EVIDENCE OF OUR PEOPLE IN 'CENTRAL AMERICA' THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO!! -
Subject: EVIDENCE OF OUR PEOPLE IN 'CENTRAL AMERICA' THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO!!!
EVIDENCE OF OUR PEOPLE IN 'CENTRAL AMERICA' THOUSANDS OF YEARS
AGO!!! Posted 9-13-2003 00:11
The Nubians and Olmecs
VISIT THE SITE TO SEE THE PICS THAT DON'T LIE!!!
Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour (1997) have argued that
Olmec civilization was not influenced by Africans and therefore
Afrocentrism should have no standing in higher education, but in fact
it can be illustrated that the facial types as sociated with the
Olmec people and Meroitic people are identical; and that Olmec
figurines such as the Tuxtla statuette excavation are inscribed with
African writing used by the Mande people of West Africa (Wiener,
1922; Winters, 1979 , of Manding writing provide the "absolute
proof " recovered by archaeologists from "controlled excavations in
the New World" demanded by Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and
Barbour (1997: 419) to "proof"/confirm Olmec and African contact.
The failure of Haslip- Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour (1997)
to realize an African presence in PreColumbian America, is the result
of their ignorance of the normal science of ancient Afrocentric
studies (Winters, 1996). Haslip-Viera, Ortiz d e Montellano and
Barbour (1997: 419) assume that ancient Afrocentric research is the
result of the "cultural nationalism of the 1960's and 1970's. This
view is false. The ancient Afrocentric studies research tradition was
developed before the 1960's (Wint ers, 1994, 1996). The ancient
Afrocentric studies research tradition reflects almost two hundred
years of original research in the area of ancient Afrocentric studies
( Winters, 1994, 1996). Contrary to the views of Haslip-Viera, Ortiz
de Montellano and Barbour (1997) ancient Afrocentric historical
research makes ancient Afrocentric area studies a valid field of
research (Winters, 1994). Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and
Barbour (1997) criticized the view held by many Afrocentrist that the
Olmec peo ple were Africans, due to the research of Ivan van Sertima.
Use of van Sertima (1976) by Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and
Barbour (1997: 419) to denigrate Afrocentrism is unfair, because this
researcher has made it clear since the publication of his book They
came before Columbus in 1976, that he is not an Afrocentrist.
Although Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour (1997: 431)
acknowledge this truth in there rebuttal of van Sertima, the authors
refer to Afrocentrist as purveyors of "ras m", interested only in
denying the authentic role of Native Americans in the rise of
Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour (1997: 419, 423-25)
argue that the claims of the Afrocentrists claims that the Olmecs
were Africans, must be rejected because 1) the Olmecs do not look
like Nubians, and 2) the absence of an African artifact recovered
from an archaeological excavation. These authors are wrong on both
counts, there are numerous resemblance between the ancient Olmec
people and ancient Nubians, and an African artifact: Manding writing,
is engraved on many Olmec artifacts discovered during archaeological
excavation (Winters, 1979, 1997)
Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour (1997) argue that the
Olmecs could not have been Nubians or Kushites of the Napata-Meroe
civilization, as claimed by van Sertima (1976) because the Olmec
civilization preceded the civilization of the Kushites by hundreds of
years. They also claim that the Olmecs had flat noses, while the
Nubians had "thinner noses" because they lived in the desert (Haslip-
Viera, Ortiz de Montellano & Barbour, 1997:423).
This view is false. The ancient Nubians like African- Americans today
were not monolithic, they had different hues of skin, facial features
and nose shapes (Keita, 1996: 104). This is evident in from the wall-
painting from the tomb-chapel of Sebekhotep at Thebes, c.1400 BC,
which show Nubians, of different types bringing rings of gold,
incense and other luxury items to the Egyptian Pharaoh (Taylor,
One of the major Pharoahs of Egypt and Nubia/Kush was Taharqo. The
Sphinx of Taharqo c. 690-664 BC, found in Temple 1 at Kawa and the
shabti (tomb figure) of Taharqo in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston is
strikingly similar in facial features, including, the short round
face, thick lips and flat nose associated with the Olmec people
Moreover a comparison of Olmec heads and a bust of Taharqo
illustrated striking similarities when they were placed along side
each other (Winters, 1984b:47). The iconographic evidence of the
ancient Nubians clearly indicate that there were many round faced,
thick lipped, flat nosed Nubians described in the Classical
literature (Snowden, 1996: 106) that fit the archtypical Olmec ruler
type ( Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour, 1997).
Although the Olmec and Meroitic iconographic documents share many
analogous facial features , we must admit that the Nubian hypothesis
for the Olmecs must be rejected. It must be rejected because the
Kings of Meroitic Kush, and the Olmec Kings existed during different
historical eras. The Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour
(1997) argument regarding van Sertima's Egypto-Nubian hypothesis has
merit . It highlights the failure of van Sertima (1976) to critically
read the sources of Africans in ancient America and study the
archaeology of West Africa and the Sahara. A cursory reading of
Wiener (1922) would have made it clear that the founders of the Olmec
civilization were Mande/Manding speaking people.
