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[hugoye-list] Codex Khboris

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  • steven.ring@ieee.org
    Hi Tim, Apart from some approximately 17th century repair-folios, it is a MS of the Syriac gospels with the Acts and epistles of the Church of the East in the
    Message 1 of 13 , Jan 2, 2006
    • 0 Attachment
      Hi Tim,

      Apart from some approximately 17th century repair-folios, it is a MS of the
      Syriac gospels with the Acts and epistles of the Church of the East in the
      Peshitta version. From the nature of the Estrangela used in the older folios, I
      would estimate that it dates from the 7th or 8th centuries AD. There are some
      Syriac vowel points here and there, but the vowels might have been added at a
      later date.

      I have not studied every page, far from it, but the gospel texts I read were
      very conformant to the Peshitta. As such, although the MS is old, it may not
      contain much of textual interest. As you probably know the East Syrian Peshitta
      gospels were published in the 19th century. I will have another look at it if
      you want more details...

      Regards,
      Steven.

      Hi everyone,

      Someone told me that I should give a link to this site

      http://whyagain.com/KhaburisKhaboris/index.php

      from the Bible MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS).

      Can any of you give me a short description of the Khaboris manuscript?
      Is it worth pointing to from the Bible MSS site? (The site that
      contains the Codex Khaboris images looks a bit looney.)

      Yours

      Tim Finney
    • Steve
      Dear Tim and Friends, I have a photo-reproduction of the Codex in question and a copy of the companion book Khaboris Manuscript- Enlightenment (ISBN
      Message 2 of 13 , Jan 2, 2006
      • 0 Attachment
        Dear Tim and Friends,

        I have a photo-reproduction of the Codex in question and a copy of the
        companion book Khaboris Manuscript- Enlightenment (ISBN 093390018x) put out
        by the Yonan Codex Foundation. The Foundation now is unfortunately
        dissolved. I have done some evaluation of the manuscript trying to divine a
        date but have not come up with any definitive date of the manuscript which
        is also the conclusion of the Yonan Codex Foundation. (see the introduction
        to the book) Some of the initial date estimations was between the 3rd to 5th
        centuries but the date was revised up to the 7-8th centuries after further
        tests. I would put my estimation probably around the 6th or 7th centuries,
        based on my studies which are limited.

        Here is a link to the book I am referring to:

        http://www.powells.com/biblio?inkey=1-093390018x-2

        https://www.fhu.com/

        https://www.fhu1.org/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=KM&Cate
        gory_Code=Books_others

        http://tinyurl.com/9e97s

        Here is a link to an introduction of the Manuscript:

        http://www.metamind.net/khabouris1.html

        Here is an evaluation By Paul Younan

        http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:1bv_Ni_KQe0J:www.peshitta.org/forums/foru
        mid6/635.html+Khaboris+manuscript&hl=en

        or try this one:

        http://tinyurl.com/adsvh

        Here is some archival emails about it from others:

        Best of luck researching it,

        Sincerely,

        Steve Ulrich
        Harrisburg PA

        - -- Begin forwarded article --

        From: "Rich Pellegrino" <pilgrim@...>
        Newsgroups: soc.religion.bahai
        Subject: Aramaic Bible
        Date: 16 Apr 1997 05:19:03 -0700
        Organization: ----
        Lines: 45
        Approved: rdetweil@... (Richard Detweiler)
        Distribution: world
        Message-ID: <5j2g3n$ef1$1@...>
        X-Posted-By: rdetweil@206.165.5.105 (rdetweil)

        Friends: Since mentioning my studies of the Aramaic translation of portions
        of the New Testament I have had several requests for further information on
        this manuscript. I had lent out and given away my copies over the years
        however I was able to track down a source of the published version, and just
        received one in the mail. It appears that this has been around since the
        1950's and is not as recent a discovery as I first indicated, but
        nevertheless it is exciting reading. The cover reads: "Khaboris
        Manuscript: Selected Passages form the Khaboris Manuscript, An Ancient
        Syriac New Testament Scribed in Aramaic, The Language of Jesus of Nazareth",
        and the first paragraph of the introduction reads: "There is , indeed, GOOD
        NEWS at hand. In April of 1954, a manuscript of the New Testament in the
        Aramaic language was first shown to the public in America. On that day, the
        Yonan Codex was, at the President's request, presented at the White House to
        President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles.
        After their examination, it was transported to the Library of Congress for
        display...The manuscript was labeled by the Reverend Frederick Brown Harris,
        Chaplain to the U.S.Senate, as the "New Testament Time Bomb"... It goes on
        to say that this was considered a priceless volume, its safety insured for
        $1.5 million, and it was escorted by motored police and armed guards. And as
        I stated in the earlier post, its significance to both Baha'is and Bible
        scholars is the beautiful symbolic language and the lack of reference to
        evil or evil forces or satan and the abundance of reference to unconditional
        and other forms of love.

        You can find out more info at the following websites:
        http://messianic.com/khab
        http://messianic.com/aramaic

        And one source of the book is:
        FHU (Foundation for Human Understanding, I believe)
        P.O. Box 1009
        Grants Pass, OR 97526
        (I believe the price is $20 US plus s/h)
        I have had incredible teaching experiences with this book and the people
        associated with it, and an entire course entitled "Emotional Maturity
        Instruction"(EMI) has been developed using this translation; a course so
        powerful in its transforming effects that several municipal judges
        successfully used it as an alternative sentencing tool.

        Please inform if I can be of further help ( and I would be happy to
        correspond with anyone directly)

        Love,

        Rich

        Source: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/1997/v1997.n101

        -----Original Message-----
        From: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com [mailto:hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com] On
        Behalf Of steven.ring@...
        Sent: Monday, January 02, 2006 5:04 PM
        To: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com
        Cc: cairein2001@...; steven.ring@...
        Subject: [hugoye-list] Codex Khboris

        Hi Tim,

        Apart from some approximately 17th century repair-folios, it is a MS of the
        Syriac gospels with the Acts and epistles of the Church of the East in the
        Peshitta version. From the nature of the Estrangela used in the older
        folios, I
        would estimate that it dates from the 7th or 8th centuries AD. There are
        some
        Syriac vowel points here and there, but the vowels might have been added at
        a
        later date.

        I have not studied every page, far from it, but the gospel texts I read were
        very conformant to the Peshitta. As such, although the MS is old, it may not
        contain much of textual interest. As you probably know the East Syrian
        Peshitta
        gospels were published in the 19th century. I will have another look at it
        if
        you want more details...

        Regards,
        Steven.

        Hi everyone,

        Someone told me that I should give a link to this site

        http://whyagain.com/KhaburisKhaboris/index.php

        from the Bible MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS).

        Can any of you give me a short description of the Khaboris manuscript?
        Is it worth pointing to from the Bible MSS site? (The site that
        contains the Codex Khaboris images looks a bit looney.)

        Yours

        Tim Finney






        Yahoo! Groups Links
      • James Trimm
        To begin with there was the Aramaic Bible Foundation which was formed by (I believe) Norman Yonan around 1953 or 54. This Foundation was formed for the
        Message 3 of 13 , Jan 2, 2006
        • 0 Attachment
          To begin with there was the Aramaic Bible Foundation which was formed by
          (I believe) Norman Yonan around 1953 or '54. This "Foundation" was formed
          for the purpose of finding a buyer for the Yonan Codex which he had
          aquired some time ealier (perhaps in the 1940's). Th Foundation, having
          failed to convince the Library of Congress to buy the Yonan Codex, Norman
          managed to sell the codex to an Attorney named Dan Macdougald (who later
          sold it at
          auction).

          By June of 1965 Norman had aquired the the Khaboris manuscript and in 1966
          it was sold to the Yonan Codex Foundation in 1966.


          A BRIEF CHONOLOGY OF THE YONAN CODEX, THE KHABORIS CODEX AND THE YONAN
          CODEX FOUNDATION

          1918
          Norman Malak Yonan's family flee their native Iran for Iraq and ultimately
          Norman Yonan comes to the USA.

          May 25th 1953
          Norman Yonan shows Yonan Codex to William Irwin (Souther Methodist
          University in Dallas) and obtains letter of authenticity. He seeks to sell
          the ms. to SMU.

          June 1954
          Prof. John Shapley (Catholic University) and Norman Yonan show Yonan codex
          to Phillip Hitti (Princeton) and secure letter of authenticity.

          July 2, 1954
          Bruce Metzger meets Norman Yonan at the office of Yonan's lawyer and
          writes a letter of authenticity for him.

          (Aramaic Bible Foundation created with Catherine Conner as Exexcutive
          director. The purpose of this organization seems to be to solicit the
          purchase of the Yonan Codex by some US entity)

          March 1955
          Yonan Codex brought to white house, viewed by Pres. Eisenhower.

