to "art" and "truth", respectively.

    • Sauwelios
      Re-light my fire, eh? Well, I ve ordered the book. In the meantime, I have an urgent question, and I hope you will answer me this time. In OPN, you defined
      Message 2 of 20 , Jan 2, 2009
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        Re-light my fire, eh? Well, I've ordered the book. In the meantime, I
        have an urgent question, and I hope you will answer me this time. In
        OPN, you defined Zarathustra's Seven Solitudes as the times
        Zarathustra seeks solitude in TSZ plus his death, which does not occur
        in the book
        (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ourpalnietzsche/message/24893). Thus
        far I've found six:

        1. In the book's opening sentence;
        2. At the end of Of the Bestowing Virtue;
        3. End of The Stillest Hour;
        4. The Return Home;
        5. The Sign;
        6. Zarathustra's death (described by his animals in The Convalescent).

        Can you tell me his "seventh solitude", please? Is it The Night-Song?
        Or is it Noontide? The reason I ask is that I'd like to use it in a
        secret project I'm working on, which I plan to introduce here shortly.
        Thanks in advance.


        --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, "moodylawless"
        <moodylawless@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        > Brown's book possibly offers the key to understanding James Douglas
        > Morrison's take on Nietzsche; - it seems that Jim followed-up many of
        > the books mentioned by Brown as further reading [this is a hunch of
        > mine, I am still in the midst of reading Brown's book at present].
        >
        > Brown's take on art - and particularly on poetry - is vital to that
        > understanding.
        >
        > Also there is the link with Nietzsche's Child and Freud's emphasis on
        > childhood [and its polymorphously perverse sexuality] made there, which
        > we could valuably connect with the pagan theme of childhood in
        > mythology.
        >
        > It is possible that it may re-ignite your interest in the Mad God.
        >
        > Madness is the Royal Disease.
        >
        >
        > --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, "Sauwelios" <sauwelios@>
        > wrote:
        > >
        > > Brown's book seems very interesting (no irony intended). By the little
        > > I've read about it (and not even *from* it), I'm reminded of
        > > Heidegger's amazing description of the contradictory nature of the
        > > will to power: as on the one hand, a will to overcome, and on the
        > > other hand, a will to *preserve*. Freud's "life" and "death instincts"
        > > seem related to those two wills, respectively. According to Heidegger,
        > > these two wills correspond to "art" and "truth", respectively.
        >
      • moodylawless
        It occurs frequently in the Dionysos Dithyramben [the DD I mentioned in that old post you link to] which are connected closely with TSZ. Particularly in Die
        Message 3 of 20 , Jan 4, 2009
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          It occurs frequently in the 'Dionysos Dithyramben' [the DD I
          mentioned in that old post you link to] which are connected closely
          with TSZ.

          Particularly in 'Die Sonne sinkt' where the 'Siebente Einsamkeit' is
          identified with the 'blue oblivion' of Death.

          You may quote me on that one too!

          --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, "Sauwelios" <sauwelios@...>
          wrote:
          >
          > Re-light my fire, eh? Well, I've ordered the book. In the meantime,
          I
          > have an urgent question, and I hope you will answer me this time. In
          > OPN, you defined Zarathustra's Seven Solitudes as the times
          > Zarathustra seeks solitude in TSZ plus his death, which does not
          occur
          > in the book
          > (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ourpalnietzsche/message/24893). Thus
          > far I've found six:
          >
          > 1. In the book's opening sentence;
          > 2. At the end of Of the Bestowing Virtue;
          > 3. End of The Stillest Hour;
          > 4. The Return Home;
          > 5. The Sign;
          > 6. Zarathustra's death (described by his animals in The
          Convalescent).
          >
          > Can you tell me his "seventh solitude", please? Is it The Night-
          Song?
          > Or is it Noontide? The reason I ask is that I'd like to use it in a
          > secret project I'm working on, which I plan to introduce here
          shortly.
          > Thanks in advance.
        • Sauwelios
          Yes, I got that... I m not asking about his seventh *chronological* solitude, but about the solitude I didn t find yet (see my list below). Any idea?
          Message 4 of 20 , Jan 4, 2009
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            Yes, I got that...

            I'm not asking about his seventh *chronological* solitude, but about
            the solitude I didn't find yet (see my list below). Any idea?

            --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, "moodylawless"
            <moodylawless@...> wrote:
            >
            > It occurs frequently in the 'Dionysos Dithyramben' [the DD I
            > mentioned in that old post you link to] which are connected closely
            > with TSZ.
            >
            > Particularly in 'Die Sonne sinkt' where the 'Siebente Einsamkeit' is
            > identified with the 'blue oblivion' of Death.
            >
            > You may quote me on that one too!
            >
            > --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, "Sauwelios" <sauwelios@>
            > wrote:
            > >
            > > Re-light my fire, eh? Well, I've ordered the book. In the meantime,
            > I
            > > have an urgent question, and I hope you will answer me this time. In
            > > OPN, you defined Zarathustra's Seven Solitudes as the times
            > > Zarathustra seeks solitude in TSZ plus his death, which does not
            > occur
            > > in the book
            > > (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ourpalnietzsche/message/24893). Thus
            > > far I've found six:
            > >
            > > 1. In the book's opening sentence;
            > > 2. At the end of Of the Bestowing Virtue;
            > > 3. End of The Stillest Hour;
            > > 4. The Return Home;
            > > 5. The Sign;
            > > 6. Zarathustra's death (described by his animals in The
            > Convalescent).
            > >
            > > Can you tell me his "seventh solitude", please? Is it The Night-
            > Song?
            > > Or is it Noontide? The reason I ask is that I'd like to use it in a
            > > secret project I'm working on, which I plan to introduce here
            > shortly.
            > > Thanks in advance.
            >
          • Moody Lawless
            I did wonder why you asked, as I had written all those years ago: You will see that Z goes in and out of solitude 6 times in TSZ; these are the events in Z s
            Message 5 of 20 , Jan 5, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              I did wonder why you asked, as I had written all those years ago:
              You will see that Z goes in and out of solitude 6 times in TSZ; these are the events in Z's life, just as the Sorrows are events in
              Christ's life.Therefore the 7Sol is none other than Z's "final solitude" [as he says in the DD], and like Mary's final Seventh Sorrow, it is akin to
              a death and an ascension. So briefly, the 7Sol = Death.


