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Use old phones as an intercom

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  • Nicolae Sfetcu
    Use old phones as an intercom From: mwandel@bnr.ca (Markus Wandel) I have recently thought about this and come up with a kludgy but workable scheme. Talking
    Message 1 of 2 , May 1, 2002
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      Use old phones as an intercom

      From: mwandel@... (Markus Wandel)

      I have recently thought about this and come up with a kludgy but workable scheme.

      Talking over the phones is easy. You put DC current through the phone and it transmits and receives audio. So two phones and a current source (about 25mA) all in series will give you a talking circuit. A suitable current source can be as simple as a 9V battery and a series resistor whose value is adjusted (with both phones offhook) till about 25mA flows. You can then bypass the battery and the resistor with a capacitor to couple the audio straight across and get a loud and clear connection.

      What is much harder is signaling the other end. To ring the bell you need to put 90V (RMS) 20Hz AC into the phone (nominally). Lower voltages will work (down to about 40V) but different frequencies won't. You can't ring the phone at 60Hz. I have a ringing circuit in a PBX I built but it consists of a 20Hz sinewave generator, a push-pull power booster and a big transformer. Much too elaborate for a simple 2-phone intercom circuit, and anyway the ringing voltage could painfully zap a kid.

      So forget the bell and look into other forms of signaling. This is what I have come up with:

                                    +  | | -
            +-------+------ - - --+---||||---/\/\/--+---- - -----+-------+
            |       |             |    | |     R    |            |       |
            |       |             | 24V             |            |       |
            |      ---            |                 |           ---      |
            |     |   |           +---||------------+          |   |     |
            |      --- Sonalert       C                Sonalert ---      |
            |   C   |                                            |   C   |
            +---||--+                                            +--||---+
            |      _|_,                                         _|_      |
            |      / \  15V                               15V   \ /      |
          PHONE    -+- Zener                             Zener `-+-    PHONE
            |       |                                            |       |
            |       |                                            |       |
            +-------+------------------ - - - -------------------+-------+
      

      As before, set R to give you a talking current (both phones offhook) of about 25mA. Start with 1K ohm. Leave it in if the phones work well enough; the current is not very critical. The capacitors C are audio bypass capacitors and should be about 0.47uF.

      When the phones are onhook they present an open circuit, and the 24V battery voltage is not enough to overcome the 30V series drop of the Zeners and no current flows. When both phones are offhook they present a very low resistance and the talking current (determined by R) flows.

      When only one phone is offhook it places its low DC resistance across the Zener diode on its side so that the full 24V supply is applied to the other side. This overcomes the voltage drop of the other Zener diode so the other Sonalert beeps. The wonderful thing about Sonalerts is that they make a loud noise with only a few milliamps of current so the series resistor R doesn't matter. Especially nice is a pulsing Sonalert which goes "Beep beep beep" automatically. While the far-end Sonalert is beeping, you hear the beeping in the near-end receiver (at low volume thanks to the bypass capacitor across the far-end Sonalert) to confirm that the line is working and the other end is being signaled.

      The power supply can be three 9V batteries in series but since 80% of the power is lost in series resistor R rather than in powering the phones it seems a little wasteful. A 24V wall wart with clean filtering would be better.

      The signaling components can be mounted inside the phones. Only two wires are needed to go to each phone, and the power supply can be mounted centrally, out of harm's way. If R is adequately big (1/2 watt) and has enough ventilation then both lines can be indefinitely shorted out without any fire hazard and there is not enough voltage anywhere to hurt anyone.

      I have tested this with 500-type phones and two different types of piezo buzzers (pulsing sonalerts and non-pulsing brand X ones) and it works great. You should be able to get all the needed parts including piezo buzzers at Radio Shack. I love telephones. Too bad I don't have any kids who want an intercom line.