          April 4th, 1955
          The Aramaic Bible Foundation sends out a press release concerning Yonan
          Codex.

          April 5, 1955
          At a spectacular event the Yonan Codex is put on display at the library of
          congress. This is all part of an effort to sell the ms. to the Library of
          Congress for $1,500,000.

          Spring-Summer 1955
          Aramaic Bible Foundation puts Yonan Codex on bus tour in attempt to raise
          $1,500,000 to purchase the ms. for the Library of Congress.

          Dec. 28-30, 1955
          Society of Biblical literature passes a resolution opposing attempts to
          raise $1,500,000 to purchase the Yonan Codex. They point out it is one of
          some 300 Peshitta manuscripts, some of which are older than the Yonan
          Codex. They say the codex is worth more like $5,000.

          Jan. 1956 White house asks Aramaic Bible Foundation to stop distributing
          picture of Eisenhour viewing the Yonan Codex.

          Feb. 22, 1956
          Metzger writes article in "Christian Century" making many of the same
          points the SBL had made.

          (Yonan Codex eventually sold at auction at Sotherby's for $25,000)



          Feb. 2, 1965
          Norman Yonan writes letter to Rev. Sadook De Mar Shimun of the Church of
          the East laying out his own opinions of Codex Khaboris and seeking a
          letter from him.

          June 7, 1965
          Rev. Sadook De Mar Shimun of the Church of the East issues "A Preliminar
          Report" on Codex Khaboris.

          1966
          Yonan Codex Foundation obtains Codex Khaboris.

          1970
          Norman Yonan dies, the work of the Yonan Codex Fondation ends.

          1970
          Attorney Dan MacDougald (who some time earlier purchased the Codex
          Khaboris) founds "Social Research Laboritories" and later "Laws for Living
          Insitute" to "continue the work" begun by the Yonan Codex Foundation, but
          these organizations deal primarily with Psychology.


          1974
          Yonan Codex Foundation publishes "Enlightenment" booklet. This booklet has
          an introduction which is only attributed to "Yonan Codex Foundation",
          includes some of Norman Yonan's translations and a glossery (though Yonan
          is not named in the book).


          July 1995
          Codex Khaboris temporarily placed at Reunion Institute in Houston. Dan
          MacDougald commissions the Codex Khaboris Project team (including myself,
          James Trimm) to study the manuscript. I am in charge of translating the
          colophon. The team dates the manuscript at about the 12th century.

          1996
          Codex Khaboris Project concludes.

          Dec. 1999
          University of Arizona carbon dates Khaboris and confirms our 12th century
          date.





          > Dear Tim and Friends,
          >
          > I have a photo-reproduction of the Codex in question and a copy of the
          > companion book Khaboris Manuscript- Enlightenment (ISBN 093390018x) put
          > out
          > by the Yonan Codex Foundation. The Foundation now is unfortunately
          > dissolved. I have done some evaluation of the manuscript trying to divine
          > a
          > date but have not come up with any definitive date of the manuscript which
          > is also the conclusion of the Yonan Codex Foundation. (see the
          > introduction
          > to the book) Some of the initial date estimations was between the 3rd to
          > 5th
          > centuries but the date was revised up to the 7-8th centuries after further
          > tests. I would put my estimation probably around the 6th or 7th
          > centuries,
          > based on my studies which are limited.
          >
          > Here is a link to the book I am referring to:
          >
          > http://www.powells.com/biblio?inkey=1-093390018x-2
          >
          > https://www.fhu.com/
          >
          > https://www.fhu1.org/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=KM&Cate
          > gory_Code=Books_others
          >
          > http://tinyurl.com/9e97s
          >
          > Here is a link to an introduction of the Manuscript:
          >
          > http://www.metamind.net/khabouris1.html
          >
          > Here is an evaluation By Paul Younan
          >
          > http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:1bv_Ni_KQe0J:www.peshitta.org/forums/foru
          > mid6/635.html+Khaboris+manuscript&hl=en
          >
          > or try this one:
          >
          > http://tinyurl.com/adsvh
          >
          > Here is some archival emails about it from others:
          >
          > Best of luck researching it,
          >
          > Sincerely,
          >
          > Steve Ulrich
          > Harrisburg PA
          >
          > - -- Begin forwarded article --
          >
          > From: "Rich Pellegrino" <pilgrim@...>
          > Newsgroups: soc.religion.bahai
          > Subject: Aramaic Bible
          > Date: 16 Apr 1997 05:19:03 -0700
          > Organization: ----
          > Lines: 45
          > Approved: rdetweil@... (Richard Detweiler)
          > Distribution: world
          > Message-ID: <5j2g3n$ef1$1@...>
          > X-Posted-By: rdetweil@206.165.5.105 (rdetweil)
          >
          > Friends: Since mentioning my studies of the Aramaic translation of
          > portions
          > of the New Testament I have had several requests for further information
          > on
          > this manuscript. I had lent out and given away my copies over the years
          > however I was able to track down a source of the published version, and
          > just
          > received one in the mail. It appears that this has been around since the
          > 1950's and is not as recent a discovery as I first indicated, but
          > nevertheless it is exciting reading. The cover reads: "Khaboris
          > Manuscript: Selected Passages form the Khaboris Manuscript, An Ancient
          > Syriac New Testament Scribed in Aramaic, The Language of Jesus of
          > Nazareth",
          > and the first paragraph of the introduction reads: "There is , indeed,
          > GOOD
          > NEWS at hand. In April of 1954, a manuscript of the New Testament in the
          > Aramaic language was first shown to the public in America. On that day,
          > the
          > Yonan Codex was, at the President's request, presented at the White House
          > to
          > President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles.
          > After their examination, it was transported to the Library of Congress for
          > display...The manuscript was labeled by the Reverend Frederick Brown
          > Harris,
          > Chaplain to the U.S.Senate, as the "New Testament Time Bomb"... It goes on
          > to say that this was considered a priceless volume, its safety insured for
          > $1.5 million, and it was escorted by motored police and armed guards. And
          > as
          > I stated in the earlier post, its significance to both Baha'is and Bible
          > scholars is the beautiful symbolic language and the lack of reference to
          > evil or evil forces or satan and the abundance of reference to
          > unconditional
          > and other forms of love.
          >
          > You can find out more info at the following websites:
          > http://messianic.com/khab
          > http://messianic.com/aramaic
          >
          > And one source of the book is:
          > FHU (Foundation for Human Understanding, I believe)
          > P.O. Box 1009
          > Grants Pass, OR 97526
          > (I believe the price is $20 US plus s/h)
          > I have had incredible teaching experiences with this book and the people
          > associated with it, and an entire course entitled "Emotional Maturity
          > Instruction"(EMI) has been developed using this translation; a course so
          > powerful in its transforming effects that several municipal judges
          > successfully used it as an alternative sentencing tool.
          >
          > Please inform if I can be of further help ( and I would be happy to
          > correspond with anyone directly)
          >
          > Love,
          >
          > Rich
          >
          > Source: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/1997/v1997.n101
          >
          > -----Original Message-----
          > From: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com [mailto:hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com] On
          > Behalf Of steven.ring@...
          > Sent: Monday, January 02, 2006 5:04 PM
          > To: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com
          > Cc: cairein2001@...; steven.ring@...
          > Subject: [hugoye-list] Codex Khboris
          >
          > Hi Tim,
          >
          > Apart from some approximately 17th century repair-folios, it is a MS of
          > the
          > Syriac gospels with the Acts and epistles of the Church of the East in the
          > Peshitta version. From the nature of the Estrangela used in the older
          > folios, I
          > would estimate that it dates from the 7th or 8th centuries AD. There are
          > some
          > Syriac vowel points here and there, but the vowels might have been added
          > at
          > a
          > later date.
          >
          > I have not studied every page, far from it, but the gospel texts I read
          > were
          > very conformant to the Peshitta. As such, although the MS is old, it may
          > not
          > contain much of textual interest. As you probably know the East Syrian
          > Peshitta
          > gospels were published in the 19th century. I will have another look at it
          > if
          > you want more details...
          >
          > Regards,
          > Steven.
          >
          > Hi everyone,
          >
          > Someone told me that I should give a link to this site
          >
          > http://whyagain.com/KhaburisKhaboris/index.php
          >
          > from the Bible MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS).
          >
          > Can any of you give me a short description of the Khaboris manuscript?
          > Is it worth pointing to from the Bible MSS site? (The site that
          > contains the Codex Khaboris images looks a bit looney.)
          >
          > Yours
          >
          > Tim Finney
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > Yahoo! Groups Links
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > Yahoo! Groups Links
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
        • James Trimm
          Steve, Do not sell yourself short. As you may recall when you were on the Codex Khaboris project team with me in 1995-96 you reported a probable 12th century
          Message 4 of 13 , Jan 2, 2006
          • 0 Attachment
            Steve,

            Do not sell yourself short. As you may recall when you were on the Codex
            Khaboris project team with me in 1995-96 you reported a probable 12th
            century date based on the script. I can tell you now that carbod dating
            done in 1999 verified your results.