              I take it you've seen this article by P Murray:
               
              "Rohit Sharma, On the Seventh Solitude. Endless Becoming and Eternal Return in the Poetry of Friedrich Nietzsche. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. 293 pp. including bibliography, paperback US$57.95
              Pete Murray
              This analysis of Nietzsche’s poetry attempts to connect “the seventh solitude” with the fundamental concepts of becoming and eternal return, a fascinating claim for a notion that seems merely rhetorical. Another thesis of this book is that many of Nietzsche’s philosophical ideas are foreshadowed in his poetry, which does not seem to be controversial as the bulk of the poetry is included in published philosophical works. Nonetheless, one should be true to the earth and wary of poets, and I suggest that laughing and dancing are mere recreations from the “great seriousness” of overcoming nihilism. Still, a number of poems express fundamental Nietzschean themes and feelings and it is with these poems that Sharma is ultimately concerned. The book generally treats Nietzsche’s poetry chronologically, reproducing most of the poems (in German), identifying themes and often relating them to concurrent or later philosophical works. Sharma is a
              Germanist, but his overwhelming preoccupation is with the poetry’s philosophical sense—rather than technical aspects.
              Beginning with early poems and including work up to The Gay Science, the first chapter discovers themes including melancholy, solitude, isolation, individuation, the poet’s travail and the feminine. Exploring the young Nietzsche’s struggle with loneliness and his resignation to a life of solitude (43ff.), Sharma examines important poems from this time such as “The Wanderer” (47-51) and “On a Glacier” (51-55). He also introduces the notion of the feminine in a section which analyses “The Little Brigg, called �the Little Angel,’” suggesting that the issue of “woman as truth” underlies the poem’s apparent frivolity, however, I find no contextual evidence to support this, Nietzsche himself describing the Idylls of Messina as “cheerful.” Nonetheless, Sharma challenges us to reread these works more openly, something that is undoubtedly rewarding. The chapter ends with an interesting discussion of BT and the Dionysian, comparing
              solitude and individuation (71-75), which raises a question of different forms of “aloneness.”
              Sharma carries the theme of the feminine through to the second chapter, where his analysis turns to the artist philosopher and further poems from the time of The Idylls of Messina. The notion of play is also addressed in both the sense of creating and destroying, and the more selfconscious play with poetic language. Turning to poems concerning the feminine, Sharma does not seem to expand on these points as it is not at all clear that the female subjects of “A Girl’s Melody” or “Campo santo di Staglieno” have any clear connection with truth or play, and reading the poems with this possibility in mind does not create any openings for further interpretation. The latter poem is possibly based on the epitaph “Pia, caritatevole, amorisissima,” which is the title of another short poem, and is apparently an admission of sentimentality—kissing the gravestone of “amorisissima, the one most dear. Some of the other poems from this period have a
              more obviously philosophical context. In “Rimus remedium: Or, how sick poets console themselves, there is a return to the poet’s travail in relation to time (91, 98-99). It seems that sick poets do not console themselves well, but face an “eternity of suffering (98) with a dread that will soon be a feature of the eternal recurrence of the same.
              Perhaps more could have been made of this, as it seems that the sickness induced by a glance into the abyss is central to the experience of solitude as a state in which a thinker is affected by thoughts which disturb and repel—the thinker in the process of murdering God. Nietzsche has a clear conception of this state of shameful anxiety, with its ambivalent relationship to humanity. Abandoned by values fleeing and destroyed, the self is unable to assume responsibility for others. Sharma considers “To the Mistral: A Dance Song to express one poetic response that requires joining forces with the cold north wind—Nietzsche’s Hyperborean companions perhaps—and beating the rhythm of a new immoralist dance (114-5). Ending this chapter, Sharma’s analysis of the “The Poet’s Call again emphasizes play and laughter as the alternatives to the selfconscious seriousness of the artist, raising what now appears to be the major Nietzschean poetic theme:
              the question of the value of poetry to the process of revaluation (119). Despite Sharma’s advocacy, it seems that while laughter can kill a god, it cannot create a new one.
              The third chapter moves to the Dionysian dithyrambs, commentary on which is split between two chapters, with Chapter 3 analyzing “Only a fool, only a poet!, “Between Birds of Prey, “Ariadne’s Lament, and “The Daughters of the Desert.” Sharma first explores the background concepts of the tragic, the Dionysian, fate and destiny (124f.), which bring together the uncertain mixture of joy and suffering that is essentially Nietzschean. The interpretation raises the issue of the capacity to affirm life despite suffering, a vexed issue, especially when involving the suffering of others. “Only a fool, only a poet!” is shown to question the worth of poetry, and by implication language in general, in an emotional response to the inadequacy of comprehension, while the analysis of “Ariadne’s Lament” raises the question of the nature of will to power in this tormented being, whom Sharma finds to be rendered “helpless” by “an allpowerful
              thought of the human,” a thought named after the god (1539) and which we could presume to refer to the abyss of human suffering.
              As Sharma suggests (154), the metaphor of Ariadne is complex, however, I think that some further background could help. It appears that the figure is used to communicate something of the Dionysian affective state. Thus Spoke Zarathustra suggests that the performance later attributed to Ariadne could be that of the “penitent (B&252;sser) of the spirit” (Z 4, “The Magician”). An earlier reference to this figure (translated as “ascetic”) occurs in Z 2, “On those who are Sublime,” suggesting that there is a separation from life and a failure to grasp laughter and beauty or praise the earth. The connection between these two chapters of Zarathustra is emphasized by the final lines of the latter which are attributed to Ariadne in a note (KGW VII.I 453) and which also resemble the final, subsequently added, lines of the dithyramb, suggesting that passing through a barrier of suffering makes affirmation of life possible, and that this can only
              happen if one is repentant (Büsser) about the evasiveness of sublimity.
              The final chapter approaches the seventh solitude directly through “The Last Will,” “The Fire Sign,” “The Sun Sinks,” “Fame and Eternity,” and “The Poverty of the Rich,” before turning to an analysis of a number of associated Nietzschean concepts (203-215). Following some introductory remarks, Sharma presents an analysis of “The Poverty of the Rich” (181-189), a poem which bears some similarity to Z 4, “The Honey Offering,” and describes Zarathustra in solitude like a creator resting on the seventh day, begging the question of whether the seventh solitude could be restful. Sharma mentions a significant aspect of the poem where, in the second half, the voice changes from Zarathustra’s to some external power. I suggest that on the basis of “Ariadne’s Lament” we could assume this to be Dionysus, especially as the lesson taught is to “give yourself away.” While intuitively understood as referring to the selfsacrificial
