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From The Communication Initiative: Avian Influenza - Resources and Strategic Thinking

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  • Janet Feldman
    Dear Friends, Here is some potentially useful info for our individual and joint work. Lucas, Pam, Samwel, Andrius, and all...hopefully this will be helpful re
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 13, 2006
      Dear Friends,
      Here is some potentially useful info for our individual and joint work. Lucas, Pam, Samwel, Andrius, and all...hopefully this will be helpful re teaching/learning endeavors, whether via Moodle and Pam's group learning methods, or for Lucas and wikis, or for communication methods, such as Samwel, Andrius, and others have been discussing!
      I am posting to several forums because it seems that this relates to various discussions we are having, and the purposes and missions of each (from the global to the local to the individual....and back again!). All best wishes and avian activism (from addressing the flu to finding our wings and flying, or at least winging it, haha!), Janet

      Avian Influenza - Resources and Strategic Thinking
      June 2006

      From The Communication Initiative

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      Avian Influenza
      Given the special circumstances of the sudden occurrence of Avian Flu, The Communication Initiative has developed a list of core messages, examples of communication actions, strategies to be considered, guidance notes, resources and trends to assist communicators and journalists in addressing prevention and outbreak communication.
      See http://www.comminit.com/avianinfluenza.html for a full listing.

      NOTE: We are particularly interested in any information you have on specific Avian Influenza Prevention Communication Projects as well as any documentation on Avian Influenza Prevention and Behaviour Change Indicators.

      Please contact Deborah Heimann dheimann@... with any new or additional resources, project summaries, events, etc. related to Avian Influenza. Many thanks!


      1. CREATE! Framework: A Communication Strategy for Avian Flu Response and Pandemic Flu Preparedness
      Developed by UNICEF Cambodia, the CREATE! Framework is designed to provide communities with immediate tools to promote healthy behaviours in emergencies. Originally developed for humanitarian aid workers following the Dec 2004 Tsunami, the Framework has been adapted to address avian influenza. The CREATE! Framework summarises the communication objectives at each stage of the avian flu outbreak, including pre-pandemic (late 2003 and 2004), pandemic (now), and pandemic (1-2 weeks and 6 weeks or more)...

      2. Who Should Get Influenza Vaccine When Not All Can?
      Published in Science, this 2-page paper examines the prospect of vaccine rationing in the event of an avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak and implies some communication challenges that may arise. Namely, focusing on the United States context, the authors note that, under currently existing capabilities for manufacturing the H5N1 vaccine, "it is likely that more than 90% of the U.S. population will not be vaccinated in the first year..."

      3. H5N1 - Killer Flu: PBS Wide Angle Programme Website
      This interactive website, focused on the avian influenza Wide Angle series "H5N1 - Killer Flu", enables visitors to watch episodes online, use an interactive map to explore how bird flu is spreading, read weekly briefings and access other avian flu resources, as well as participate in a poll and online discussion....

      4. Avian Influenza Posters
      As part of their effort to help combat the spread of bird flu, UNICEF has created posters to inform, educate and enable families and communities to protect themselves and their birds from avian influenza. The posters include information about preparing for a pandemic, handling sick birds, handwashing, food safety and how the disease spreads...

      5. Avian and Pandemic Influenza Posters
      The Academy for Educational Development has designed a series of posters that aim to help deliver messages that teach communities the risks associated with avian influenza and proper procedures for responding to outbreaks. There are 8 posters available, designed for the African region, Vietnam and Cambodia...

      6. Bird Flu: Countries Must Share Information Despite Fears of Short-term Losses
      According to this article posted online on the United Nations (UN) News Centre, some countries worry that sharing information about avian influenza will affect their economies, poultry industry and tourism business. However, the UN System's Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, David Nabarro, suggests that transparency is the long-term solution for those concerns. The article argues that timely information-sharing is vital in mobilising resources to contain the H5N1 bird flu virus and that while open information sharing may have a negative impact in the short term, in the long term it will result in a trust that will ultimately strengthen these industries...