            > Dear Tim and Friends,
            >
            > I have a photo-reproduction of the Codex in question and a copy of the
            > companion book Khaboris Manuscript- Enlightenment (ISBN 093390018x) put
            > out
            > by the Yonan Codex Foundation. The Foundation now is unfortunately
            > dissolved. I have done some evaluation of the manuscript trying to divine
            > a
            > date but have not come up with any definitive date of the manuscript which
            > is also the conclusion of the Yonan Codex Foundation. (see the
            > introduction
            > to the book) Some of the initial date estimations was between the 3rd to
            > 5th
            > centuries but the date was revised up to the 7-8th centuries after further
            > tests. I would put my estimation probably around the 6th or 7th
            > centuries,
            > based on my studies which are limited.
            >
            > Here is a link to the book I am referring to:
            >
            > http://www.powells.com/biblio?inkey=1-093390018x-2
            >
            > https://www.fhu.com/
            >
            > https://www.fhu1.org/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=KM&Cate
            > gory_Code=Books_others
            >
            > http://tinyurl.com/9e97s
            >
            > Here is a link to an introduction of the Manuscript:
            >
            > http://www.metamind.net/khabouris1.html
            >
            > Here is an evaluation By Paul Younan
            >
            > http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:1bv_Ni_KQe0J:www.peshitta.org/forums/foru
            > mid6/635.html+Khaboris+manuscript&hl=en
            >
            > or try this one:
            >
            > http://tinyurl.com/adsvh
            >
            > Here is some archival emails about it from others:
            >
            > Best of luck researching it,
            >
            > Sincerely,
            >
            > Steve Ulrich
            > Harrisburg PA
            >
            > - -- Begin forwarded article --
            >
            > From: "Rich Pellegrino" <pilgrim@...>
            > Newsgroups: soc.religion.bahai
            > Subject: Aramaic Bible
            > Date: 16 Apr 1997 05:19:03 -0700
            > Organization: ----
            > Lines: 45
            > Approved: rdetweil@... (Richard Detweiler)
            > Distribution: world
            > Message-ID: <5j2g3n$ef1$1@...>
            > X-Posted-By: rdetweil@206.165.5.105 (rdetweil)
            >
            > Friends: Since mentioning my studies of the Aramaic translation of
            > portions
            > of the New Testament I have had several requests for further information
            > on
            > this manuscript. I had lent out and given away my copies over the years
            > however I was able to track down a source of the published version, and
            > just
            > received one in the mail. It appears that this has been around since the
            > 1950's and is not as recent a discovery as I first indicated, but
            > nevertheless it is exciting reading. The cover reads: "Khaboris
            > Manuscript: Selected Passages form the Khaboris Manuscript, An Ancient
            > Syriac New Testament Scribed in Aramaic, The Language of Jesus of
            > Nazareth",
            > and the first paragraph of the introduction reads: "There is , indeed,
            > GOOD
            > NEWS at hand. In April of 1954, a manuscript of the New Testament in the
            > Aramaic language was first shown to the public in America. On that day,
            > the
            > Yonan Codex was, at the President's request, presented at the White House
            > to
            > President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles.
            > After their examination, it was transported to the Library of Congress for
            > display...The manuscript was labeled by the Reverend Frederick Brown
            > Harris,
            > Chaplain to the U.S.Senate, as the "New Testament Time Bomb"... It goes on
            > to say that this was considered a priceless volume, its safety insured for
            > $1.5 million, and it was escorted by motored police and armed guards. And
            > as
            > I stated in the earlier post, its significance to both Baha'is and Bible
            > scholars is the beautiful symbolic language and the lack of reference to
            > evil or evil forces or satan and the abundance of reference to
            > unconditional
            > and other forms of love.
            >
            > You can find out more info at the following websites:
            > http://messianic.com/khab
            > http://messianic.com/aramaic
            >
            > And one source of the book is:
            > FHU (Foundation for Human Understanding, I believe)
            > P.O. Box 1009
            > Grants Pass, OR 97526
            > (I believe the price is $20 US plus s/h)
            > I have had incredible teaching experiences with this book and the people
            > associated with it, and an entire course entitled "Emotional Maturity
            > Instruction"(EMI) has been developed using this translation; a course so
            > powerful in its transforming effects that several municipal judges
            > successfully used it as an alternative sentencing tool.
            >
            > Please inform if I can be of further help ( and I would be happy to
            > correspond with anyone directly)
            >
            > Love,
            >
            > Rich
            >
            > Source: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/1997/v1997.n101
            >
            > -----Original Message-----
            > From: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com [mailto:hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com] On
            > Behalf Of steven.ring@...
            > Sent: Monday, January 02, 2006 5:04 PM
            > To: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com
            > Cc: cairein2001@...; steven.ring@...
            > Subject: [hugoye-list] Codex Khboris
            >
            > Hi Tim,
            >
            > Apart from some approximately 17th century repair-folios, it is a MS of
            > the
            > Syriac gospels with the Acts and epistles of the Church of the East in the
            > Peshitta version. From the nature of the Estrangela used in the older
            > folios, I
            > would estimate that it dates from the 7th or 8th centuries AD. There are
            > some
            > Syriac vowel points here and there, but the vowels might have been added
            > at
            > a
            > later date.
            >
            > I have not studied every page, far from it, but the gospel texts I read
            > were
            > very conformant to the Peshitta. As such, although the MS is old, it may
            > not
            > contain much of textual interest. As you probably know the East Syrian
            > Peshitta
            > gospels were published in the 19th century. I will have another look at it
            > if
            > you want more details...
            >
            > Regards,
            > Steven.
            >
            > Hi everyone,
            >
            > Someone told me that I should give a link to this site
            >
            > http://whyagain.com/KhaburisKhaboris/index.php
            >
            > from the Bible MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS).
            >
            > Can any of you give me a short description of the Khaboris manuscript?
            > Is it worth pointing to from the Bible MSS site? (The site that
            > contains the Codex Khaboris images looks a bit looney.)
            >
            > Yours
            >
            > Tim Finney
            >
            >
            >
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            > Yahoo! Groups Links
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          • James Trimm
            THE RADIOCARBON DATING OF CODEX KHABORIS The results of radiocarbon measurements on your parchment sample from page 248 of the Khabouris Codex are given below.
            Message 5 of 13 , Jan 2, 2006
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              THE RADIOCARBON DATING OF CODEX KHABORIS

              The results of radiocarbon measurements on your parchment sample
              from page 248 of the Khabouris Codex are given below.

              Sample number: AA35137
              delta 13C = -20.5 permid
              Radiocarbon age = 960 +/-45 years Before Present (begore 1950)

              Using a tree-ring calibration curve, the radiocarbon age can be
              converted to a calendar age range as follows:

              Calendar-age range:

              one sigma: AD 1020-1160
              two sigma: AD 1000-1190

              The two sigma range is such that if the measurement were repeated 20 times.
              19 of the results would be within this range.

              James Trimm

              ------
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              the New Testament collected in a single comprehensive volume.

              This thouroughly documented volume proves conclusively that the New
              Testamemt was originally written in Hebrew and
              Aramaic; how the three primary Greek text types resulted from the
              translation of this original Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek; How the
              oldest type of Greek text is written in a very Semitic style, often
              following Semitic rather than Greek grammer; How this same type of
              Greek text agrees very closely with the Oldest Aramaic version known
              as the Old Syriac; How the Aramaic Peshitta version originated through
              revision of
              the Old Syriac toward greater agreement with the later types of
              Greek texts and how the Hebrew texts of Matthew agree closely with this
              same type
              of text and with this same Old Syriac Aramaic version.

              This book includes several examples of how variances between various
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              original Aramaic reading which was either ambiguous, or misread by a
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            • Steve
              I thought the 1995 press release regarding the Carbon 14 dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls was somewhat relevant to the facts that James cited regarding the
              Message 6 of 13 , Jan 2, 2006
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                I thought the 1995 press release regarding the Carbon 14 dating of the Dead
                Sea Scrolls was somewhat relevant to the facts that James cited regarding
                the Carbon 14 date of the Khaboris manuscript. Although, I would add one
                general proviso...the date of the writing or copying could be one date and
                the date of the text could reflect an older date.

                This just means that the date on which the sheep were killed or the
                parchment was manufactured to prepare for the copying of the text doesn't
                necessarily reflect the text that the copyist was copying onto the vellum or
                parchment.