    • Chris AKA Junkman
      THANKS! I have been needing just exactly such a circuit for about the last 5 years now. My young daughters have a playhouse out in the back yard, and also a
      Message 2 of 2 , Oct 14, 2002
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        THANKS! I have been needing just exactly such a circuit for about the
        last 5 years now. My young daughters have a playhouse out in the back
        yard, and also a real payphone, which is mounted on my tool shed.
        They have a phone in the playhouse too... And I knew I could hook the
        up, knew how to do that part, but not the signaling. I too was leary
        ov putting 90+ volts in that enviroment. And by the way, in OLD
        phones, the kind with real bells, you can use 110 vac right out of
        the wall. I have. But I don't recomend you do it!
        Junkman

        --- In home_electronics@y..., "Nicolae Sfetcu" <amacom@x> wrote:
        > Use old phones as an intercom
        > From: mwandel@b... (Markus Wandel)
        > I have recently thought about this and come up with a kludgy but
        workable scheme.
        >
        > Talking over the phones is easy. You put DC current through the
        phone and it transmits and receives audio. So two phones and a
        current source (about 25mA) all in series will give you a talking
        circuit. A suitable current source can be as simple as a 9V battery
        and a series resistor whose value is adjusted (with both phones
        offhook) till about 25mA flows. You can then bypass the battery and
        the resistor with a capacitor to couple the audio straight across and
        get a loud and clear connection.
        >
        > What is much harder is signaling the other end. To ring the bell
        you need to put 90V (RMS) 20Hz AC into the phone (nominally). Lower
        voltages will work (down to about 40V) but different frequencies
        won't. You can't ring the phone at 60Hz. I have a ringing circuit in
        a PBX I built but it consists of a 20Hz sinewave generator, a push-
        pull power booster and a big transformer. Much too elaborate for a
        simple 2-phone intercom circuit, and anyway the ringing voltage could
        painfully zap a kid.
        >
        > So forget the bell and look into other forms of signaling. This is
        what I have come up with:
        >
        >
        > + | | -
        > +-------+------ - - --+---||||---/\/\/--+---- - -----+-------+
        > | | | | | R | | |
        > | | | 24V | | |
        > | --- | | --- |
        > | | | +---||------------+ | | |
        > | --- Sonalert C Sonalert --- |
        > | C | | C |
        > +---||--+ +--||---+
        > | _|_, _|_ |
        > | / \ 15V 15V \ / |
        > PHONE -+- Zener Zener `-+-
        PHONE
        > | | | |
        > | | | |
        > +-------+------------------ - - - -------------------+-------+
        >
        >
        > As before, set R to give you a talking current (both phones
        offhook) of about 25mA. Start with 1K ohm. Leave it in if the phones
        work well enough; the current is not very critical. The capacitors C
        are audio bypass capacitors and should be about 0.47uF.
        > When the phones are onhook they present an open circuit, and the
        24V battery voltage is not enough to overcome the 30V series drop of
        the Zeners and no current flows. When both phones are offhook they
        present a very low resistance and the talking current (determined by
        R) flows.
        >
        > When only one phone is offhook it places its low DC resistance
        across the Zener diode on its side so that the full 24V supply is
        applied to the other side. This overcomes the voltage drop of the
        other Zener diode so the other Sonalert beeps. The wonderful thing
        about Sonalerts is that they make a loud noise with only a few
        milliamps of current so the series resistor R doesn't matter.
        Especially nice is a pulsing Sonalert which goes "Beep beep beep"
        automatically. While the far-end Sonalert is beeping, you hear the
        beeping in the near-end receiver (at low volume thanks to the bypass
        capacitor across the far-end Sonalert) to confirm that the line is
        working and the other end is being signaled.
        >
        > The power supply can be three 9V batteries in series but since 80%
        of the power is lost in series resistor R rather than in powering the
        phones it seems a little wasteful. A 24V wall wart with clean
        filtering would be better.
        >
        > The signaling components can be mounted inside the phones. Only two
        wires are needed to go to each phone, and the power supply can be
        mounted centrally, out of harm's way. If R is adequately big (1/2
        watt) and has enough ventilation then both lines can be indefinitely
        shorted out without any fire hazard and there is not enough voltage
        anywhere to hurt anyone.
        >
        > I have tested this with 500-type phones and two different types of
        piezo buzzers (pulsing sonalerts and non-pulsing brand X ones) and it
        works great. You should be able to get all the needed parts including
        piezo buzzers at Radio Shack. I love telephones. Too bad I don't have
        any kids who want an intercom line.
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