      7. A Manual for Improving Biosecurity in the Food Supply Chain: Focus on Live Animal Markets
      This manual was developed to help strengthen the capacity of member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement effective public health interventions to prevent and control the spread of avian flu at the source. The manual aims to provide simple yet valuable public health related measures that will not only improve and enhance biosecurity at critical stages of the food supply chain (production, transportation, marketing and consumption), but also ensure that the potential transmission of the avian influenza virus from animals to humans is considerably reduced...

      8. Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand
      According to the article, reducing human and poultry contact is a key strategy to avoiding avian influenza, and the Thai Ministry of Public Health has pursued an aggressive campaign to educate the Thai population on its prevention. This has included disseminating health messages on avian influenza to the public and healthcare professionals through several different types of media...

      9. Bird Flu & You: A Quick Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Bird (Pandemic) Flu
      In anticipation of a possible avian influenza pandemic, the life sciences group at the Center for Technology and National Security Studies (CTNSP) has started a number of initiatives to address both civilian and military implications. Bird Flu & You: A Quick Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Bird (Pandemic) Flu includes a full colour poster and infection control handout...

      10. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices Study of Small Holder Poultry Raising Farmers in Response to Avian Influenza
      This study aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding of mainly small-scale rural farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on poultry rearing in order to inform health education in regards to AI. The study was conducted with 600 poultry raising farmers through household-based individual interviews and eight focus groups with farming men and women...

      11. WHO Pandemic Influenza Draft Protocol for Rapid Response and Containment
      This draft protocal on the response and containment of an outbreak of pandemic influenza, most likely as a result of avian influenza was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in consultation with a wide variety of stakeholders. It has three main parts. The first describes the steps needed to recognise the signal or "triggering" event of an outbreak. The second part describes the immediate actions that should follow recognition of the signal. The third part describes the actions that should be undertaken once the event has been verified, the overall situation has been assessed, and a decision has been made to launch the rapid containment operation...

      12. How to Recognize and Prevent Avian Influenza in Poultry and Humans
      Produced by CARE International in Vietnam, this full-colour booklet uses many pictures and aims to be a user-friendly guide to make people aware of and able to take precautions to prevent avian influenza. The booklet has three major sections: How to Recognise Avian Influenza Infection in Your Poultry; How to Prevent Your Poultry From Becoming Infected with the Avian Influenza Virus; and How to Prevent Humans From Becoming Infected with Avian Influenza...

      13. Fowl Play: The Poultry Industry's Central Role in the Bird Flu Crisis
      This article argues that it is not backyard or free-range poultry practices that are fuelling the current wave of avian influenza, as is often portrayed in the media and proposed by governments and international agencies. Rather, the article argues that it is essentially a problem of the transnational poultry industry. The article discusses how images broadcast in the media focus on rural villages, markets, and wild birds flying across the sky, and rarely use photos of the transnational poultry industry...

      14. Pandemic Influenza Slide Set
      This ready-to-use slide set was developed as an accompaniment to the United Kingdom (UK) Health Departments' UK Influenza Pandemic Contingency Plan. Designed so that the slides may be used either in their entirety or in sections depending on the needs of the audience, the set will be updated and added to as more is learned from research and modeling. Slide sets include the following: Explaining pandemic influenza; History of influenza pandemics; Virology; Avian influenza; Predicting the impact; Containing pandemic flu; Pandemic flu research; Pandemic flu modelling; UK response; and Images...

      15. Migratory Birds: From Messengers of Life to Ambassadors of Death?
      The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with its associated Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and the African Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) have launched a campaign to remind the world that migrations are essential to natural processes for the effective functioning of our ecosystems. The campaign is an effort to reverse the public perception, often supported by inaccurate media coverage, that migratory birds are responsible for the spread of avian influenza...