Comparison of a Nuba and Olmec Head
I was misrepresented by Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour
(1997: 421). They claim that I support the Egypto- Nubian hypothesis
of van Sertima, and belong to the so-called "extreme" Afrocentric
position on Olmec civilization (Haslip- Viera, Ortiz de Montellano
and Barbour, 1997: 421)
Granted, van Sertima (1976) was wrong about the identity of the
Olmecs , but he was correct in claiming that the Olmecs were of
African origin. And, there is no denying the fact that Africans early
settled the Americas ( Wiener, 1920-1922; von Wuthenau, 1980).
Never in any of my publications on Olmec and African contact have I
ever claimed that the Egypto-Nubians had contact with the Olmecs
(Winters, 1979, 1981/1982,1983, 1984a, 1984c, 1997). Following Wiener
(1922) I have maintained all along the traditional Afrocentric view
of Olmec and African paradigm that the Manding speaking West Africans
had contact with the Olmec.
Wiener (1922) based his identification of the Manding influence over
the Olmecs (eventhough he was unaware of this people at the time)
through his identification of Manding writing on the Tuxtla statuette
which was created by the Olmecs (Soustelle, 1984; Tate, 1995).
The major evidence for the African origin of the Olmecs comes from
the writing of the Maya and Olmec people. As mentioned earlier most
experts believe that the Mayan writing system came from the Olmecs
(Soustelle, 1984). The evidence of African styl e writing among the
Olmecs is evidence for Old World influence in Mexico. The Olmecs have
left numerous symbols or signs inscribed on pottery, statuettes,
batons/scepters, stelas and bas-reliefs that have been recognized as
writing ( Soustelle, 1984; von Wuthenau, 1980; Winters, 1979). The
view that the Olmecs were the fir st Americans to 1) invent a complex
system of chronology, 2) a method of calculating time, and 3) a
hieroglyphic script which was later adopted by Izapan and Mayan
civilizations, is now accepted by practically all Meso-American
specialist (Soustelle, (1984).
In 1979, I announced the decipherment of the Olmec writing (Winters,
1979). It is generally accepted that the decipherment of an unknown
language/script requires 1) bilingual texts and/or 2) knowledge of
the cognate language(s). It has long been felt by many Meso-
Americanist that the Olmec writing met non of these criteria because,
no one knew exactly what language was spoken by the Olmec that appear
suddenly at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Veracruz, around 1200 B.C.
The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s) (Wiener, 1922, v.3; Rafinesque, 1832). In 1832,
Rafinesque noted the similarities between the Mayan glyphs and the
Libyco-Berber writing. And Leo Wiener (1922, v.3), was the first
researcher to recognize the resemblances between the Manding writing
and the symbols on the Tuxtla statuette. In addition, Harold Lawrence
(1962) noted that the "petroglyphic" inscriptions found throughout
much of the southern hemisphere compared identically with the writing
system of the Manding.
The second evidence pointing to the Manding origin of the Olmec
writing was provided by Leo Wiener in Africa and the Discovery of
America (1922,v.3). Wiener presented evidence that the High
Civilizations of Mexico (Maya and Aztecs) had acquired many o f the
cultural and religious traditions of the Malinke-Bambara (Manding
people) of West Africa. In volume 3, of Africa and the Discovery of
America, Wiener discussed the analogy between the glyphs on the
Tuxtla statuette and the Manding glyphs engraved on rocks in
Up until 1995, there were only a few published Olmec inscriptions
(Winters, 1979). Today there are many Olmec inscriptions published in
Jill Gutherie (1995) catalogue for the exhibition "The Olmec World:
Ritual and Rulership", organized by the Art Mu seum of Princeton
University. Manding Origin of Mayan term for Writing
The linguistic evidence (Brown, 1991), forces us to aknowledge that
the Mayan term *c'ib is probably derived from Manding *Se'be. This
provides the best hypothesis for the origin of the Mayan term for
writing given the fact that the Mayan /c/ corr eponds to the
Manding /s/, and the archaeological and linguistic evidence which
indicate that the Maya did not have writing in Proto-Mayan times. And
as a result, the term for writing had to have come into the Mayan
languages after the separation of Proto -Maya. This would explain the
identification of the Olmec or Xi/Shi people as Manding speakers. In
addition to the Manding origin of the Mayan term for writing, there
are a number Mayan terms that are derived from the Olmec language .
In conclusion, the Manding speaking ancestors of the Olmecs came from
the Saharan zone of North Africa (Winters, 1983, 1984c, 1986). Here
the Proto-Olmecs left their earliest inscriptions at Oued Mertoutek
(Winters, 1979,1983). They took a full fledged literate culture to
This view is supported both by 1) our ability to read the Olmec
inscriptions; 2) confirmation that the Mayan term for writing *c'ib,
is of Manding origin; and 3) the symbols for Mayan writing are
cognate to the Manding writing systems used in Africa . Moreover, the
evidence presented in this paper makes it clear that the people who
introduced writing to the Maya when they met at Nonoulco, may have
been Manding speaking Olmecs.. Discovery at Olmec sites such as
LaVenta Offering No.4 , of Manding writing provide the "absolute
proof " of African and Olmec contact. The presence of readable
African writing on Olmec celts, masks and statues, is the genuine
African artifact found "in controlled excavations in the New World"
demanded by Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour (1997: 419)
that confirms the Afrocentric claim of ancient African and Olmec
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