                Steve Ulrich

                Start press release

                New Radiocarbon Age Dates for Dead Sea Scrolls Agree With Paleographic Dates


                Sent April 11, 1995

                -------------------------------------------------

                Contact:

                A. J. Timothy Jull (ajtjull@...)
                Douglas J. Donahue (djd@...)

                Editors: The Israel Antiquities Authority is also releasing news about this.


                Contact IAA publicity officer Efrat Orbach, tel: 972-2-292607, fax:
                972-2-292628.)

                New radiocarbon measurements of the Dead Sea Scrolls made by scientists at
                the National Science Foundation Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS)
                Laboratory at The University of Arizona in Tucson on behalf of the Israel
                Antiquities Authority agree with paleographic dates of most texts from the
                Judean Desert.

                A. J. Timothy Jull and Douglas J. Donahue of the UA in Tucson, Emanuel Tov,
                Editor-in-Chief of the Dead Sea Scrolls Publication Project, Hebrew
                University, and Magen Broshi, former Director Curator of the Shrine of the
                Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, are announcing the results today. They are
                submitting a scientific article for publication in Atiqot and other
                journals.

                Jull, a research geoscientist in the lab, and Donahue, a physics professor
                and director of the Arizona AMS facility, measured the amount of radioactive
                carbon in samples of 18 texts and two textiles from four Qumran Caves and
                from Nahal Hever, both near the Dead Sea. All except four of the samples of
                scrolls were taken on March 21 and 22, 1994, by staff at either the
                Rockefeller or Israel Museums in Jerusalem, where the scrolls are exhibited
                and studied, while Jull, Donahue, Tov and Broshi observed. Four more samples
                were taken later at the Israel Museum's Shrine of the Book and sent to
                Tucson for analysis.

                The Dead Sea Scrolls generally are considered to have been copied by the
                Qumran community, identified by most scholars as the Essenes, between the
                mid-third century BCE (Before Common Era) and 68 CE (Common Era), when the
                Romans annihilated the Qumran settlement. Their discovery in 1947 by a young
                Arab shepherd is regarded by many as one of the greatest archaeological
                finds of all time. Between 1947 and 1960, 11 caves yielded fragments of a
                total of 800 scrolls untouched for 2,000 years. The parchment and papyrus
                scrolls are a thousand years older than any previously known Hebrew
                manuscript of the Hebrew Bible and have been crucial to the understanding of
                scripture.

                Scholars with a special interest in obtaining carbon 14 dates for particular
                texts because of the documents' contents suggested which scrolls from the
                Judean Desert might be dated. Three scrolls came from Qumran Cave 1, twelve
                scrolls from Cave 4 and three from other sites in the Judean desert.
                Scholars and researchers agreed to take no samples which might cause any
                significant damage to the scrolls themselves. Only milligrams of a sample
                are needed for radiocarbon age dating by accelerator mass spectrometer
                technique. All samples were taken from ragged edges of top or bottom
                margins, and photographs record the exact locations of the pieces taken for
                analysis. Some samples from date-bearing documents were added as control
                texts, and the identity and ages of these materials were not revealed to the
                UA science team in advance. One of the control samples -- a sample of the
                Book of Isaiah scroll from Qumran Cave 1 -- previously had been radiocarbon
                age dated at ETH-Zurich in 1990-91, and its identity, too, was unknown to
                the UA scientists during their tests. The new test results agree with actual
                written dates on the dated documents and with the Zurich radiocarbon results
                obtained earlier. The new test results also confirm the reliability of
                paleography, a comparative study of script.

                "The major importance of the new carbon 14 examinations is that they suggest
                dates which are very close to the dates suggested by paleographers," said
                Emanuel Tov. "Scholars are interested in the newly conducted carbon 14
                examinations, as the objectively obtained dates will be applied to the
                continued study of the texts," he said.

                Some of the newly analyzed texts are of central importance for our
                understanding of the Qumran community, he added, citing four such texts that
                concern various aspects of the Qumran legal system. Another text, the
                well-known pesher or commentary on Habakkuk, which is on display at the
                Shrine of the Book, is of fundamental importance for the historical
                reconstruction of the origins of the Qumran sect. The new radiocarbon dates
                show the manuscript was written before 43 BCE -- contrary to theory that
                says there was an early Christian connection to the Qumran sect.

                The UA team radiocarbon dated the famous Book of Isaiah scroll at between
                335 BCE and 122 BCE. Paleographers had dated this scroll at between 150 -
                125 BCE. The team also analyzed the commentary on the Psalms (UA radiocarbon
                dated at between 22 CE and 78 CE); the Messianic Apocalypse that
                paleographers date at 100 BCE to 80 BCE (UA radiocarbon dated at between 35
                BCE and 59 CE); the Exodus scroll of the Bible written in ancient Hebrew
                script that paleographers date at between 100 BCE and 25 BCE (UA radiocarbon
                tests date it between 159 BCE and 16 CE); and an inscribed round leather
                patch with holes that was attached to the Exodus scroll. Paleographers date
                the patch between 50 BCE and 50 CE (UA radiocarbon dated the patch at from
                98 BCE to 13 CE). Inscribed patches of this sort have been described in
                ancient Jewish writings, Tov said.

                Other documents dated at the UA by radiocarbon technique are an astrology
                text called Phases of the Moon (UA radiocarbon dated at between 164 BCE and
                93 BCE) and another text called Midrash Sepher Moshe (UA radiocarbon dated
                between 191 BCE and 90 BCE), both written in the esoteric script of the
                Qumran community. UA radiocarbon dating also supports paleographers'
                suspicion that a letter in Judeo-Aramaic and a debt acknowledgement document
                are probably not of Qumranic origin but texts dating from first and early
                second century CE, fragments bought from Bedouin and probably mixed up with
                the Qumran fragments by antiquity dealers.

                The technique of radiocarbon dating, which was invented and developed by
                Nobel Prize-winning chemist Willard F. Libby shortly after World War II, is
                a method to measure the age of objects by measuring their radioactive carbon
                content. All living things contain the radioactive isotope of carbon, carbon
                14, which is created when cosmic rays from space strike Earth's atmosphere.
                This small amount of carbon 14 is quickly incorporated into atmospheric
                carbon dioxide and from there into the tissues of plants, animals and
                humans. As long as an organism lives, the amount of radioactive carbon in
                its tissues remains at a fixed level. But at death, an organism ceases to
                take carbon 14 from the environment. The radioactive carbon present in
                tissues at death decays at a constant known rate, decaying by half every
                5,700 years.

                Early in the 1980s, scientists at the UA in Tucson began using a new
                accelerator method that revolutionized radiocarbon dating technique. They
                established the National Science Foundation-supported Arizona Accelerator
                Facility for Radioisotope Analysis that features a tandem accelerator mass
                spectrometer, the first of its kind in the world dedicated exclusively to
                radiocarbon dating. The UA lab has radiocarbon dated more than 12,000
                samples, probably more than any other lab in the world. The accelerator
                sorts and counts carbon isotopes by mass, enabling researchers to directly
                count carbon 14 atoms in a sample in about an hour. More importantly, the
                method requires only milligrams of a sample of the object to be dated, which
                contrasts with the gram-size samples needed in the conventional technique.
                The conventional technique took days, weeks, or even a month, until enough
                radioactive carbon atoms decayed so they could be counted.

                - From Lori Stiles University of Arizona, News Services

                Source: http://www.physics.arizona.edu/physics/public/dead-sea.html

                -----Original Message-----
                From: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com [mailto:hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com] On
                Behalf Of James Trimm
                Sent: Monday, January 02, 2006 7:45 PM
                To: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: RE: [hugoye-list] Codex Khboris


                Steve,

                Do not sell yourself short. As you may recall when you were on the Codex
                Khaboris project team with me in 1995-96 you reported a probable 12th
                century date based on the script. I can tell you now that carbod dating
                done in 1999 verified your results.