      16. Blueprint for Pandemic Flu Preparedness Planning for Colleges and Universities
      This document was developed as a tool for colleges and universities to use in pre-planning a response to a pandemic flu outbreak. The guide begins by outlining how a pandemic flu outbreak would progress, and what this means for colleges and universities. A series of checklists is provided that aims to serve as the basis for developing a blueprint to identify areas needed for inclusion in a response plan. It discusses steps for preparing the plan including governance, risk assessment, communications and legal issues...


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      17. Labs Shouldn't Hoard Flu Data: Researcher
      This article details why a leading scientist is calling on the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as well as researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to publicly release all of their avian influenza data and samples in open-access databanks. Steven Salzberg hopes that by opening up access to this data, United States researchers and organisations can lead by example, and persuade scientists and governments elsewhere around the world to share their data...

      18. How to Lead During Bioattacks with the Public's Trust and Help: A Manual for Mayors, Governors, and Top Health Officials
      Published by the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), this interactive manual provides decision-makers with practical advice on how to handle the dilemmas that can arise in a public health emergency. It aims to give leaders problem-solving strategies for engaging the public during bioattacks and epidemics...

      19. Information Key to Combating Bird Flu
      This article, posted on the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies website, discusses how the spread of avian influenza in Asia has presented the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) with the challenge of informing tens of millions of people living in remote areas, like Anhui province, about the disease. It explains that many people do not have regular access to newspapers or the radio...

      20. Is the World Adequately Prepared to Face an Influenza Pandemic?
      According to the World Health Organization the answer is No. Despite an advance warning that has lasted 2 years, the world remains ill-prepared to defend itself during a pandemic. All countries have been asked to develop preparedness plans, but only about 40 have done so...

      21. From the Front Lines
      In this article, Declan Butler interviews researchers in some of the countries affected by avian influenza about the political and scientific challenges that they face. Medical epidemiologist Andrew Jeremijenko describes the difficulty in controlling the disease in Indonesia. He says that delays in detecting and reporting cases of avian flu are major challenges in his country. In Thailand, Les Sims, a consultant for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), talks about Thailand's innovative surveillance strategies in successfully combating the disease. Shahid Jameel says that India's big weaknesses are a lack of laboratories that can carry out rapid surveillance, and the government's poor communication with the public about the disease...

      22. Communicable Disease Control in Emergencies: A Field Manual
      This field manual, produced by the World Health Organization (WHO), provides guidance to public health professionals working in emergencies on how to prevent, detect and control communicable diseases in affected populations. It aims to promote effective, coordinated action towards the prevention and control of communicable diseases in emergencies...

      23. Dreams of Flu Data
      According to this article, the lack of an accessible database of information is undermining the fight against avian influenza. The author is critical of the current reporting practices by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health, where the quality of information is poor and biological samples insufficient. S/he also cites the withholding of key information by scientists who want to be the first to publish, as a set-back in the battle against the disease...

      24. Red Cross/Red Crescent Avian Influenza Awareness Activities - Egypt
      In February 2006, the International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) and Red Crescent Societies launched an avian influenza (AI) awareness initiative in Egypt. In response to recent outbreaks, the Egyptian Red Crescent Society (ERCS) began supporting the Ministry of Health (MOH) in its awareness and preparedness activities in an effort to prevent the spread of bird flu among birds - and to protect human health and reduce further losses in the agricultural sector - by fostering rapid and appropriate destruction of all infected or exposed birds with proper disposal of carcasses. Core elements of the AI prevention programme include mobilisation of youth and adult volunteers (giving priority to those with medical or paramedical background), training courses and workshops, production and distribution of printed educational materials, communication with local health authorities, and provision of basic protective supplies and material, if needed...

      25. Bird Flu Myths & Facts
      This article discusses avian influenza and the challenges of communicating facts about potential outbreaks transparently while attempting to avoid a situation where rumours and misinformation may be created. According to the article, health communicators are in a difficult position with regards to avian flu. Lack of transparent information about potential outbreaks may allow supposition to turn into rumours. Yet, the article proposes that too much information also runs the risk of cultivating both irrational fear and irrational complacency...

