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groundwater recharge and evaporation estimation

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  • japhet kashaigili
    Dear Gwmodel group I am looking for the suitable methods of estimating the Groundwater Recharge and Groundwater Evaporation in Unsaturated zones. Japhet =====
    Message 1 of 6 , Nov 1, 2001
      Dear Gwmodel group

      I am looking for the suitable methods of estimating the
      Groundwater Recharge and Groundwater Evaporation in Unsaturated
      zones.

      Japhet

      =====
      Japhet Joel Kashaigili
      B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), M.Sc. WRE (Univ.of DSM)
      Research Assistant & Part Time Lecturer (UCLAS)
      University of Dar es Salaam, WREP
      P.O. BOX 35131, DSM. Tel/Fax: +255 22 2410029
      Mobile Phone: +255 741 227883
      Speciality: Groundwater, Hydrology, Environment, Hydraulics

      ____________________________________________________________
      Nokia Game is on again.
      Go to http://uk.yahoo.com/nokiagame/ and join the new
      all media adventure before November 3rd.
    • Mark Schwartz
      I have some programs that calculate ET from unsaturated and saturated soils based on user specified model parameters. Maybe you are looking for something to
      Message 2 of 6 , Nov 1, 2001
        I have some programs that calculate ET from unsaturated and saturated soils
        based on user specified model parameters.
        Maybe you are looking for something to use in the field?
        I do not think that large area models estimate ET very acurately - important
        to consider model objectives relative to error in estimate.
        I can give you some information on errors in estimating ET in Florida.

        > -----Original Message-----
        > From: japhet kashaigili [SMTP:jkashaigili@...]
        > Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2001 3:04 AM
        > To: gwmodel@yahoogroups.com
        > Subject: [gwmodel] groundwater recharge and evaporation estimation
        >
        > Dear Gwmodel group
        >
        > I am looking for the suitable methods of estimating the
        > Groundwater Recharge and Groundwater Evaporation in Unsaturated
        > zones.
        >
        > Japhet
        >
        > =====
        > Japhet Joel Kashaigili
        > B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), M.Sc. WRE (Univ.of DSM)
        > Research Assistant & Part Time Lecturer (UCLAS)
        > University of Dar es Salaam, WREP
        > P.O. BOX 35131, DSM. Tel/Fax: +255 22 2410029
        > Mobile Phone: +255 741 227883
        > Speciality: Groundwater, Hydrology, Environment, Hydraulics
        >
        > ____________________________________________________________
        > Nokia Game is on again.
        > Go to http://uk.yahoo.com/nokiagame/ and join the new
        > all media adventure before November 3rd.
        >
        >
        > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
        > gwmodel-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
        >
        >
        >
        > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
        >
      • Congli Wang
        Mark, Can you share this info w/ all of us? Thanks in advance. Charley ... From: Mark Schwartz [mailto:MSchwartz@BCIeng.com] Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2001
        Message 3 of 6 , Nov 1, 2001
          Mark,

          Can you share this info w/ all of us? Thanks in advance.

          Charley

          -----Original Message-----
          From: Mark Schwartz [mailto:MSchwartz@...]
          Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2001 8:45 AM
          To: 'gwmodel@yahoogroups.com'
          Subject: RE: [gwmodel] groundwater recharge and evaporation estimation


          I have some programs that calculate ET from unsaturated and saturated soils
          based on user specified model parameters.
          Maybe you are looking for something to use in the field?
          I do not think that large area models estimate ET very acurately - important
          to consider model objectives relative to error in estimate.
          I can give you some information on errors in estimating ET in Florida.

          > -----Original Message-----
          > From: japhet kashaigili [SMTP:jkashaigili@...]
          > Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2001 3:04 AM
          > To: gwmodel@yahoogroups.com
          > Subject: [gwmodel] groundwater recharge and evaporation estimation
          >
          > Dear Gwmodel group
          >
          > I am looking for the suitable methods of estimating the
          > Groundwater Recharge and Groundwater Evaporation in Unsaturated
          > zones.
          >
          > Japhet
          >
          > =====
          > Japhet Joel Kashaigili
          > B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), M.Sc. WRE (Univ.of DSM)
          > Research Assistant & Part Time Lecturer (UCLAS)
          > University of Dar es Salaam, WREP
          > P.O. BOX 35131, DSM. Tel/Fax: +255 22 2410029
          > Mobile Phone: +255 741 227883
          > Speciality: Groundwater, Hydrology, Environment, Hydraulics
          >
          > ____________________________________________________________
          > Nokia Game is on again.
          > Go to http://uk.yahoo.com/nokiagame/ and join the new
          > all media adventure before November 3rd.
          >
          >
          > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
          > gwmodel-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
          >
          >
          >
          > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
          >