                > Dear Tim and Friends,
                >
                > I have a photo-reproduction of the Codex in question and a copy of the
                > companion book Khaboris Manuscript- Enlightenment (ISBN 093390018x) put
                > out
                > by the Yonan Codex Foundation. The Foundation now is unfortunately
                > dissolved. I have done some evaluation of the manuscript trying to divine
                > a
                > date but have not come up with any definitive date of the manuscript which
                > is also the conclusion of the Yonan Codex Foundation. (see the
                > introduction
                > to the book) Some of the initial date estimations was between the 3rd to
                > 5th
                > centuries but the date was revised up to the 7-8th centuries after further
                > tests. I would put my estimation probably around the 6th or 7th
                > centuries,
                > based on my studies which are limited.
                >
                > Here is a link to the book I am referring to:
                >
                > http://www.powells.com/biblio?inkey=1-093390018x-2
                >
                > https://www.fhu.com/
                >
                >
                https://www.fhu1.org/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=KM&Cate
                > gory_Code=Books_others
                >
                > http://tinyurl.com/9e97s
                >
                > Here is a link to an introduction of the Manuscript:
                >
                > http://www.metamind.net/khabouris1.html
                >
                > Here is an evaluation By Paul Younan
                >
                >
                http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:1bv_Ni_KQe0J:www.peshitta.org/forums/foru
                > mid6/635.html+Khaboris+manuscript&hl=en
                >
                > or try this one:
                >
                > http://tinyurl.com/adsvh
                >
                > Here is some archival emails about it from others:
                >
                > Best of luck researching it,
                >
                > Sincerely,
                >
                > Steve Ulrich
                > Harrisburg PA
                >
                > - -- Begin forwarded article --
                >
                > From: "Rich Pellegrino" <pilgrim@...>
                > Newsgroups: soc.religion.bahai
                > Subject: Aramaic Bible
                > Date: 16 Apr 1997 05:19:03 -0700
                > Organization: ----
                > Lines: 45
                > Approved: rdetweil@... (Richard Detweiler)
                > Distribution: world
                > Message-ID: <5j2g3n$ef1$1@...>
                > X-Posted-By: rdetweil@206.165.5.105 (rdetweil)
                >
                > Friends: Since mentioning my studies of the Aramaic translation of
                > portions
                > of the New Testament I have had several requests for further information
                > on
                > this manuscript. I had lent out and given away my copies over the years
                > however I was able to track down a source of the published version, and
                > just
                > received one in the mail. It appears that this has been around since the
                > 1950's and is not as recent a discovery as I first indicated, but
                > nevertheless it is exciting reading. The cover reads: "Khaboris
                > Manuscript: Selected Passages form the Khaboris Manuscript, An Ancient
                > Syriac New Testament Scribed in Aramaic, The Language of Jesus of
                > Nazareth",
                > and the first paragraph of the introduction reads: "There is , indeed,
                > GOOD
                > NEWS at hand. In April of 1954, a manuscript of the New Testament in the
                > Aramaic language was first shown to the public in America. On that day,
                > the
                > Yonan Codex was, at the President's request, presented at the White House
                > to
                > President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles.
                > After their examination, it was transported to the Library of Congress for
                > display...The manuscript was labeled by the Reverend Frederick Brown
                > Harris,
                > Chaplain to the U.S.Senate, as the "New Testament Time Bomb"... It goes on
                > to say that this was considered a priceless volume, its safety insured for
                > $1.5 million, and it was escorted by motored police and armed guards. And
                > as
                > I stated in the earlier post, its significance to both Baha'is and Bible
                > scholars is the beautiful symbolic language and the lack of reference to
                > evil or evil forces or satan and the abundance of reference to
                > unconditional
                > and other forms of love.
                >
                > You can find out more info at the following websites:
                > http://messianic.com/khab
                > http://messianic.com/aramaic
                >
                > And one source of the book is:
                > FHU (Foundation for Human Understanding, I believe)
                > P.O. Box 1009
                > Grants Pass, OR 97526
                > (I believe the price is $20 US plus s/h)
                > I have had incredible teaching experiences with this book and the people
                > associated with it, and an entire course entitled "Emotional Maturity
                > Instruction"(EMI) has been developed using this translation; a course so
                > powerful in its transforming effects that several municipal judges
                > successfully used it as an alternative sentencing tool.
                >
                > Please inform if I can be of further help ( and I would be happy to
                > correspond with anyone directly)
                >
                > Love,
                >
                > Rich
                >
                > Source: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/1997/v1997.n101
                >
                > -----Original Message-----
                > From: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com [mailto:hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com] On
                > Behalf Of steven.ring@...
                > Sent: Monday, January 02, 2006 5:04 PM
                > To: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com
                > Cc: cairein2001@...; steven.ring@...
                > Subject: [hugoye-list] Codex Khboris
                >
                > Hi Tim,
                >
                > Apart from some approximately 17th century repair-folios, it is a MS of
                > the
                > Syriac gospels with the Acts and epistles of the Church of the East in the
                > Peshitta version. From the nature of the Estrangela used in the older
                > folios, I
                > would estimate that it dates from the 7th or 8th centuries AD. There are
                > some
                > Syriac vowel points here and there, but the vowels might have been added
                > at
                > a
                > later date.
                >
                > I have not studied every page, far from it, but the gospel texts I read
                > were
                > very conformant to the Peshitta. As such, although the MS is old, it may
                > not
                > contain much of textual interest. As you probably know the East Syrian
                > Peshitta
                > gospels were published in the 19th century. I will have another look at it
                > if
                > you want more details...
                >
                > Regards,
                > Steven.
                >
                > Hi everyone,
                >
                > Someone told me that I should give a link to this site
                >
                > http://whyagain.com/KhaburisKhaboris/index.php
                >
                > from the Bible MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS).
                >
                > Can any of you give me a short description of the Khaboris manuscript?
                > Is it worth pointing to from the Bible MSS site? (The site that
                > contains the Codex Khaboris images looks a bit looney.)
                >
                > Yours
                >
                > Tim Finney
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >




                Yahoo! Groups Links
              • cairein2001
                Thank you all for your replies. I take it from what you say, that this codex is a late copy (11th-12th century) of the Peshitta. Its recent history is
                Message 7 of 13 , Jan 10, 2006
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                  Thank you all for your replies. I take it from what you say, that this
                  codex is a late copy (11th-12th century) of the Peshitta. Its recent
                  history is interesting indeed, almost worth a short introduction on
                  the BibleMSS site.
                • Kristian Heal
                  One last note if I may. Metzger was mentioned in connection with this codex on a previous post. There is a useful and very interesting chapter on his
                  Message 8 of 13 , Jan 10, 2006
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                    One last note if I may. Metzger was mentioned in connection with this
                    codex on a previous post. There is a useful and very interesting chapter
                    on his involvement with the codex in his autobiography ("The Saga of the
                    Yonan Codex" In Reminiscences of an Octogenarian. Hendrickson, 1997:
                    103-116). This chapter was reprinted in PDF format by the SBL on their
                    website last year.

                    Best,

                    Kristian

                    __________________________

                    Center for the Preservation of Ancient Religious Texts

                    Brigham Young University - WAIH

                    Provo, UT 84604

                    U.S.A.



                    Tel. +1 801 422 9019

                    Website: http://cpart.byu.edu/


                    -----Original Message-----
                    From: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com [mailto:hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com]
                    On Behalf Of cairein2001
                    Sent: Tuesday, January 10, 2006 12:09 PM
                    To: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: [hugoye-list] Re: Codex Khboris

                    Thank you all for your replies. I take it from what you say, that this
                    codex is a late copy (11th-12th century) of the Peshitta. Its recent
                    history is interesting indeed, almost worth a short introduction on
                    the BibleMSS site.






                    Yahoo! Groups Links
                  • Dale Johnson
                    Just one more note for those who want to study the Yonan Codex. I studied a copy of this MS at Claremont at the International Greek New Testment Institute.
                    Message 9 of 13 , Jan 10, 2006
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                      Just one more note for those who want to study the
                      Yonan Codex. I studied a copy of this MS at Claremont
                      at the International Greek New Testment Institute.
                      This was back in the early 80's. It was carefully
                      printed from a microfim copy and placed in a lamenated
                      form in a large notebook. It was obviously a late copy
                      of a Peshitta text. I suppose it is still in
                      Claremont. Here is the link for the Metzger article.



                      http://www.sbl-site.org/Article.aspx?ArticleId=375

                      Remain in Peace
                      Fr. Dale A. Johnson

                      __________________________________________________
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                    • Yisrael Foreman
                      If you would like to pruchase a complete copy of theCodex Khabouris, you may do so from www.aramaicbooks.com, and that probably at a fraction of the price that
                      Message 10 of 13 , Jan 10, 2006
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                        If you would like to pruchase a complete copy of theCodex Khabouris, you may do so from www.aramaicbooks.com, and that probably at a fraction of the price that you would pay for a copy of it elsewhere.  This way, you can examine it yourself,andcome to your own conclusions as to its authenticity,and validity.    Yisrael Foreman Sr.

                        cairein2001 <cairein2001@...> wrote:
                        Hi everyone,

                        Someone told me that I should give a link to this site

                        http://whyagain.com/KhaburisKhaboris/index.php

                        from the Bible MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS).

                        Can any of you give me a short description of the Khaboris manuscript?
                        Is it worth pointing to from the Bible MSS site? (The site that
                        contains the Codex Khaboris images looks a bit looney.)

