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  • Denise Villasenor
    HAHA it s not really an outline, but it s the info we can use for the report :) there s an attachment, but to be sure, i m copying and pasting it here :)
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 8, 2009
    • 0 Attachment
      HAHA it's not really an outline, but it's the info we can use for the report :)
      there's an attachment, but to be sure, i'm copying and pasting it here :)


      Benjamin Harrison

      ·         appointed Governor-General of the Philippines by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson

      ·         Harrison was a prominent advisor to a commonwealth president and the first four Presidents of the Philippines

      ·         he resigned to become chief executive of the Philippines.

      ·         A member of the Woodrow Wilson Administration, Harrison became Governor-General of the Philippines from 1913 to 1921

      ·         Under his administration, the Governor-General's mansion called Malacañang Palace was expanded with the construction of an executive building.

      ·         Manuel L. Quezon became the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and Harrison was asked to be Quezon's principal advisor in November 1935.

      ·         His Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was eventually passed on December 17, 1914.

      o   a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates

      o   "An Act To provide for the registration of, with collectors of internal revenue, and to impose a special tax on all persons who produce, import, manufacture, compound, deal in, dispense, sell, distribute, or give away opium or coca leaves, their salts, derivatives, or preparations, and for other purposes."


      Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Burton_Harrison


      SUMMARY OF THE ARTICLE (there's a two-page attachment in the document):

      ·         Filipinization was the process, during the Areican colinial period, of putting Filipinos in active positions in the government, replacing American officials

      ·         This was the Americans’ way of preparing the Filipinos for their own independent government

      ·         The concept of Filipinization peaked during the administration of benjamin Harrison

      ·         Educated citizens were given the right to vote, and out of three provincial positions, two were held by Filipinos

      ·         The lower legislature had many Filipinos as representatives, but until 1913, they were a minority in the upper chamber of legislatures. The Americans still had the final say in decision making

      ·         Filipinization echoed the liberal policy adopted by the Democratic US admin.

      ·         Harrison belived that the best way to mold Filipinos into readying themselves for independence was to make them hold positions in the government, so he approved a legislation of giving great benefits to early retirees in order to encourage Americans to retire early and make way for Filipinos in government positions

      ·         The civil service, because of this, was filled by Filipinos

      ·         Furthermore. Harrison allowed Quezon and Osmena, two of the highest Philippine officials to form the Philippine Council of State

      ·         The Harrison admin also made the provincial board elective so that all positions in the provincial board were occupied by Filipinos

      ·         The Jones Law in 1916 further strengthened Harrison’s filipinization policy. The law said that the American government would withdraw its sovereignty over the Philippines and recognize its independence once they’ve established their own stble government

      ·         Harrison saw this “own stable government” as the Filipinos fully occupying all positions in the government and ready to run their own legislation. Through this, he gave the Filipinos more leeway in administration by giving initiative to local political leaders

      ·         He used his veto power less and sparinglyt so that the Filipino officials can make their own decisions more

      ·         Harrison’s policy reduced the number of Americans in the government from 2623 in 1913 to 614 in 1921, while increading the number of Filipinosint he gov’t from 3636 in 1913 to 13240 in 1921

      ·         At the end of his term, however, there were many criticisms about the government of the Filipinos and the manner in which the Filipinos ran their government. The rapid Filipinization and taking over posts by inexperienced persons led to inefficiency and corruption. His successor, General Leonard Wood, discontinued the Filipinization policy.

      Source: Keat Gin Ooi. Southeast Asia: A historical encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor.



      Additional information of Harrison in the Philippines after his term

      ·         Harrison would return to the position upon Quezon's request in May 1942, when Filipino and American troops surrendered the Philippines during World War II.

      ·         Harrison would serve the government-in-exile.

      ·         From November 1946 to February 1947, Harrison served as Commissioner of Claims in the civil service of the United States Army in Manila. He later served as an advisor to the first four presidents of the newly proclaimed Philippine Republic after their independence was granted in 1946.

      Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Burton_Harrison


      ·         The greatest contribution of the US to Philippine civilization is the system of public education

      ·         The American system of education emphasized on democratic tradition and the practical application of laws and principles, as opposed to the earlier Spanish education that emphasized the study of Catholic religion and the employment of Philippine languages rather than Spanish aid.

      ·         Religion studies in American education was optional and not compulsary – this was based on the separation of church and state law

      ·         Americans taught Filipinos to speak English, unlike the Spanish who held Filipinos back from learning Spanish

      ·         Enrollment in schools was compulsory and to encourage parents to enroll their children, they gave free supplies and school materials

      ·         SS Thomas – Thomasites were the first teachers

      ·         From 1903 to 1914, students who were promising were sent to the US as pensionados – upon returning, they were to teach or work for the government

      ·         The American system of education prepared Filipinos not only for teaching, but also for administrative service, a skill needed in running their own stable government

      ·         Higher education was established in 1908

      ·         There was a tremenous increase in Filipino literacy

      ·         Literacy was not only because of the booming of schools, but alsobecasue the Americans provided an adult education program

      Source: History of the Filipino People by Teodoro A. Agoncillo 8th edition. Chapter 20.1990. Garotech publishing


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