              philosopher, it is not made clear what these formulas mean concretely, however, I suggest that it is a criticism of Zarathustra’s tendency towards asceticism and a requirement for greater engagement.
              “Fame and Eternity” contrasts the pettiness of fame to the affirmation of eternity. One interesting issue mentioned is basilisk eggs (173f.). Medieval and earlier “bestiaries” emphasize the basilisk’s venomousness, as do classical references in Pliny, and, as Sharma points out, the Bible (Isaiah 59.5). There is also a reference in the nowrestored final section of The Antichrist, “Decree against Christianity,” which advocates destroying the places where Christians have hatched their basilisk eggs. I suggest that the basilisk eggs represent the resentment that Zarathustra has failed to recognize, being overly concerned with fame. This poem raises two important connected issues—the relationship between eternity and necessity, and how the two can be affirmed—which are only touched on by Sharma. The poem suggests that necessity—generally hated—is loved by Zarathustra. Symbolized by a star and experienced as a form of the sublime that is
              not evaded by reason, it appears to me that, for Nietzsche, necessity is “the will to power and nothing else” (BGE 36).
              “The Fire Sign” confirms that the seventh is the final solitude, without making the concept any clearer. Sharma notes that the fire is more a beacon than a cremation, with Zarathustra attempting to attract “clever sailors” to his home on the ridge between two seas—are they the laughing lions and the swarm of doves? Finally, Sharma finds a more hopeful mood in “The Sun Sinks.” Strength of purpose replaces the depressing resignation and need for escape which the poems often express towards the task of philosophizing. As Sharma notes, there is a “serenity” associated with the seventh solitude (202), a sense of basking in the warm rays of coastal sunset, which is in sharp contrast to the pain associated with Zarathustra’s return to solitude. Interestingly, Sharma also points to a “joyfulness” that he describes as a “movement after achieving the seventh solitude” (203).
              Sharma remarks on the obtuse ending (202), which I consider to be poorly resolved in a recent translation of “The Sun Sinks” which renders Nachen as “night,” something which also occurs in relation to Der geheimnisvolle Nachen, translated as “The Secret Night” rather than Kaufmann’s “The Mysterious Bark.” A possible reason, though not a satisfactory one, is that the original version in Idyllen aus Messina is entitled Der n�chtliche Geheimniss (“The Nocturnal Mystery”). Elsewhere, Nachen is used in reference to the death boat (TodesNachen), presumably a reference to Charon, as well as to the shimmering golden boat promised in Z 3, “On the Great Longing,” and seen approaching in the eyes of life (Z 3, “The Second Dancing Song”). Nietzsche uses Kahn to refer to a boat in “The Sun Sinks” and elsewhere (Z 3, “The Second Dance Song”; BT 1, quoting Schopenhauer), and it seems that there are two types of boat, not
              necessarily corresponding to the term used. One metaphor refers to a protective vessel, including the “death boat,” in which wanderers navigate the sea of uncertainty. I suggest that the structure of this boat is responsibility. The other boat is associated with Dionysian redemption occurring in the form of harvesting, whereby the soul is likened to the object of a harvest festival or Dionysian rite.
              Sharma suggests that there are seven uses of the phrase “seventh solitude,” but this does not appear to be the case. GS 285 suggests that there will be no friend for your seven solitudes; GS 309 is entitled “From the seventh solitude” and, like GS 285, is partly spoken directly to the reader, indicated by inverted commas. The wanderer in Z 3 begins Zarathustra’s final solitude, presumed to be the seventh, and associated with the “ridge between two seas,” and finally, the mention in the Foreword to The Antichrist advocates the “experience out of seven solitudes.” However, none of these references provides either a clear suggestion of a meaning, as Sharma acknowledges (203) or a basis for the fundamentality of the term, whether considered purely in the context of Sharma’s interpretation or attributed to Nietzsche (26).
              Along with the five mentions in the published works, there are a number of other mentions in the notes, which might enlighten us further.[1] Nietzsche lists three, seven and eight solitudes (KSA 10:21[2]; 10:10[44]; 10:16[2]; 10:16[64]). The seven solitudes are characterized as follows:
              1. Shame and silence before the great thought
              2. Loss of all grounds
              3. Searching
              4. Absence of friends
              5. Highest responsibility
              6. Beyond morality - the perspective of eternity
              7. Convalescence
              The “singular will” has been added to the list of eight. On the basis of Z 3, “The Wanderer,” we can agree that there is a final solitude while, in the notes, both lists end with a solitude particularly concerned with sickness and convalescence. This would seem to make Z 3, “The Convalescent,” the depiction of the events of the seventh/final solitude. On this basis we can say that the seventh/final solitude is where one is able to affirm life in relation to the eternal recurrence of the same, due to a fundamental, nihilistic, thoughtinhibiting affirmation being brought to the surface and overcome. The solitude involving the perspective of eternity, which one might assume to be the highest state and which is reached in Z 3, “The Seven Seals,” occurs as only the penultimate solitude of both the seven and eight. Did Nietzsche reverse his last two solitudes, or was the song to eternity found not to be a “solitude” at all? Furthermore, the
              list of eight solitudes ends with a reference to the laughing lion and the swarm of doves prefigured in Z 3, “Of Old and New Tablets,” and actualized in Z 4, “The Sign,” also suggesting a change of mind.
              Sharma would like to associate the seventh solitude with other major concepts, especially eternal return. Given that it appears that the seventh solitude is the temporal space in which Zarathustra undertakes and achieves the culmination of his painful search for wisdom, this interpretation could be correct. However, any attempt to subsume eternal return under the seventh solitude seems wrong, whether done playfully or not, and Sharma’s reasons for wanting to do so, while mentioned, are not convincing (26). Solitude has a special place in Nietzsche’s philosophy, but the seventh solitude is not a philosophical concept from which others could be derived, also, it is not, as is claimed (217), an example of aposiopesis—a device that Nietzsche often uses, designated by a dash or an ellipsis. Neither can I agree with the notion of “Heisenbergian” uncertainty (217). I suggest that to accept uncertainty as a model for life, without the caveat that the
              extent that it is admitted into thought must be matched by the creation of value, is to fall into the active nihilism that Nietzsche’s revaluation sought to overcome. To give uncertainty priority ultimately means that an act of violence becomes as valuable as an act of politeness. Nonetheless, the seventh solitude is an important event in the process of revaluation, and despite its overstated major thesis, this book is a valuable study that raises many interesting questions concerning Nietzsche’s poetry in relation to his major philosophical concepts. It is clear that, for Nietzsche, the way through nihilism involves an encounter that will be most unpleasant and threatening. His poetry expresses his concerns about the meaning of this encounter and the possibility of articulating it, as well as providing an escape into nature, mischievousness and laughter, but most importantly it attempts to describe the encounter with meaninglessness and suggest a
              sense of the possibility of its overcoming.
              Amsterdam