          To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
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        • Mark Schwartz
          SWMM, XP-SWM, and HSPF have algorithms that estimate ET based on available water, potential for evaporation, and user specified coefficients. There are a
          Message 4 of 6 , Nov 1, 2001
            SWMM, XP-SWM, and HSPF have algorithms that estimate ET based on available
            water, potential for evaporation, and user specified coefficients. There
            are a couple integrated surface and ground water programs like Mike-She,
            FHM, and ISGW. SWMM, HSPF, FHM (FIPR Hydrologic Model), and ISGW (Integrated
            Surface and Ground Water Model) are public domain codes. I have seen a
            'version' of MODFLOW that includes a package to calculate runoff, ET,
            Infiltration etc.

            Attached are some estimates of ET in Florida.

            Large Basins

            A water-budget approach was used in estimating Evapotranspiration (ET) in
            Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs of North Central Florida (Ref. 2).
            Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs have a total surface area of 1,552 square
            miles and are located along a north-south ridge in the center of Florida.
            The estimated average ET for the basins over a 30-year period was 37.6 to
            38.5 inches/year, while the average rainfall was 51.7 inches/year. In 1994
            the potential ET (PET) was approximately 46.8 inches and the estimated
            actual ET was 32 inches (i.e., 68-percent of PET).

            With an annual (September 15,1993 to September 15, 1994) rainfall of 52
            inches, the estimated ET was 27 inches for a deforested area of the Lake
            Wales Ridge, Florida (Ref. 3). This low ET rate may be caused by the
            shallow-rooted plants, rapidly drained soils, and relatively deep water
            table along the ridge. The area included in the study is a field of mostly
            herbaceous vegetation typical in cleared areas of Florida with canopy
            heights ranging between 8 to 32 inches.

            The average ET derived from water balances of various watersheds in the
            phosphate mine area of central Florida was 38 inches/year, or 90-percent of
            annual rainfall and 83-percent of PET. The average ET in un-mined areas was
            approximately 2 inches/year lower than in previously mined areas (Ref. 4).
            The authors note that these estimates are based on a water budget approach
            and acknowledge that the values are significantly lower than those reported
            in other literature.

            Lakes

            Evaporation rates from Lake Lucerne in Polk County, Florida, were estimated
            during the water year of October 1985 through September 1986 (Ref. 5). Lake
            evaporation rates have been reported as 64 to 88 percent of pan evaporation
            rates. Rainfall of 40.88 inches during the period of the investigation was
            below the average of 50.83 inches, while pan-ET was 78 inches; well above
            the average of 72 inches. There was an estimated 57.9 inches of evaporation
            from the lake during the water year (Ref. 6).

            Wetlands and Uplands

            Estimated average ET from areas of native West-Central Florida vegetation
            ranged between 18.9 to 61.1 inches/year during the period of 1988 to 1990
            (Ref. 7). The study area included a cypress swamp in Cypress Creek of Pasco
            County, and dry prairie, marsh and pine flatwoods areas in Sarasota County.
            In this study, ET rates were interpolated between daily estimates of ET.
            There was a significant disparity in ET rates estimated using different
            methods (standard eddy correlation, eddy correlation energy-balance, Bowan
            ratio, and eddy correlation energy-balance residual methods).
            The average ET rates ranged between the following:

            * 32.3 and 46.5 inches/year for dry
            prairie
            * 28.3 and 46.6 inches/year for
            marshes
            * 30.7 and 51.2 inches/year for pine
            flatwoods
            * 18.9 and 61.1 inches/year for
            cypress swamp

            Estimated average ET for eight land descriptions was calculated for the
            Southwest Florida Water Management District using a combined water budget
            and geographic information system mapping (Ref. 8). The authors started
            with a long-term District-wide average ET and divided it between land uses
            iterating with bias expectations (for example, wetland have higher ET rates
            than uplands) to find ET-rates for each land use. The following are the
            estimated average ET from this investigation:

            * 55 inches/year for lakes
            * 45 inches/year for forested wetland
            * 50 inches/year for marsh wetland
            * 50 inches/year for saltwater bay
            * 40 inches/year for uplands with the
            depth to water table 0 to 3.3 feet
            * 35 inches/year for uplands with the
            depth to the water table 3.3 to 6.6 feet
            * 30 inches/year for uplands with the
            depth to the water table greater 6.6 feet


            ET is a large part of the water balance and probably is the component with
            the greatest error in its estimate. The error in estimated ET using pan
            evaporation data may be as large as 25 percent (Ref. 9). It is apparent that
            there is a great deal of variability in ET rates both spatially and
            temporally as influenced by the plant community density and members as well
            as climate. Not only does this make model simulations of ET difficult; it
            also makes the measurement of ET difficult (particularly for large areas).