                        Yours

                        Tim Finney







                        Yahoo! Groups Links

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                        Yisrael Daniel Bar-Dan Ben-Yishai Foreman Sr.


                        Yahoo! Photos – Showcase holiday pictures in hardcover
                        Photo Books. You design it and we’ll bind it!
                      • Steve
                        Here s the article FYI Steve Ulrich Harrisburg PA __________________________________ THE SAGA OF THE YONAN CODEX Bruce M. Metzger, Princeton Theological
                        Message 11 of 13 , Jan 10, 2006
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                          Here's the article

                          FYI

                          Steve Ulrich
                          Harrisburg PA

                          __________________________________

                          "THE SAGA OF THE YONAN CODEX"

                          Bruce M. Metzger, Princeton Theological Seminary

                          Reprinted from Chapter Nine of Reminiscences of an Octogenarian by Bruce M.
                          Metzger, copyright 1997 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., Peabody,
                          Massachusetts. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

                          THE SAGA OF THE YONAN CODEX

                          THE afternoon of April 5, 1955, marked the opening of an exhibition in the
                          Great Hall of the Library of Congress that was to have extraordinary
                          consequences.

                          Put on temporary display that day was a parchment manuscript of the Syriac
                          New Testament called the Yonan Codex. Its owner was a Washington-based
                          businessman from Iran, Mr. Norman Malek Yonan. Presiding at the ceremony,
                          which opened with an invocation pronounced by the chaplain of the Senate,
                          the Reverend Frederick Brown Harris, was the librarian of Congress, Dr. L.
                          Quincy Mumford.

                          Among the several governmental and ecclesiastical dignitaries who
                          participated in the "unveiling" of the manuscript was the Honorable John
                          Foster Dulles, secretary of state, who was the principal speaker1 and who
                          unveiled the booth where the codex was enclosed.

                          Two weeks earlier Yonan gained preliminary publicity for his manuscript when
                          Washington newspapers announced that it had been insured for half an hour at
                          an evaluation of one and a half million dollars during the time it was being
                          taken by a procession of motorized police and armed guards from a bank vault
                          of the National Savings and Trust Company of Washington to the White House.
                          Here newspaper reporters and television cameras were focussed on President
                          Eisenhower and Mr. Yonan bending over the manuscript, examining its pages.
                          After leaving the White House the entourage went on to the Library of
                          Congress, where the manuscript was temporarily deposited, awaiting the
                          ceremony of opening its formal exhibition.

                          The next stage in the orchestration of publicity took place later that year
                          when arrangements were made to take the manuscript, under armed guard,
                          throughout the socalled Bible Belt of the South in order to exhibit it at
                          various places and to solicit contributions in an attempt to raise three
                          million dollars. Half of this amount was to be used to purchase the
                          manuscript from Yonan in order to give it over permanently to the Library of
                          Congress. The

                          Footnote start: The remarks of Dulles (taken down stenographically) about
                          "this wonderful old manuscript" were "informal and brief," as he stated, and
                          were focussed chiefly on a verse from the Epistle to the Hebrews, "Wherefore
                          seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses . . .
                          let us run with patience the race that is set before us" (12:1). A copy is
                          on deposit among the Dulles papers in the Seeley Mudd Manuscript Library at
                          Princeton University. For a photograph of Dulles opening the exhibition of
                          the Yonan Codex, see Bible Review 12 (December 1996) 28. Footnote end


                          other half was to be used to make facsimile copies of the codex available to
                          institutions of higher learning; to publish a translation of its text in
                          order to stimulate the study of the language of the manuscript; and "to
                          promote other projects relevant to the dissemination of the faith and
                          knowledge of Christianity."

                          The tour began on November 28, 1955, with what was doubtless an impressive
                          ceremony at the Capitol plaza in Washington. There was newspaper, radio, and
                          television coverage of the ceremony, which featured an address by Vice
                          President Richard M. Nixon. Nixon declared, "This book of the Holy
                          Scriptures will be taken to every city and hamlet in America in order that
                          the American people may participate [i.e., by their contributions] in the
                          ownership of this ancient manuscript."

                          A specially built glass-domed bus, equipped with a depository for the
                          safe-keeping of the manuscript, was to take it under armed guard from place
                          to place. Written on the sides of the bus, in large gold letters, was a sign
                          that read, "Christendom's Most Precious Possession." Mrs. Cynthia Wadell,
                          president of the National Council of Church Women, christened the bus, "The
                          Spirit of Galilee," and expressed the belief that "all Americans will want
                          to see it [the codex] and know its history." The well-known New York
                          minister, the Reverend Dr. Norman Vincent Peale, wished for the tour
                          Godspeed and success.

                          It was not surprising that such publicity attracted and impressed newspaper
                          reporters, photographers, and radio and television crews. It was also not
                          surprising that their accounts of the significance of the manuscript did not
                          always correspond with the facts.

                          Before continuing with an account of the tour of "The Spirit of Galilee" and
                          the subsequent fortunes of the Yonan Codex, it is necessary to provide a
                          brief description of the manuscript and to relate how I became involved in
                          the debate over the importance of the codex.

                          The Yonan Codex is a Syriac manuscript of the New Testament comprising 227
                          leaves of parchment, each measuring seven inches (27.5 cm) by eight and
                          three-fourths inches (32.3 cm). The writing is in black ink, still quite
                          legible, in single columns of twenty-nine or thirty lines per page. The text
                          of the parchment folios begins with Matthew
                          9:35 and closes with Hebrews 12:9. Its present binding of boards includes at
                          the beginning sixteen folios of paper of a much later date and four folios
                          at the end, each page containing twenty-one or twenty-two lines of larger
                          script; these provide in a totally different hand the portions of the text
                          of Matthew and Hebrews lacking in the original parchment codex.

                          My examination of the Yonan Codex was made the previous year in response to
                          an invitation from Mr. Yonan. It turned out that he had been trying to
                          interest the Library of Congress in acquiring the manuscript, and Dr. Verner
                          Clapp, assistant chief librarian of Congress, had suggested my name along
                          with the names of several others2 who would be qualified to give an estimate
                          of the age and general importance of the document.

                          Having arrived at Washington, I was taken by Mr. Yonan to his lawyer's
                          office where I waited until he brought from the vault a box containing the
                          manuscript. He explained that it was a precious heirloom, for it had been in
                          his family since about the fourth century. I examined the manuscript with
                          care, comparing various passages with a copy of the Bible Society's printed
                          Syriac New Testament that I had brought with me. In the passages that I
                          collated, the text was identical with that of the standard Peshitta Syriac
                          version.

                          This version, made near the beginning of the fifth century, comprises
                          twenty-two books of the New Testament (2 Peter,
                          2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation are absent). In order to determine the
                          approximate date of the manuscript I compared the style of its handwriting
                          with

                          Footnote:
                          2I learned later that two other scholars from Princeton had also examined
                          the manuscript, Philip K. Hitti, professor of Arabic at the University, and
                          Henry S. Gehman, professor of Old Testament at the Seminary. Footnote end

                          specimens of dated facsimiles in William H. P. Hatch's Album of Dated Syriac
                          Manuscripts 3 and came to the conclusion that the codex dated to about the
                          seventh century at the earliest, and was perhaps slightly later. After
                          returning home, I drafted a letter (dated July 2, 1954) to the librarian of
                          Congress in which, without mentioning any specific date or monetary value of
                          the manuscript, I recommended that the library take steps to acquire it. As
                          chair of the American Committee on Versions of the International Greek New
                          Testament Project I was-and still am-interested in having the Library of
                          Congress increase its very modest collection of biblical manuscripts.

                          A few months later an organization known as the Aramaic Bible Foundation was
                          incorporated with three trustees: the Reverend William G. Adams, pastor of
                          the Temple Hills Baptist Church, Bethesda, Maryland; J. W. Rixley Smith of
                          Alexandria, Virginia, former assistant to the late Senator Carter Glass; and
                          Professor John Shapley, a member of the art and archaeology department of
                          the Catholic University of America. With an office located in Washington,
                          D.C., the foundation produced a small brochure that was to be distributed
                          during the tour of the codex. The brochure began: "The Aramaic Bible
                          Foundation presents the Yonan Codex, one of Christendom's most precious
                          documents, written in the language spoken by Jesus and His disciples." More
                          precisely, however, the language that Jesus spoke was Palestinian Aramaic,
                          whereas the language of the codex is Syriac, a related but somewhat
                          different Aramaic dialect.

                          In the light of this background information we may now pick up the narrative
                          of the subsequent fortunes of the Yonan Codex during its progress through
                          the Bible Belt. The first stop made by the bus was at the chapel of the
                          Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. Here
                          Professor Shapley delivered a lecture on the importance of the manuscript.
                          Extravagant and misleading

                          footnote
                          3Boston: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1946.