              Notes

              The following is based on the article “Einsamkeit" to be published in Paul van Tongeren, Gerd Schank & Herman Siemens (Hrsg.), Nietzsche-Wörterbuch Band 2: Einsamkeit-Gesundheit. Berlin/New York: W. de Gruyter 2008. I would like to thank Paul van Tongeren for allowing me to use this material."
               
              http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_nietzsche_studies/v035/35.murray02.html
            • Sauwelios
              Thanks for the article, I didn t know it, and will read it more closely later. It does not seem to list the other six solitudes, though. I know the seventh
              Message 6 of 20 , Jan 5, 2009
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                Thanks for the article, I didn't know it, and will read it more
                closely later. It does not seem to list the other six solitudes,
                though. I know the seventh solitude is his death. Of the other six
                solitudes, I've found five:

                1. In the book's opening sentence (Zarathustra leaving his home and
                the lake of his home and going into solitude for ten years);
                2. At the end of Of the Bestowing Virtue (the end of Book I);
                3. End of The Stillest Hour (end of Book II);
                4. The Return Home (in the middle of Book III);
                5. The Sign (at the end of Book IV).

                I would like to know which one I've missed. My guess is Noontide (in
                the middle of Book IV); for the Night-Song, my second guess, may be
                sung in the company of his disciples, like the Dance-Song and possibly
                the Grave-Song.

