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RE: [GTh] Corinth?

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  • FMMCCOY@msn.com
    What follows is an argument that an important phase of the development of Thomas occurred at the Corinthian Assembly in the mid fifties. In this post, the
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 18, 2007
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      What follows is an argument that an important phase of the development
      of Thomas occurred at the Corinthian Assembly in the mid fifties.

      In this post, the following premises are assumed to be correct:
      1. Thomas grew by an accretory process over an extended period of time
      to become the version we possess
      2. An accretion can be a new saying or an addition to an existing saying
      3. In a saying with one or more accretions, each accretion was added at
      the end. So, the first accretion to a saying was added immediately
      after the end of the saying and the second accretion was added
      immediately after the end of the first accretion, etc.
      4. As time passed, the Thomas group learned about other works by
      followers of Jesus. These included, but are not necessarily limited to,
      the Epistle of James (James), the Gospel of Mark (Mark) and the Gospel
      of John (John).
      5. Units in Thomas with parallels in James and/or Mark and/or John are
      accretions to Thomas influenced by James and/or Mark and/or John
      6. Tell-tale signs of the influence of one or more units from James,
      Mark or John on a unit from Thomas include not just verbal similarities,
      but similarities in thought as well. So, a unit in James and/or Mark
      and/or John which has parallel in a unit in Thomas might be one similar
      to the Thomas unit only verbally or similar to the Thomas unit only in
      thought or a mixture of the two.

      If these six premises are correct, a number of accretions due to the
      influence of James and/or Mark and/or John can be identified. See
      underneath my signature for the identification of these accretions.

      Here are the twenty sayings identified as having one or more accretions:
      4. 4:1 has a parallel in John, 4:2 has a parallel in Mark, 4:3 No
      parallel
      6. 6:1-4 has a parallel in James, 6:5-6 has a parallel in Mark
      11. 11:1 No parallel, 11:2 has a parallel in John, 11:3-4 No parallel
      13. 13:1-5 has a parallel in John, 13:6-8 No parallel
      14. 14:1-3 No parallel, 14:4 has a parallel in James, 14:5 has a
      parallel in Mark
      16. 16:1-3 has a parallel in Mark, 16:4 No parallel
      21. 21:1-5 No parallel, 21:6-8 has a parallel in John, 21:9-10 has a
      parallel in Mark
      27. 27:1 has a parallel in James, 27:2 No parallel
      31. 31:1 has a parallel in Mark, 31:2 No parallel
      33. 33:1 No parallel, 33:2-3 has a parallel in Mark
      38. 38:1 No parallel, 38:2 has a parallel in John
      47. 47:1-3 No parallel, 47:4-5 has a parallel in Mark
      61. 61:1 No parallel, 61:2-3 has a parallel in John, 61:4-5 No parallel
      64. 64:1-11 No parallel, 64:12 has a parallel in James
      78. 78:1 has a parallel in James, 78:2-3 No parallel
      79. 79:1-2 has a parallel in James, 79:3 No parallel
      99. 99:1-2 has a parallel in Mark, 99:3 No parallel
      100.100:1-3 has a parallel in Mark, 100:4 No parallel
      104. 104:1-2 No parallel, 104:3 has a parallel in James
      111. 111:1 has a parallel in Mark, 111:2 has a parallel in John, 111:3
      No parallel

      Note that, in these twenty sayings, no accretion which has a parallel in
      Mark or John precedes an accretion which has a parallel in James.
      Conversely, there are two cases where an accretion with a parallel in
      James precedes an accretion with a parallel in Mark (see sayings 6 and
      14). This indicates that the Thomas group learned about James before
      they learned about Mark. With a lower degree of confidence, this also
      indicates that the Thomas group learned about James before they learned
      about John.