                          claims were made as to its date and the nature of its text. According to
                          information sent to me by W. D. Chamberlain, professor of New Testament at
                          the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Shapley claimed that the
                          Yonan Codex was one of the oldest, if not the oldest manuscript of the New
                          Testament. He also referred to it as a copy of the original New Testament in
                          Aramaic. After the lecture questions were invited, and Chamberlain began a
                          series of inquiries that made it necessary for Shapley to admit that the
                          codex was a copy of the Syriac Peshitta and that its text was, in fact,
                          subsequent to the Old Syriac text.

                          That night Mr. Yonan flew to Louisville and the next morning he called at
                          Chamberlain's office. He threatened Chamberlain with a lawsuit for
                          defamation of character by having implied that Yonan was deliberately
                          misleading the public. When Chamberlain showed that he was not easily
                          intimidated, Yonan changed his tune and declared that just as Wycliffe and
                          Tyndale were persecuted for bringing the Bible to the people, so too the
                          clergy were still making things difficult for the Aramaic Bible Foundation
                          in bringing the Yonan Codex to the attention of the public. He, of course,
                          did not mention that a great difference was the attempt to raise three
                          million dollars!

                          Chamberlain's letter to me included a most disquieting note. "I am writing
                          you," he concluded, "because they are using your name as one who supports
                          their claims and endorses them. I have seen a letter from you to the
                          Librarian of Congress, dated July 2, 1954, which they are using. I do not
                          see that you endorse what they claim. However, the letter itself is not
                          publically shown but your name is used." Chamberlain added a final sentence:
                          "I do not wish to involve you in any unpleasantness, but I did want you to
                          know what was going on."

                          I had, in fact, previously learned from the librarian at Union Theological
                          Seminary, Richmond, Virginia, that my name was being used in promotion
                          designed to secure official sanction from the governor of Virginia and from
                          the mayor of Richmond, in developing a campaign in the city and the state
                          with the object of raising three million dollars for the Aramaic Bible
                          Foundation. Consequently, on November 26, 1955, I had written to the
                          Reverend William G. Adams, the president of the foundation, concluding my
                          letter with the paragraph:

                          I do not know the full details of the methods by which you are soliciting
                          contributions in behalf of this Codex. I do not wish, however, to have my
                          name used in the solicitation of funds, by mail or otherwise, because I
                          should not wish to be charged with using the mails for purposes of
                          defrauding, for which there are, you must know, very severe penalties.


                          Ten days later I received a curt response from Mr. Adams; it read as
                          follows:

                          Dear Dr. Metzger:

                          This will acknowledge receipt of your recent letter. In the name of our
                          Loving Lord-Whose we are and Whom we serve-I want to express my regret that
                          you did not confer with us on a Christian basis.

                          The contents of your letter have been noted, and in view of the statements
                          and implications contained in your letter we have referred it to our counsel
                          for such action as he may advise.

                          In deference to your wishes, we shall not use your name in connection with
                          the accomplishment of the objectives of the Aramaic Bible Foundation, which
                          has received the plaudits, approval, and encouragement of many national
                          leaders in the political, religious, theological and scholastic fields.

                          Another angle to the affair emerged when J. Philip Hyatt, professor of Old
                          Testament at the School of Religion at Vanderbilt University, Nashville,
                          Tennessee, wrote me on December 10, 1955:

                          Dear Metzger:

                          I have just had a conference with two men, one of whom introduced himself as
                          a Rev. Mr. Adams, a Baptist minister from Washington, D.C., and the other a
                          Mr. Hendrickson.

                          They have talked with me about the Yonan (spelling?) manuscript, and seemed
                          a bit surprised when I did not agree with their enthusiasm for it. They are
                          apparently promoting an appearance of it in Nashville early in January, at
                          which time it will be "blessed" (or something of the sort!) by the governor
                          of Tennessee, etc. etc.

                          I understand that you have actually seen this manuscript, and have an
                          opinion as to its commercial value-which is considerably less than the
                          owners are trying to get out of the government for it. I am writing to you
                          with two purposes in mind: (1) would you write and tell me briefly your
                          opinion of the MS. and its value (vis à vis other Syriac MSS. of course);
                          and (2) if, as it appears, an attempt is being made to build up this MS. to
                          some very high figure, is there anything that SBL [The Society of Biblical
                          Literature], or some group from SBL (such as the Textual Criticism Seminar),
                          might do to give the public a true picture of the nature of this MS? I am
                          vice-president of SBL now, and slated (I assume) to be elected president
                          later this month. The publicity I have seen appears to be attempting to make
                          people believe this is the oldest Biblical MS. in existence, in the original
                          language spoken by Jesus. Of course it is no such thing; even Mr. Adams did
                          not claim that, but did not seem to care that Syriac, as a form of eastern
                          Aramaic, is not the same as the Western Aramaic of Palestine.

                          A brief note from you would be appreciated, and I look forward at least to
                          seeing you at the SBL meetings in New York.

                          Acting on Hyatt's suggestion, I drafted a proposed memorandum about the
                          Yonan Codex, and at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical
                          Literature, held later that month in New York at Union Theological Seminary,
                          I showed copies of it to Professor William H. P. Hatch and Professor William
                          F. Albright. The latter, who made one or two suggested changes in the
                          wording, agreed to join Hatch and me in presenting the memorandum to the
                          society. That night I returned to Princeton to type the final copy and to
                          make several hundred mimeographed copies for distribution at the business
                          meeting of the society the next day. At that time, without much discussion,
                          the society adopted the following statement, with no negative vote being
                          cast.

                          The Society of Biblical Literature at its annual meeting in New York City on
                          December 28-30, 1955, wishes to go on record as opposing some of the
                          publicity attending the efforts currently being made to raise by popular
                          subscription $1,500,000 for the purchase of the so-called Yonan Codex. This
                          codex is a manuscript of the Syriac New Testament which is reported to be
                          "the oldest surviving complete New Testament written in Syriac-Aramaic, the
                          language spoken by Jesus" (Washington Evening Star, March
                          25, 1955).

                          According to members of our Society who have examined the manuscript, the
                          Yonan Codex is a copy of the Syriac Peshitta, a version which was made from
                          the Greek New Testament at about the beginning of the fifth century and
                          which contains twenty-two of the twenty-seven books of the New Testament.
                          Edessene Syriac, the language of this version, differs considerably4 from
                          the Palestine Aramaic used by Jesus more than four centuries earlier. About
                          three hundred manuscripts of the Peshitta version are known to exist in the
                          libraries of this country and Europe. Several of these are older than the
                          Yonan Codex, which some of our members who are expert in Syriac palaeography
                          date to the seventh or eighth century. According to certain members of the
                          Society who have frequently arranged for the purchase of biblical
                          manuscripts, a fair estimate of the value of a manuscript like the Yonan
                          Codex is about $5,000. Now the fat was in the fire. It was not surprising
                          that the media picked up the story and ran with it. Hyatt, as the newly
                          elected president of the society, and other members were interviewed by the
                          press, and the Aramaic Bible Foundation issued "clarifying" statements. The
                          following week the lawyer of the foundation wrote to Hyatt, threatening a
                          lawsuit against the society for libel if it did not retract the statement
                          voted at the business session.

                          footnote
                          4My initial draft had the word "somewhat"; at Albright's suggestion this was
                          changed to "considerably." Meanwhile, I prepared an article for the
                          Christian Century magazine entitled "Is the Yonan Codex Unique?"

                          Two lawyers (my father and the magazine's lawyer) reviewed what I had
                          written; after several changes were made in the wording, it was published in
                          the issue of February 22,
                          1956. Here, among other points, I tried to put the Yonan manuscript in the
                          context of other similar copies of the Peshitta Syriac version. I pointed
                          out that, far from being unique, several hundred other manuscript copies of
                          the Peshitta New Testament have been catalogued in libraries and museums of
                          the United States and Europe, and some of them are earlier in date than the
                          Yonan copy. After further negotiations with the foundation's lawyer, and
                          with understandable anxiety lest a lawsuit deplete the society's modest
                          financial resources, Hyatt consulted the other officers of the society and
                          the twenty associates-incouncil, as they were called (the function of the
                          latter group was roughly similar to that of trustees of the society).
                          Sixteen of the twenty despaired of being successful in a court of law
                          defending the society's action, fearing that neither the court nor the
                          public would understand the technical linguistic arguments. Consequently, as
                          the least unsatisfactory resolution of the affair, it was decided that Hyatt
                          should send the following letter, dated March 5, 1956, to the Aramaic Bible
                          Foundation.