                "You will see that Z goes in and out of solitude 6 times in TSZ".

                Can you list the 6 occasions *you* see, please?


                --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, Moody Lawless
                <moodylawless@...> wrote:
                >
                > I did wonder why you asked, as I had written all those years ago:
                > You will see that Z goes in and out of solitude 6 times in TSZ;
                these are the events in Z's life, just as the Sorrows are events in
                > Christ's life.Therefore the 7Sol is none other than Z's "final
                solitude" [as he says in the DD], and like Mary's final Seventh
                Sorrow, it is akin to
                > a death and an ascension. So briefly, the 7Sol = Death.
                >
                >
                > I take it you've seen this article by P Murray:
                >  
                > "Rohit Sharma, On the Seventh Solitude. Endless Becoming and Eternal
                Return in the Poetry of Friedrich Nietzsche. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006.
                293 pp. including bibliography, paperback US$57.95
                > Pete Murray
                > This analysis of Nietzsche’s poetry attempts to connect “the
                seventh solitude” with the fundamental concepts of becoming and
                eternal return, a fascinating claim for a notion that seems merely
                rhetorical. Another thesis of this book is that many of Nietzsche’s
                philosophical ideas are foreshadowed in his poetry, which does not
                seem to be controversial as the bulk of the poetry is included in
                published philosophical works. Nonetheless, one should be true to the
                earth and wary of poets, and I suggest that laughing and dancing are
                mere recreations from the “great seriousness” of overcoming
                nihilism. Still, a number of poems express fundamental Nietzschean
                themes and feelings and it is with these poems that Sharma is
                ultimately concerned. The book generally treats Nietzsche’s poetry
                chronologically, reproducing most of the poems (in German),
                identifying themes and often relating them to concurrent or later
                philosophical works. Sharma is a
                > Germanist, but his overwhelming preoccupation is with the
                poetry’s philosophical senseâ€"rather than technical aspects.
                > Beginning with early poems and including work up to The Gay Science,
                the first chapter discovers themes including melancholy, solitude,
                isolation, individuation, the poet’s travail and the feminine.
                Exploring the young Nietzsche’s struggle with loneliness and his
                resignation to a life of solitude (43ff.), Sharma examines important
                poems from this time such as “The Wanderer” (47-51) and “On a
                Glacier” (51-55). He also introduces the notion of the feminine in a
                section which analyses “The Little Brigg, called �the Little
                Angel,’” suggesting that the issue of “woman as truth”
                underlies the poem’s apparent frivolity, however, I find no
                contextual evidence to support this, Nietzsche himself describing the
                Idylls of Messina as “cheerful.” Nonetheless, Sharma challenges us
                to reread these works more openly, something that is undoubtedly
                rewarding. The chapter ends with an interesting discussion of BT and
                the Dionysian, comparing
                > solitude and individuation (71-75), which raises a question of
                different forms of “aloneness.”
                > Sharma carries the theme of the feminine through to the second
                chapter, where his analysis turns to the artist philosopher and
                further poems from the time of The Idylls of Messina. The notion of
                play is also addressed in both the sense of creating and destroying,
                and the more selfconscious play with poetic language. Turning to poems
                concerning the feminine, Sharma does not seem to expand on these
                points as it is not at all clear that the female subjects of “A
                Girl’s Melody” or “Campo santo di Staglieno” have any clear
                connection with truth or play, and reading the poems with this
                possibility in mind does not create any openings for further
                interpretation. The latter poem is possibly based on the epitaph
                “Pia, caritatevole, amorisissima,” which is the title of another
                short poem, and is apparently an admission of sentimentalityâ€"kissing
                the gravestone of “amorisissima, the one most dear. Some of the
                other poems from this period have a
                > more obviously philosophical context. In “Rimus remedium: Or, how
                sick poets console themselves, there is a return to the poet’s
                travail in relation to time (91, 98-99). It seems that sick poets do
                not console themselves well, but face an “eternity of suffering (98)
                with a dread that will soon be a feature of the eternal recurrence of
                the same.
                > Perhaps more could have been made of this, as it seems that the
                sickness induced by a glance into the abyss is central to the
                experience of solitude as a state in which a thinker is affected by
                thoughts which disturb and repelâ€"the thinker in the process of
                murdering God. Nietzsche has a clear conception of this state of
                shameful anxiety, with its ambivalent relationship to humanity.
                Abandoned by values fleeing and destroyed, the self is unable to
                assume responsibility for others. Sharma considers “To the Mistral:
                A Dance Song to express one poetic response that requires joining
                forces with the cold north windâ€"Nietzsche’s Hyperborean companions
                perhapsâ€"and beating the rhythm of a new immoralist dance (114-5).
                Ending this chapter, Sharma’s analysis of the “The Poet’s Call
                again emphasizes play and laughter as the alternatives to the
                selfconscious seriousness of the artist, raising what now appears to
                be the major Nietzschean poetic theme:
                > the question of the value of poetry to the process of revaluation
                (119). Despite Sharma’s advocacy, it seems that while laughter can
                kill a god, it cannot create a new one.
                > The third chapter moves to the Dionysian dithyrambs, commentary on
                which is split between two chapters, with Chapter 3 analyzing “Only
                a fool, only a poet!, “Between Birds of Prey, “Ariadne’s Lament,
                and “The Daughters of the Desert.” Sharma first explores the
                background concepts of the tragic, the Dionysian, fate and destiny
                (124f.), which bring together the uncertain mixture of joy and
                suffering that is essentially Nietzschean. The interpretation raises
                the issue of the capacity to affirm life despite suffering, a vexed
                issue, especially when involving the suffering of others. “Only a
                fool, only a poet!” is shown to question the worth of poetry, and by
                implication language in general, in an emotional response to the
                inadequacy of comprehension, while the analysis of “Ariadne’s
                Lament” raises the question of the nature of will to power in this
                tormented being, whom Sharma finds to be rendered “helpless” by
                “an allpowerful
                > thought of the human,” a thought named after the god (1539) and
                which we could presume to refer to the abyss of human suffering.
                > As Sharma suggests (154), the metaphor of Ariadne is complex,
                however, I think that some further background could help. It appears
                that the figure is used to communicate something of the Dionysian
                affective state. Thus Spoke Zarathustra suggests that the performance
                later attributed to Ariadne could be that of the “penitent
                (B&252;sser) of the spirit” (Z 4, “The Magician”). An earlier
                reference to this figure (translated as “ascetic”) occurs in Z 2,
                “On those who are Sublime,” suggesting that there is a separation
                from life and a failure to grasp laughter and beauty or praise the
                earth. The connection between these two chapters of Zarathustra is
                emphasized by the final lines of the latter which are attributed to
                Ariadne in a note (KGW VII.I 453) and which also resemble the final,
                subsequently added, lines of the dithyramb, suggesting that passing
                through a barrier of suffering makes affirmation of life possible, and
                that this can only
                > happen if one is repentant (Büsser) about the evasiveness of
                sublimity.
                > The final chapter approaches the seventh solitude directly through
                “The Last Will,” “The Fire Sign,” “The Sun Sinks,” “Fame
                and Eternity,” and “The Poverty of the Rich,” before turning to
                an analysis of a number of associated Nietzschean concepts (203-215).
                Following some introductory remarks, Sharma presents an analysis of
                “The Poverty of the Rich” (181-189), a poem which bears some
                similarity to Z 4, “The Honey Offering,” and describes Zarathustra
                in solitude like a creator resting on the seventh day, begging the
                question of whether the seventh solitude could be restful. Sharma
                mentions a significant aspect of the poem where, in the second half,
                the voice changes from Zarathustra’s to some external power. I
                suggest that on the basis of “Ariadne’s Lament” we could assume
                this to be Dionysus, especially as the lesson taught is to “give
                yourself away.” While intuitively understood as referring to the
                selfsacrificial
                > philosopher, it is not made clear what these formulas mean
                concretely, however, I suggest that it is a criticism of