            REFERENCES

            1. Dolan, T.J.; A. H. Harman, S.E. Bayley, and J. Zoltek. 1984.
            Evapotranspiration of a Florida, USA Freshwater Wetland. J. Hydrology
            (Amsterdam) 74(3-4):355-372.
            2. Knowles, Leel, Jr. 1996. Estimation of Evapotranspiration in
            Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs Basins in North-Central Florida. U.S.
            Geological Survey. Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4024.
            3. Sumner, D. M. 1996. Evapotranspiration from Successional Vegetation
            in a Deforested Area of the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida. U.S. Geological
            Survey. Water-Resources Investigation Report 96-4244.
            4. Rieker, L; V. Korhnak, and M.T. Brown. 1991. The Hydrology of
            Reclaimed Phosphate-Mined Wetlands. In Techniques and Guidelines for
            Reclaiming of Phosphate Mine Lands. FIPR Pub. no. 03-044-095, Bartow,
            Florida. pp 7-1 - 7-42.
            5. Lee, T. M.; D.B. Adams, A.B. Tihansky, and Amy Swancar. 1991.
            Methods, Instrumentation, and Preliminary Evaluation of Data for the
            Hydrologic budget Assessment of Lake Lucerne, Polk County, Florida. U.S.
            Geological Survey. Water-Resources investigations Report 90-4111.
            6. Lee, T.M.; Amy Swancar. 1997. Influence of Evaporation, Ground
            Water, and Uncertainty in the Hydrologic Budget of Lake Lucerne, a Seepage
            Lake in Polk County, Florida. U.S. Geological Survey. Water-Supply Paper
            2439.
            7. Bidlake, W.R.; W.M. Woodham, and M.A. Lopez. 1993.
            Evapotranspiration from Areas of Native Vegetation in West-Central Florida.
            U.S. Geological Survey. Open-File report 93-415.
            8. Geurink, Jeffrey S.; Mahmood Nachabe, Mark Ross, and Patrick Tara.
            December 2000. Development of Interfacial Boundary Conditions for the
            Southern District Ground Water Model of the Southwest Florida Water
            Management District (Draft Final Report). Southwest Florida Water Management
            District. Brooksville, Florida.
            9. BCI Engineers & Scientists, Inc., November 1999. Reclaimed Phosphate
            Clay Settling Area investigation Hydrologic Model Calibration and Ultimate
            Clay Elevation Prediction. Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Bartow,
            Florida.
            10. Bromwell & Carrier, Inc., University of South Florida, and Schreuder
            & Davis, Inc., 1991. Documentation FIPR Hydrologic Model. FIPR Project No.
            88-03-085, Bartow, Florida. Prepared for Florida Institute of Phosphate
            Research.