      However, things are not as simple for Mark and John. While there are
      two cases where an accretion which has a parallel in John precedes an
      accretion which has a parallel in Mark (see sayings 4 and 21), there,
      yet, is a case where an accretion which has a parallel in Mark precedes
      an accretion which has a parallel in John (see saying 111). One
      possibility is that the Thomas group learned of Mark and John at roughly
      the same time.

      In any event, the key point is that James is apparently the first of
      these three works that the Thomas group learned about. As a result, in
      the above twenty accretory sayings, the units which precede the
      accretions with parallels in James presumably reflect the period before
      the Thomas group learned about any of these three works.

      There are three of these units:
      1. 14:1-3, "Jesus said to them, 'If you fast, you will give rise to sin
      for yourselves; and if you pray, you will be condemned; and if you give
      alms, you will do harm to your spirits.'"
      2. 64:1-11, "Jesus said, 'A man had received visitors. And when he had
      prepared the dinner, he sent his servant to invite the guests. He went
      to the first one and said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I
      have claims against some merchants. They are coming to me this evening.
      I must go and give them my orders. I ask to be excused from the
      dinner.' He went to another and said to him, 'My master has invited
      you.' He said to him, 'I have just bought a house and am required for
      the day. I shall not have any spare time.' He went to another and said
      to him, 'My master invites you.' He said to him, 'My friend is going to
      get married, and I am to prepare the banquet. I ask to be excused from
      the dinner.' He went to another and said to him, 'My master invites
      you.' He said to him, 'I have just bought a farm, and I am on my way to
      collect the rent. I shall not be able to come. I ask to be excused.'
      The servant returned and said to his master, 'Those whom you invited to
      the dinner have asked to be excused.' The master said to his servant,
      'Go outside to the streets and bring back those whom you happen to meet,
      so that they may dine.'"
      3. 104:1-2, "They said to Jesus, 'Come, let us pray today and let us
      fast.' Jesus said, 'What is the sin that I have committed, or wherein
      have I been defeated?'"

      These three units are radical in nature. There is an explicit
      repudiation of fasting and praying with an implied rejection of the Law
      of Moses. Also, there is a reversal of societal norms. The saved are
      not drawn from those who are successful in society, but from the
      riff-raff and mis-fits to be found wandering around on the streets.

      Is there anything else we can learn about this postulated pre-James
      period of the Thomas group?

      I suggest that there is.

      In particular, I suggest, wherever we have a saying which is an
      accretion with a parallel in James, then the immediately preceding
      saying or (if it has one or more accretions) the earliest unit in the
      immediately preceding saying, *if this saying or this unit is not an
      accretion with a parallel in Mark and/or John*, also reflects this
      period.

      There are four of these:
      1. 5:1, "(1) Jesus said, 'Recognize what is in your (sg.) sight, and
      that which is hidden from you (sg.) will become plain to you (sg.)
      2. 53, "His disciples said to him, 'Is circumcision beneficial or not?'
      He said to them, 'If it were beneficial, their father would beget them
      already circumcised from their mother. Rather, the true circumcision in
      spirit has become completely profitable.'"
      3. 62, "Jesus said, 'It is those [who are worthy of my] mysteries that I
      tell my mysteries. Do not let your (sg.) left hand know what your (sg.)
      right hand is doing.'"
      4. 81, "Jesus said, 'Let him who has grown rich be king, and let him who
      possesses power renounce it.'"

      The second one, saying 53, has a mocking condemnation of
      circumcision--and, so, reflects the already discerned theme of the
      repudiation of the Law of Moses.

      Both the first, unit 5:1, and third, saying 62, have a theme regarding
      hidden mysteries.
      The fourth one, saying 81, has a theme of getting rich, becoming a king
      and then renouncing power.