                Zarathustra’s tendency towards asceticism and a requirement for
                greater engagement.
                > “Fame and Eternity” contrasts the pettiness of fame to the
                affirmation of eternity. One interesting issue mentioned is basilisk
                eggs (173f.). Medieval and earlier “bestiaries” emphasize the
                basilisk’s venomousness, as do classical references in Pliny, and,
                as Sharma points out, the Bible (Isaiah 59.5). There is also a
                reference in the nowrestored final section of The Antichrist,
                “Decree against Christianity,” which advocates destroying the
                places where Christians have hatched their basilisk eggs. I suggest
                that the basilisk eggs represent the resentment that Zarathustra has
                failed to recognize, being overly concerned with fame. This poem
                raises two important connected issuesâ€"the relationship between
                eternity and necessity, and how the two can be affirmedâ€"which are
                only touched on by Sharma. The poem suggests that
                necessityâ€"generally hatedâ€"is loved by Zarathustra. Symbolized by a
                star and experienced as a form of the sublime that is
                > not evaded by reason, it appears to me that, for Nietzsche,
                necessity is “the will to power and nothing else” (BGE 36).
                > “The Fire Sign” confirms that the seventh is the final solitude,
                without making the concept any clearer. Sharma notes that the fire is
                more a beacon than a cremation, with Zarathustra attempting to attract
                “clever sailors” to his home on the ridge between two seasâ€"are
                they the laughing lions and the swarm of doves? Finally, Sharma finds
                a more hopeful mood in “The Sun Sinks.” Strength of purpose
                replaces the depressing resignation and need for escape which the
                poems often express towards the task of philosophizing. As Sharma
                notes, there is a “serenity” associated with the seventh solitude
                (202), a sense of basking in the warm rays of coastal sunset, which is
                in sharp contrast to the pain associated with Zarathustra’s return
                to solitude. Interestingly, Sharma also points to a “joyfulness”
                that he describes as a “movement after achieving the seventh
                solitude” (203).
                > Sharma remarks on the obtuse ending (202), which I consider to be
                poorly resolved in a recent translation of “The Sun Sinks” which
                renders Nachen as “night,” something which also occurs in relation
                to Der geheimnisvolle Nachen, translated as “The Secret Night”
                rather than Kaufmann’s “The Mysterious Bark.” A possible reason,
                though not a satisfactory one, is that the original version in Idyllen
                aus Messina is entitled Der n�chtliche Geheimniss (“The
                Nocturnal Mystery”). Elsewhere, Nachen is used in reference to the
                death boat (TodesNachen), presumably a reference to Charon, as well as
                to the shimmering golden boat promised in Z 3, “On the Great
                Longing,” and seen approaching in the eyes of life (Z 3, “The
                Second Dancing Song”). Nietzsche uses Kahn to refer to a boat in
                “The Sun Sinks” and elsewhere (Z 3, “The Second Dance Song”;
                BT 1, quoting Schopenhauer), and it seems that there are two types of
                boat, not
                > necessarily corresponding to the term used. One metaphor refers to
                a protective vessel, including the “death boat,” in which
                wanderers navigate the sea of uncertainty. I suggest that the
                structure of this boat is responsibility. The other boat is associated
                with Dionysian redemption occurring in the form of harvesting, whereby
                the soul is likened to the object of a harvest festival or Dionysian
                rite.
                > Sharma suggests that there are seven uses of the phrase “seventh
                solitude,” but this does not appear to be the case. GS 285 suggests
                that there will be no friend for your seven solitudes; GS 309 is
                entitled “From the seventh solitude” and, like GS 285, is partly
                spoken directly to the reader, indicated by inverted commas. The
                wanderer in Z 3 begins Zarathustra’s final solitude, presumed to be
                the seventh, and associated with the “ridge between two seas,” and
                finally, the mention in the Foreword to The Antichrist advocates the
                “experience out of seven solitudes.” However, none of these
                references provides either a clear suggestion of a meaning, as Sharma
                acknowledges (203) or a basis for the fundamentality of the term,
                whether considered purely in the context of Sharma’s interpretation
                or attributed to Nietzsche (26).
                > Along with the five mentions in the published works, there are a
                number of other mentions in the notes, which might enlighten us
                further.[1] Nietzsche lists three, seven and eight solitudes (KSA
                10:21[2]; 10:10[44]; 10:16[2]; 10:16[64]). The seven solitudes are
                characterized as follows:
                > 1. Shame and silence before the great thought
                > 2. Loss of all grounds
                > 3. Searching
                > 4. Absence of friends
                > 5. Highest responsibility
                > 6. Beyond morality - the perspective of eternity
                > 7. Convalescence
                > The “singular will” has been added to the list of eight. On the
                basis of Z 3, “The Wanderer,” we can agree that there is a final
                solitude while, in the notes, both lists end with a solitude
                particularly concerned with sickness and convalescence. This would
                seem to make Z 3, “The Convalescent,” the depiction of the events
                of the seventh/final solitude. On this basis we can say that the
                seventh/final solitude is where one is able to affirm life in relation
                to the eternal recurrence of the same, due to a fundamental,
                nihilistic, thoughtinhibiting affirmation being brought to the surface
                and overcome. The solitude involving the perspective of eternity,
                which one might assume to be the highest state and which is reached in
                Z 3, “The Seven Seals,” occurs as only the penultimate solitude of
                both the seven and eight. Did Nietzsche reverse his last two
                solitudes, or was the song to eternity found not to be a
                “solitude” at all? Furthermore, the
                > list of eight solitudes ends with a reference to the laughing lion
                and the swarm of doves prefigured in Z 3, “Of Old and New
                Tablets,” and actualized in Z 4, “The Sign,” also suggesting a
                change of mind.
                > Sharma would like to associate the seventh solitude with other major
                concepts, especially eternal return. Given that it appears that the
                seventh solitude is the temporal space in which Zarathustra undertakes
                and achieves the culmination of his painful search for wisdom, this
                interpretation could be correct. However, any attempt to subsume
                eternal return under the seventh solitude seems wrong, whether done
                playfully or not, and Sharma’s reasons for wanting to do so, while
                mentioned, are not convincing (26). Solitude has a special place in
                Nietzsche’s philosophy, but the seventh solitude is not a
                philosophical concept from which others could be derived, also, it is
                not, as is claimed (217), an example of aposiopesisâ€"a device that
                Nietzsche often uses, designated by a dash or an ellipsis. Neither can
                I agree with the notion of “Heisenbergian” uncertainty (217). I
                suggest that to accept uncertainty as a model for life, without the
                caveat that the
                > extent that it is admitted into thought must be matched by the
                creation of value, is to fall into the active nihilism that
                Nietzsche’s revaluation sought to overcome. To give uncertainty
                priority ultimately means that an act of violence becomes as valuable
                as an act of politeness. Nonetheless, the seventh solitude is an
                important event in the process of revaluation, and despite its
                overstated major thesis, this book is a valuable study that raises
                many interesting questions concerning Nietzsche’s poetry in relation
                to his major philosophical concepts. It is clear that, for Nietzsche,
                the way through nihilism involves an encounter that will be most
                unpleasant and threatening. His poetry expresses his concerns about
                the meaning of this encounter and the possibility of articulating it,
                as well as providing an escape into nature, mischievousness and
                laughter, but most importantly it attempts to describe the encounter
                with meaninglessness and suggest a
                > sense of the possibility of its overcoming.
                > Amsterdam
                >
                > Notes
                >
                > The following is based on the article “Einsamkeit" to be published
                in Paul van Tongeren, Gerd Schank & Herman Siemens (Hrsg.),
                Nietzsche-Wörterbuch Band 2: Einsamkeit-Gesundheit. Berlin/New York:
                W. de Gruyter 2008. I would like to thank Paul van Tongeren for
                allowing me to use this material."
                >  
                >
                http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_nietzsche_studies/v035/35.murray02.html
                >
              • Sauwelios
                Wait, I think I ve got it. I guess the word event was your clue. In Of Great Events, it says: About the same time that these sailors landed on the
                Message 7 of 20 , Jan 5, 2009
                • 0 Attachment
                  Wait, I think I've got it. I guess the word "event" was your clue. In
                  Of Great Events, it says:

                  "About the same time that these sailors landed on the fire-isle, there
                  was a rumour that Zarathustra had disappeared; and when his friends
                  were asked about it, they said that he had gone on board a ship by
                  night, without saying whither he was going."

                  1. Prologue;
                  2. Of the Bestowing Virtue;
                  3. Of Great Events;
                  4. The Stillest Hour;
                  5. The Return Home.

                  Do you consider Book IV a part of TSZ as far as his solitudes are
                  concerned? If you do, we have 8 solitudes instead of 7 (unless you
                  don't count Noontide); if you don't, I still need to find 1 more.

                  6. Noontide;
                  7. The Sign;
                  8. Zarathustra's death (described in The Convalescent).


                  --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, "Sauwelios" <sauwelios@...>
                  wrote:
                  >
                  > Thanks for the article, I didn't know it, and will read it more
                  > closely later. It does not seem to list the other six solitudes,
                  > though. I know the seventh solitude is his death. Of the other six
                  > solitudes, I've found five:
                  >
                  > 1. In the book's opening sentence (Zarathustra leaving his home and
                  > the lake of his home and going into solitude for ten years);
                  > 2. At the end of Of the Bestowing Virtue (the end of Book I);
                  > 3. End of The Stillest Hour (end of Book II);
                  > 4. The Return Home (in the middle of Book III);
                  > 5. The Sign (at the end of Book IV).
                  >
                  > I would like to know which one I've missed. My guess is Noontide (in
                  > the middle of Book IV); for the Night-Song, my second guess, may be
                  > sung in the company of his disciples, like the Dance-Song and possibly
                  > the Grave-Song.
                  >
                  > "You will see that Z goes in and out of solitude 6 times in TSZ".
                  >
                  > Can you list the 6 occasions *you* see, please?
                  >
                  >
                  > --- In human_superhuman@yahoogroups.com, Moody Lawless
                  > <moodylawless@> wrote:
                  > >
                  > > I did wonder why you asked, as I had written all those years ago:
                  > > You will see that Z goes in and out of solitude 6 times in TSZ;
                  > these are the events in Z's life, just as the Sorrows are events in
                  > > Christ's life.Therefore the 7Sol is none other than Z's "final
                  > solitude" [as he says in the DD], and like Mary's final Seventh
                  > Sorrow, it is akin to
                  > > a death and an ascension. So briefly, the 7Sol = Death.
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > I take it you've seen this article by P Murray:
                  > >  
                  > > "Rohit Sharma, On the Seventh Solitude. Endless Becoming and Eternal
                  > Return in the Poetry of Friedrich Nietzsche. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006.
                  > 293 pp. including bibliography, paperback US$57.95
                  > > Pete Murray
                  > > This analysis of Nietzsche’s poetry attempts to connect “the
                  > seventh solitude” with the fundamental concepts of becoming and
                  > eternal return, a fascinating claim for a notion that seems merely
                  > rhetorical. Another thesis of this book is that many of Nietzsche’s
                  > philosophical ideas are foreshadowed in his poetry, which does not
                  > seem to be controversial as the bulk of the poetry is included in
                  > published philosophical works. Nonetheless, one should be true to the
                  > earth and wary of poets, and I suggest that laughing and dancing are
                  > mere recreations from the “great seriousness” of overcoming
                  > nihilism. Still, a number of poems express fundamental Nietzschean
                  > themes and feelings and it is with these poems that Sharma is
                  > ultimately concerned. The book generally treats Nietzsche’s poetry
                  > chronologically, reproducing most of the poems (in German),
                  > identifying themes and often relating them to concurrent or later
                  > philosophical works. Sharma is a
                  > > Germanist, but his overwhelming preoccupation is with the
                  > poetry’s philosophical senseâ€"rather than technical aspects.
                  > > Beginning with early poems and including work up to The Gay Science,
                  > the first chapter discovers themes including melancholy, solitude,
                  > isolation, individuation, the poet’s travail and the feminine.
                  > Exploring the young Nietzsche’s struggle with loneliness and his
                  > resignation to a life of solitude (43ff.), Sharma examines important
                  > poems from this time such as “The Wanderer” (47-51) and “On a
                  > Glacier” (51-55). He also introduces the notion of the feminine in a
                  > section which analyses “The Little Brigg, called �the Little
                  > Angel,’” suggesting that the issue of “woman as truth”
                  > underlies the poem’s apparent frivolity, however, I find no
                  > contextual evidence to support this, Nietzsche himself describing the
                  > Idylls of Messina as “cheerful.” Nonetheless, Sharma challenges us
                  > to reread these works more openly, something that is undoubtedly
                  > rewarding. The chapter ends with an interesting discussion of BT and
                  > the Dionysian, comparing
                  > > solitude and individuation (71-75), which raises a question of
                  > different forms of “aloneness.”
                  > > Sharma carries the theme of the feminine through to the second
                  > chapter, where his analysis turns to the artist philosopher and
                  > further poems from the time of The Idylls of Messina. The notion of
                  > play is also addressed in both the sense of creating and destroying,
                  > and the more selfconscious play with poetic language. Turning to poems
                  > concerning the feminine, Sharma does not seem to expand on these
                  > points as it is not at all clear that the female subjects of “A
                  > Girl’s Melody” or “Campo santo di Staglieno” have any clear
                  > connection with truth or play, and reading the poems with this
                  > possibility in mind does not create any openings for further
                  > interpretation. The latter poem is possibly based on the epitaph
                  > “Pia, caritatevole, amorisissima,” which is the title of another
                  > short poem, and is apparently an admission of sentimentalityâ€"kissing
                  > the gravestone of “amorisissima, the one most dear. Some of the
                  > other poems from this period have a
                  > > more obviously philosophical context. In “Rimus remedium: Or, how
                  > sick poets console themselves, there is a return to the poet’s
                  > travail in relation to time (91, 98-99). It seems that sick poets do
                  > not console themselves well, but face an “eternity of suffering (98)
                  > with a dread that will soon be a feature of the eternal recurrence of
                  > the same.
                  > > Perhaps more could have been made of this, as it seems that the
                  > sickness induced by a glance into the abyss is central to the
                  > experience of solitude as a state in which a thinker is affected by
                  > thoughts which disturb and repelâ€"the thinker in the process of
                  > murdering God. Nietzsche has a clear conception of this state of
                  > shameful anxiety, with its ambivalent relationship to humanity.
                  > Abandoned by values fleeing and destroyed, the self is unable to
                  > assume responsibility for others. Sharma considers “To the Mistral:
                  > A Dance Song to express one poetic response that requires joining
                  > forces with the cold north windâ€"Nietzsche’s Hyperborean companions
                  > perhapsâ€"and beating the rhythm of a new immoralist dance (114-5).
                  > Ending this chapter, Sharma’s analysis of the “The Poet’s Call
                  > again emphasizes play and laughter as the alternatives to the
                  > selfconscious seriousness of the artist, raising what now appears to
                  > be the major Nietzschean poetic theme:
                  > > the question of the value of poetry to the process of revaluation
                  > (119). Despite Sharma’s advocacy, it seems that while laughter can
                  > kill a god, it cannot create a new one.
                  > > The third chapter moves to the Dionysian dithyrambs, commentary on
                  > which is split between two chapters, with Chapter 3 analyzing “Only
                  > a fool, only a poet!, “Between Birds of Prey, “Ariadne’s Lament,
                  > and “The Daughters of the Desert.” Sharma first explores the
                  > background concepts of the tragic, the Dionysian, fate and destiny
                  > (124f.), which bring together the uncertain mixture of joy and
                  > suffering that is essentially Nietzschean. The interpretation raises
                  > the issue of the capacity to affirm life despite suffering, a vexed
                  > issue, especially when involving the suffering of others. “Only a
                  > fool, only a poet!” is shown to question the worth of poetry, and by
                  > implication language in general, in an emotional response to the
                  > inadequacy of comprehension, while the analysis of “Ariadne’s
                  > Lament” raises the question of the nature of will to power in this
                  > tormented being, whom Sharma finds to be rendered “helpless” by
                  > “an allpowerful
                  > > thought of the human,” a thought named after the god (1539) and
                  > which we could presume to refer to the abyss of human suffering.
                  > > As Sharma suggests (154), the metaphor of Ariadne is complex,
                  > however, I think that some further background could help. It appears
                  > that the figure is used to communicate something of the Dionysian
                  > affective state. Thus Spoke Zarathustra suggests that the performance
                  > later attributed to Ariadne could be that of the “penitent
                  > (B&252;sser) of the spirit” (Z 4, “The Magician”). An earlier
                  > reference to this figure (translated as “ascetic”) occurs in Z 2,
                  > “On those who are Sublime,” suggesting that there is a separation
                  > from life and a failure to grasp laughter and beauty or praise the
                  > earth. The connection between these two chapters of Zarathustra is
                  > emphasized by the final lines of the latter which are attributed to
                  > Ariadne in a note (KGW VII.I 453) and which also resemble the final,
                  > subsequently added, lines of the dithyramb, suggesting that passing
                  > through a barrier of suffering makes affirmation of life possible, and
                  > that this can only
                  > > happen if one is repentant (Büsser) about the evasiveness of
                  > sublimity.
                  > > The final chapter approaches the seventh solitude directly through
                  > “The Last Will,” “The Fire Sign,” “The Sun Sinks,” “Fame