      26. Red Cross/Red Crescent Avian Influenza Prevention Programme - Nigeria
      In February 2006, the International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) and Red Crescent Societies launched an initiative to prevent the spread of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria. In response to the confirmation of an AI outbreak in poultry, this programme sought to assist the Nigeria Red Cross Society in further assessing the situation, especially with regard to the risks to human health, and to plan an effective response that is sensitive to the fact that chicken remain the main source of income and food in Nigeria. Key goals included ensuring local community involvement in sharing avian flu prevention information, preparing the community to face food security crisis which may also affect their livelihood, and increasing surveillance and mobilisation for the eradication of the pandemic...

      27. On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares?
      Published in BMC Medical Ethics (Vol 7, No 5), this 22-page paper urges focused reflection and open dialogue on the obligations of health care professionals (HCPs) to patients with severe infectious diseases, particularly diseases that pose risks to those providing care. This call for clarification of the rights and responsibilities of HCPs - and the articulation of a "pressing need" to articulate these standards in the form of professional codes of ethics - comes in the aftermath of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and in the current context of pandemic avian influenza preparedness...

      28. Technical Working Meeting on Avian Influenza Communication: Draft Report
      A Technical Working Meeting on Avian Influenza Communication was held on April 7 2006 in Yangon, Myanmar to help address what is considered by organisations in the country to be an urgent need to provide the public with information on avian influenza. The primary purpose of the meeting was to bring together technical experts from different ministries and agencies involved in avian influenza preparedness and response in Myanmar to forge a basic communication framework, in line with the Government's National Strategic Plan for Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza and Human Influenza Pandemic Preparedness and Response...

      29. The Impact of Globalization on Infectious Disease Emergence and Control: Exploring the Consequences and Opportunities, Workshop Summary (2006)
      This report summarises the working group discussion on the influence of globalisation on the emergence and control of infectious diseases from the Forum on Microbial Threats held April 16-17 2002. The workshop explored the impact of increasingly integrated trade, economic development, human movement, and cultural exchange on patterns of disease emergence; identified opportunities for countering the effects of globalisation on infectious diseases; examined the scientific evidence supporting current and potential global strategies; and considered newly available response methods and tools available for use by private industry, public health agencies, regulatory agencies, policy makers, and academic researchers...

      30. Disease Surveillance Needs A Revolution
      According to this article, the avian influenza crisis has exposed deficiencies in the world's veterinary and disease surveillance systems. To address these deficiencies in developing countries, researchers at the United States Department of Defense have suggested setting up a network of high-tech labs to monitor the cases of infectious disease. Such a network could speed up and improve the diagnosis of viruses such as bird flu when outbreaks occur. According to Mark Savey, an epidemiologist who heads animal health at France's food-safety agency, the lab's top priority should be building teams of local staff, those who are familiar with the region and its practices. Peter Roeder of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) agrees, stating "[n]o amount of setting international guidelines and publishing global action plans is going to help when you have an organization within the country that doesn't know what to do..."

      31. Pandemic Planning and Preparedness Guidelines for the UN System
      This document was designed to be a guide for contingency planning around avian influenza for United Nations (UN) agencies, and may also be used by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other organisations. It is intended to promote a consistent and harmonised approach, outlining the essential UN System issues and policies, and providing broad scenarios and key pointers for all offices in the UN System. The checklists and templates may be used to create a contingency plan that addresses the key threats and risks posed by avian influenza, including the possibility of a human pandemic...

      32. Pandemic Influenza: Commission Publishes Evaluators' Report on Simulation Exercise
      This press release issued by the European Commission outlines and shares the lessons learned from a two-day "tabletop" simulation called Common Ground, which was carried out November 23-24 2005. The exercise aimed to test how national preparedness plans would work together in the event of an influenza pandemic, as well as to examine co-ordination and communication between the Commission, Member States, European Union agencies, international organisations and the pharmaceutical industry. An evaluation report prepared by the UK-based Health Protection Agency sets out recommendations to follow up, particularly reviewing and developing communications systems...


      Avian Influenza
      See http://www.comminit.com/avianinfluenza.html


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