                          Dear Sirs:

                          The Council of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis regret the
                          misunderstanding which has arisen between the Society and the Aramaic Bible
                          Foundation. The resolution which was adopted by the Society on December
                          29, 1955, was not intended to discredit the Aramaic Bible Foundation or the
                          owner of the Yonan Codex. The resolution did not intend to give the
                          impression that Syriac, the language of the Codex, was an entirely different
                          language from that spoken by Jesus. Qualified scholars know that Syriac is
                          an Aramaic dialect and is related to that dialect of Aramaic spoken by
                          Jesus. The monetary appraisal of the Codex expressed the opinion of some
                          members of the Society; the great majority of members are not in position to
                          make such an appraisal. As to the date of the Codex we recognize the
                          possibility of honest difference of scholarly opinion; we have been informed
                          that at least two qualified scholars, who are members of the Society, had
                          subscribed to a fifth-century date.

                          We have been informed by Mr. Norman Yonan and the Aramaic Bible Foundation
                          that it is not the intention of Mr. Yonan to profit from the transfer of the
                          Codex to the Foundation, which will in turn place it in the Library of
                          Congress. The Foundation further informs us that the funds which it is
                          seeking to raise will, after the payment of the necessary expenses, be
                          devoted to the establishment of professorships for the teaching of Aramaic
                          in theological seminaries, the offering of scholarships especially for the
                          study of Aramaic, and the publishing of facsimiles, translations and studies
                          of the Yonan Codex. Such a program is consistent with the interests of the
                          Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, and we hope that these
                          objectives will be accomplished.

                          Yours truly,

                          J. Philip Hyatt President (1956)

                          In a later communication to me Hyatt commented, "There seems to be no
                          'right' way to deal with these people [i.e., the Aramaic Bible Foundation].
                          I would make no claim that our way was entirely right. I do hope that some
                          people who see our latest statement will take the trouble to read it
                          carefully, and thus see what it actually says and what it does not say. . .
                          . I interpret it as a clarification of our position and a gesture of
                          conciliation. Our resolution still stands, and individual opinions are not
                          silenced." Ironically enough, while the clarification removed the threat of
                          a lawsuit against the society, in its continuing publicity the foundation
                          used the statement as the society's approval of the extravagant claims being
                          made for the Yonan Codex!

                          Subsequent fortunes of the Yonan Codex can be more briefly recounted. After
                          it had been displayed at a political function involving Governor A. B.
                          ("Happy") Chandler of Kentucky, the entourage went on to Little Rock,
                          Arkansas, and from there to Dallas, Texas. Here the manuscript was placed,
                          under suitable armed guard, on display in the Nieman Marcus Department
                          Store. Shortly thereafter the Dallas representative of the American Bible
                          Society got in touch with the society's headquarters in New York for
                          suggestions on how to respond to a barrage of queries that the exhibition
                          had generated. I have no doubt that Dr. Eric M. North, general secretary of
                          the Bible Society, would have responded in much the same vein as he did in
                          his letter to me of January 4, 1956, when he wrote: May I express my
                          satisfaction at your efforts in the Society of Biblical Literature to put an
                          end to the extravagant claims about the so-called Yonan Codex.

                          There are a lot of people trying to trade on religion in a dishonest manner
                          and I am glad to see some of them caught up with.

                          During the following months the tour of the glass-domed bus with its
                          "treasure" came to an end. How much money had been collected was not
                          revealed.

                          A few years later the manuscript surfaced once again, this time in Georgia.
                          In a letter dated May 31, 1960, Edwin D. Johnston, professor of Bible at
                          Mercer University in Macon, Georgia, informed me that the Yonan Codex had
                          been given to the university by Mr. Yonan, then a resident of Lawrenceville,
                          Georgia. Dr. Harry Smith, a Mercer alumnus and executive secretary of the
                          Baptist Foundation, had been, Johnston said, "greatly responsible for
                          interesting Mr. Yonan in giving the Codex to Mercer."

                          Johnston's letter requested that I send him suggestions concerning the
                          proper way of preserving and protecting such manuscripts. He also requested
                          my judgment on the advisability of having the manuscript microfilmed. Of
                          course, I recommended that it be microfilmed and that a copy be sent to the
                          archives of the International Greek New Testament Project at Claremont,
                          California.

                          More than a decade later, during the summer of 1973, having decided to make
                          inquiry of the librarian at Mercer concerning the Yonan Codex, I received
                          the following reply from Daniel Lamar Metts, Jr.

                          The manuscript was given to us in May 1960 and was returned to Mr. Yonan in
                          1962. This happened before I came here. Apparently there was continuing
                          disagreement between Mr. Yonan and the University concerning copying the
                          manuscript for study or publication and financial benefits from copies. I am
                          not clear on details. I have no idea at all what happened to the document
                          since. I am sorry not to be of more help, but that is all I know.

                          Curiously enough, several year later while I was attending sessions of the
                          annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion, Dr. Paul L. Garber,
                          professor of Bible at Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Georgia, casually
                          inquired of me whether I had ever heard of the Yonan Codex. This led to a
                          most astonishing disclosure. The manuscript, Garber told me, was in the
                          possession of the Emotional Maturity Instruction Center, Decatur, Georgia.5

                          The center had transliterated the Syriac text of the Beatitudes in Christ's
                          Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:3-12) and was making a copy of this available
                          for four dollars with the assurance that, by concentrating each day on these
                          sentences in Aramaic, one's personality would become adjusted and more
                          mature. In fact, according to Garber the center had even persuaded
                          magistrates in Atlanta to buy copies of the transliteration for use in
                          attempting to quell obstreperous prisoners!

                          For several years thereafter I heard nothing more concerning the Yonan
                          Codex. Then in the autumn of 1994,

                          footnote
                          5In response to my writing for further information the center sent several
                          typescript booklets: "Rationale and Guidelines for Emotional Maturity
                          Instruction," three levels of "Keys to Human Relations," and "A Promising
                          New Approach to Rehabilitation," the last by Dr. C. D. Warren, former
                          medical director, Georgia Department of Corrections. These, as well as
                          copies of several testimonial letters, are now on deposit in the archives of
                          Princeton Theological Seminary library.

                          it surfaced once again, this time in Michigan. During a visit to Western
                          Theological Seminary in Holland, Michigan, where I had been invited to give
                          several lectures, I was taken to visit a newly established museum containing
                          early printed Bibles and other treasures near Grand Haven, bordering on Lake
                          Michigan. This museum, established by Mr. Robert Van Kampen, is named The
                          Scriptorium: Center for Christian Antiquities. During my visit the director,
                          Dr. Scott T. Carroll, showed me some of the center's treasures, including
                          several manuscripts in Greek, Latin, Coptic, and Hebrew. Then he took from a
                          shelf a parchment codex about seven by nine inches. When he identified it as
                          the Yonan Codex, one can imagine my surprise-not to say amazement.

                          Of course I asked how it had come into the possession of the Scriptorium,
                          and learned that it had been acquired for about $25,000 at an auction at
                          Sotheby's. Holding now in my hands the same manuscript that I had examined
                          forty years earlier released a flood of memories. I realized that at last
                          the saga of "The Yonan Codex Affair" had come to a conclusion; the
                          manuscript was now ensconced in a suitable environment and available for
                          scholarly examination and research. Certainly the ancient comment made by
                          Terentianus Maurus is altogether applicable:

                          Habent sua fata libelli.
                          (Books have their fates.)

                          -----Original Message-----
                          From: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com [mailto:hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com] On
                          Behalf Of Dale Johnson
                          Sent: Tuesday, January 10, 2006 2:59 PM
                          To: hugoye-list@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: RE: [hugoye-list] Re: Codex Khboris


                          Just one more note for those who want to study the
                          Yonan Codex. I studied a copy of this MS at Claremont
                          at the International Greek New Testment Institute.
                          This was back in the early 80's. It was carefully
                          printed from a microfim copy and placed in a lamenated
                          form in a large notebook. It was obviously a late copy
                          of a Peshitta text. I suppose it is still in
                          Claremont. Here is the link for the Metzger article.



                          http://www.sbl-site.org/Article.aspx?ArticleId=375

                          Remain in Peace
                          Fr. Dale A. Johnson

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                          Yahoo! Groups Links
                        • cairein2001
                          Dear All, I have now included a link to images of Codex Khaboris from the Bible MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS). I have also included a link to the SBL
                          Message 12 of 13 , Jan 10, 2006
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Dear All,

                            I have now included a link to images of Codex Khaboris from the Bible
                            MSS site (http://purl.org/BibleMSS). I have also included a link to
                            the SBL site's extract from Bruce Metzger's book. This makes the entry
                            on the Codex so much more interesting. Thank you all, once again, for
                            your contributions.

                            Best

                            Tim Finney
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