                  > and Eternity,” and “The Poverty of the Rich,” before turning to
                  > an analysis of a number of associated Nietzschean concepts (203-215).
                  > Following some introductory remarks, Sharma presents an analysis of
                  > “The Poverty of the Rich” (181-189), a poem which bears some
                  > similarity to Z 4, “The Honey Offering,” and describes Zarathustra
                  > in solitude like a creator resting on the seventh day, begging the
                  > question of whether the seventh solitude could be restful. Sharma
                  > mentions a significant aspect of the poem where, in the second half,
                  > the voice changes from Zarathustra’s to some external power. I
                  > suggest that on the basis of “Ariadne’s Lament” we could assume
                  > this to be Dionysus, especially as the lesson taught is to “give
                  > yourself away.” While intuitively understood as referring to the
                  > selfsacrificial
                  > > philosopher, it is not made clear what these formulas mean
                  > concretely, however, I suggest that it is a criticism of
                  > Zarathustra’s tendency towards asceticism and a requirement for
                  > greater engagement.
                  > > “Fame and Eternity” contrasts the pettiness of fame to the
                  > affirmation of eternity. One interesting issue mentioned is basilisk
                  > eggs (173f.). Medieval and earlier “bestiaries” emphasize the
                  > basilisk’s venomousness, as do classical references in Pliny, and,
                  > as Sharma points out, the Bible (Isaiah 59.5). There is also a
                  > reference in the nowrestored final section of The Antichrist,
                  > “Decree against Christianity,” which advocates destroying the
                  > places where Christians have hatched their basilisk eggs. I suggest
                  > that the basilisk eggs represent the resentment that Zarathustra has
                  > failed to recognize, being overly concerned with fame. This poem
                  > raises two important connected issuesâ€"the relationship between
                  > eternity and necessity, and how the two can be affirmedâ€"which are
                  > only touched on by Sharma. The poem suggests that
                  > necessityâ€"generally hatedâ€"is loved by Zarathustra. Symbolized by a
                  > star and experienced as a form of the sublime that is
                  > > not evaded by reason, it appears to me that, for Nietzsche,
                  > necessity is “the will to power and nothing else” (BGE 36).
                  > > “The Fire Sign” confirms that the seventh is the final solitude,
                  > without making the concept any clearer. Sharma notes that the fire is
                  > more a beacon than a cremation, with Zarathustra attempting to attract
                  > “clever sailors” to his home on the ridge between two seasâ€"are
                  > they the laughing lions and the swarm of doves? Finally, Sharma finds
                  > a more hopeful mood in “The Sun Sinks.” Strength of purpose
                  > replaces the depressing resignation and need for escape which the
                  > poems often express towards the task of philosophizing. As Sharma
                  > notes, there is a “serenity” associated with the seventh solitude
                  > (202), a sense of basking in the warm rays of coastal sunset, which is
                  > in sharp contrast to the pain associated with Zarathustra’s return
                  > to solitude. Interestingly, Sharma also points to a “joyfulness”
                  > that he describes as a “movement after achieving the seventh
                  > solitude” (203).
                  > > Sharma remarks on the obtuse ending (202), which I consider to be
                  > poorly resolved in a recent translation of “The Sun Sinks” which
                  > renders Nachen as “night,” something which also occurs in relation
                  > to Der geheimnisvolle Nachen, translated as “The Secret Night”
                  > rather than Kaufmann’s “The Mysterious Bark.” A possible reason,
                  > though not a satisfactory one, is that the original version in Idyllen
                  > aus Messina is entitled Der n�chtliche Geheimniss (“The
                  > Nocturnal Mystery”). Elsewhere, Nachen is used in reference to the
                  > death boat (TodesNachen), presumably a reference to Charon, as well as
                  > to the shimmering golden boat promised in Z 3, “On the Great
                  > Longing,” and seen approaching in the eyes of life (Z 3, “The
                  > Second Dancing Song”). Nietzsche uses Kahn to refer to a boat in
                  > “The Sun Sinks” and elsewhere (Z 3, “The Second Dance Song”;
                  > BT 1, quoting Schopenhauer), and it seems that there are two types of
                  > boat, not
                  > > necessarily corresponding to the term used. One metaphor refers to
                  > a protective vessel, including the “death boat,” in which
                  > wanderers navigate the sea of uncertainty. I suggest that the
                  > structure of this boat is responsibility. The other boat is associated
                  > with Dionysian redemption occurring in the form of harvesting, whereby
                  > the soul is likened to the object of a harvest festival or Dionysian
                  > rite.
                  > > Sharma suggests that there are seven uses of the phrase “seventh
                  > solitude,” but this does not appear to be the case. GS 285 suggests
                  > that there will be no friend for your seven solitudes; GS 309 is
                  > entitled “From the seventh solitude” and, like GS 285, is partly
                  > spoken directly to the reader, indicated by inverted commas. The
                  > wanderer in Z 3 begins Zarathustra’s final solitude, presumed to be
                  > the seventh, and associated with the “ridge between two seas,” and
                  > finally, the mention in the Foreword to The Antichrist advocates the
                  > “experience out of seven solitudes.” However, none of these
                  > references provides either a clear suggestion of a meaning, as Sharma
                  > acknowledges (203) or a basis for the fundamentality of the term,
                  > whether considered purely in the context of Sharma’s interpretation
                  > or attributed to Nietzsche (26).
                  > > Along with the five mentions in the published works, there are a
                  > number of other mentions in the notes, which might enlighten us
                  > further.[1] Nietzsche lists three, seven and eight solitudes (KSA
                  > 10:21[2]; 10:10[44]; 10:16[2]; 10:16[64]). The seven solitudes are
                  > characterized as follows:
                  > > 1. Shame and silence before the great thought
                  > > 2. Loss of all grounds
                  > > 3. Searching
                  > > 4. Absence of friends
                  > > 5. Highest responsibility
                  > > 6. Beyond morality - the perspective of eternity
                  > > 7. Convalescence
                  > > The “singular will” has been added to the list of eight. On the
                  > basis of Z 3, “The Wanderer,” we can agree that there is a final
                  > solitude while, in the notes, both lists end with a solitude
                  > particularly concerned with sickness and convalescence. This would
                  > seem to make Z 3, “The Convalescent,” the depiction of the events
                  > of the seventh/final solitude. On this basis we can say that the
                  > seventh/final solitude is where one is able to affirm life in relation
                  > to the eternal recurrence of the same, due to a fundamental,
                  > nihilistic, thoughtinhibiting affirmation being brought to the surface
                  > and overcome. The solitude involving the perspective of eternity,
                  > which one might assume to be the highest state and which is reached in
                  > Z 3, “The Seven Seals,” occurs as only the penultimate solitude of
                  > both the seven and eight. Did Nietzsche reverse his last two
                  > solitudes, or was the song to eternity found not to be a
                  > “solitude” at all? Furthermore, the
                  > > list of eight solitudes ends with a reference to the laughing lion
                  > and the swarm of doves prefigured in Z 3, “Of Old and New
                  > Tablets,” and actualized in Z 4, “The Sign,” also suggesting a
                  > change of mind.
                  > > Sharma would like to associate the seventh solitude with other major
                  > concepts, especially eternal return. Given that it appears that the
                  > seventh solitude is the temporal space in which Zarathustra undertakes
                  > and achieves the culmination of his painful search for wisdom, this
                  > interpretation could be correct. However, any attempt to subsume
                  > eternal return under the seventh solitude seems wrong, whether done
                  > playfully or not, and Sharma’s reasons for wanting to do so, while
                  > mentioned, are not convincing (26). Solitude has a special place in
                  > Nietzsche’s philosophy, but the seventh solitude is not a
                  > philosophical concept from which others could be derived, also, it is
                  > not, as is claimed (217), an example of aposiopesisâ€"a device that
                  > Nietzsche often uses, designated by a dash or an ellipsis. Neither can
                  > I agree with the notion of “Heisenbergian” uncertainty (217). I
                  > suggest that to accept uncertainty as a model for life, without the
                  > caveat that the
                  > > extent that it is admitted into thought must be matched by the
                  > creation of value, is to fall into the active nihilism that
                  > Nietzsche’s revaluation sought to overcome. To give uncertainty
                  > priority ultimately means that an act of violence becomes as valuable
                  > as an act of politeness. Nonetheless, the seventh solitude is an
                  > important event in the process of revaluation, and despite its
                  > overstated major thesis, this book is a valuable study that raises
                  > many interesting questions concerning Nietzsche’s poetry in relation
                  > to his major philosophical concepts. It is clear that, for Nietzsche,
                  > the way through nihilism involves an encounter that will be most
                  > unpleasant and threatening. His poetry expresses his concerns about
                  > the meaning of this encounter and the possibility of articulating it,
                  > as well as providing an escape into nature, mischievousness and
                  > laughter, but most importantly it attempts to describe the encounter
                  > with meaninglessness and suggest a
                  > > sense of the possibility of its overcoming.
                  > > Amsterdam
                  > >
                  > > Notes
                  > >
                  > > The following is based on the article “Einsamkeit" to be published
                  > in Paul van Tongeren, Gerd Schank & Herman Siemens (Hrsg.),
                  > Nietzsche-Wörterbuch Band 2: Einsamkeit-Gesundheit. Berlin/New York:
                  > W. de Gruyter 2008. I would like to thank Paul van Tongeren for
                  > allowing me to use this material."
                  > >  
                  > >
                  >
                  http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_nietzsche_studies/v035/35.murray02.html
                  > >
                  >
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