            > -----Original Message-----
            > From: Congli Wang [SMTP:cwang@...]
            > Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2001 11:08 AM
            > To: gwmodel@yahoogroups.com
            > Subject: RE: [gwmodel] groundwater recharge and evaporation
            > estimation
            >
            > Mark,
            >
            > Can you share this info w/ all of us? Thanks in advance.
            >
            > Charley
            >
            > -----Original Message-----
            > From: Mark Schwartz [mailto:MSchwartz@...]
            > Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2001 8:45 AM
            > To: 'gwmodel@yahoogroups.com'
            > Subject: RE: [gwmodel] groundwater recharge and evaporation estimation
            >
            >
            > I have some programs that calculate ET from unsaturated and saturated
            > soils
            > based on user specified model parameters.
            > Maybe you are looking for something to use in the field?
            > I do not think that large area models estimate ET very acurately -
            > important
            > to consider model objectives relative to error in estimate.
            > I can give you some information on errors in estimating ET in Florida.
            >
            > > -----Original Message-----
            > > From: japhet kashaigili [SMTP:jkashaigili@...]
            > > Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2001 3:04 AM
            > > To: gwmodel@yahoogroups.com
            > > Subject: [gwmodel] groundwater recharge and evaporation estimation
            > >
            > > Dear Gwmodel group
            > >
            > > I am looking for the suitable methods of estimating the
            > > Groundwater Recharge and Groundwater Evaporation in Unsaturated
            > > zones.
            > >
            > > Japhet
            > >
            > > =====
            > > Japhet Joel Kashaigili
            > > B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), M.Sc. WRE (Univ.of DSM)
            > > Research Assistant & Part Time Lecturer (UCLAS)
            > > University of Dar es Salaam, WREP
            > > P.O. BOX 35131, DSM. Tel/Fax: +255 22 2410029
            > > Mobile Phone: +255 741 227883
            > > Speciality: Groundwater, Hydrology, Environment, Hydraulics
            > >
            > > ____________________________________________________________
            > > Nokia Game is on again.
            > > Go to http://uk.yahoo.com/nokiagame/ and join the new
            > > all media adventure before November 3rd.
            > >
            > >
            > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            > > gwmodel-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
            > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            > >
            >
            >
            > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            > gwmodel-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
            >
            >
            >
            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            > gwmodel-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
            >
            >
            >
            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            >
          • Chen Delton
            Dear Japhet Under ideal circumstances, where money and time are plentiful, you can get into some serious applied research to get a true picture of the
            Message 5 of 6 , Nov 1, 2001
              Dear Japhet

              Under ideal circumstances, where money and time are plentiful, you can
              get into some serious applied research
              to get a true picture of the water-balance. There is a plethora of
              scientific information describing numerous field approaches, many of
              which require specialised equipment and theory. It may take considerable
              time in the library
              to become familiar with all of the possible approaches (in theory at
              least).

              If you are a practical person, you should consult a hydrologist, soil
              physicist, or agronomist with relevant experience
              such that he/she can assess your specific situation. Be careful, for
              every possible approach there are as many pitfalls.

              But here's an idea. If the soil type, vegetation, unsaturated flow,
              depth of plant-rooting zone, and the many other hydrological variables
              are suitable, it may be possible (and affordable) in some situations, to
              get a time-series
              estimate of evaporation and recharge via a detailed water mass-balance
              approach. This could involve physical
              characterisation of the soil (including unsaturated K and moisture
              retention curve), data-logging
              soil-moisture-pressures with tensiometers, soil-moisture sampling,
              rainfall gauging, and the possible
              use of a lysimeter. If you go down this track, a computer model (based
              on Richard's equation in 1-D and an evaporative
              demand sub-model) could possibly be developed and calibrated. The model
              could then be used for predictive analysis and
              water management purposes. I have done this myself for a vegetated sand.

              Kind regards
              Delton Chen
              --------------------------------------------
              Dr Delton Chen
              Project Officer (Groundwater Modelling)
              Water Assessment and Planning
              Natural Resource Sciences
              Department of Natural Resources and Mines
              --------------------------------------------
              Tel. Direct: (07) 3896 9856
              Tel. Office: (07) 3896 9506
              Facsimile: (07) 3896 9546
              Mobile: 041 1131771
              Email: Delton.Chen@...
              --------------------------------------------
              Postal and Office Address:
              Natural Sciences Precinct
              Block A, Level 1, 80 Meiers Road
              Indooroopilly Qld 4068 Australia
              --------------------------------------------





              -----Original Message-----
              From: japhet kashaigili [mailto:jkashaigili@...]
              Sent: Thursday, 1 November 2001 18:04
              To: gwmodel@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: [gwmodel] groundwater recharge and evaporation estimation


              Dear Gwmodel group

              I am looking for the suitable methods of estimating the
              Groundwater Recharge and Groundwater Evaporation in Unsaturated
              zones.

              Japhet

              =====
              Japhet Joel Kashaigili
              B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), M.Sc. WRE (Univ.of DSM)
              Research Assistant & Part Time Lecturer (UCLAS)
              University of Dar es Salaam, WREP
              P.O. BOX 35131, DSM. Tel/Fax: +255 22 2410029
              Mobile Phone: +255 741 227883
              Speciality: Groundwater, Hydrology, Environment, Hydraulics

              ____________________________________________________________
              Nokia Game is on again.
              Go to http://uk.yahoo.com/nokiagame/ and join the new
              all media adventure before November 3rd.


              To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
              gwmodel-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com



              Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
              http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/




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