      All four themes suggest that the postulated pre-James period occurred
      shortly after Paul wrote I Corinthians, with the Thomas group being
      members of the Corinthian Assembly:
      1. The theme of the repudiation of the Law of Moses
      Paul seems to be echoing a slogan in I Corinthians 10:23, "'All things
      are lawful', but not all things are beneficial. 'All things are lawful',
      but not all things edify. Since Paul is writing to the Corinthians,
      this would appear to be a slogan espoused by some at Corinth--and this
      slogan reflects a rejection of the Law of Moses by these Corinthians.
      2. The theme regarding hidden mysteries
      This theme is also found in I Corinthians, e.g., 2:7a, "But we speak
      God's wisdom in a mystery, having been hidden", and 4:1, "So, let a man
      account us as attendants of Christ and stewards of God's mysteries."
      3 The theme of getting rich, becoming king and then renouncing power
      This theme is echoed in Paul's exhortation to those who claim that they
      have gotten rich and have become kings to renounce all this and to
      imitate apostles like himself--see I Corinthians
      4:8b-13, "Already you became rich! Without us, you became kings! And
      I would that you really became kings, that we also might become kings
      with you. For, I think, God showed forth us apostles last as condemned
      to death, because a spectacle to the world, both to angels and to
      men....You are honorable, but we dishonorable. Until the present hour
      we both hunger and thirst and are naked and are beaten and are unsettled
      and we labor, working with our own hands....We became as the
      offscourings of the world--the refuse of all things until now."
      4. The theme of the reversal of societal norms
      In the above citation of I Corinthians 4:8b-13, Paul presents us with a
      reversal of societal norms. The apostles, whom the Corinthians are
      exhorted to emulate, do not belong to those who are successful in
      society, but, rather, belong with the unsettled riff-raff and mis-fits
      wandering around in the streets and laboring with their hands.

      So, I suggest the postulated pre-James phase in Thomas reflects the
      milieu in the Corinthian Assembly after Paul wrote I Corinthians to it.
      The members of the Thomas group there espoused the slogan, "All things
      are lawful!" and, so, had rejected the Law of Moses. They espoused the
      idea of hidden mysteries also espoused by Paul in I Corinthians. While
      not disavowing their practice of, in some sense, becoming rich and
      becoming kings, they accepted Paul's exhortation to, once they become
      kings in some sense, renounce their status and become, like the
      apostles, members of the offscourings of society.

      If, as suggested, the postulated pre-James phase in Thomas reflects the
      period after Paul wrote I Corinthians, then the expectation is that
      James was written later than I Corinthians.

      Indeed, what is said in James appears to more reflect the milieu of
      Galatians and Romans than the milieu of the Corinthian correspondence.
      In particular, while the relationship between faith and works is not a
      big issue in the Corinthian correspondence, it is a big issue in James,
      Galatians and Romans.

      This suggests that James was written most likely about 55 CE--for this
      appears to be about when Paul wrote Galatians and Romans. So, in
      Apostle Paul (p. 271), Uno Schnelle (as translated by M. Eugene Boring)
      states, "Both the proximity to Romans and the reports in Galatians about
      the collection speak to the view that Galatians was written *after* the
      two Corinthian letters and immediately *before* Romans, which would
      place it in the late autumn of 55 CE in Macedonia."

      In this case, the situation reflected in the postulated pre-James period
      of the Thomas group is that of the Corinthian Assembly in the period
      from the writing of I Corinithians (54 CE?) and the writing of James
      perhaps a year or two later.

      In this case, then, the Thomas group is one of the parties mentioned by
      Paul in I Corinthians--the Paul party or the Apollos party or the Cephas
      party or the Christ party. I suspect that they were the Apollos party.

      In this case, other sayings in Thomas which reflect this sitz im leben
      likely come from this postulated pre-James period. For example, Paul
      cites this quotation from an unknown source in I Corinthians 2:9,
      "Things which eye did not see and ear did not hear and did not come upon
      the heart of man--the things God prepared for the ones loving him."
      This has a parallel in Thomas 17, "Jesus said, 'I shall give you what no
      eye has seen and what no ear has heard and what no hand has touched and
      what has never occurred to the human mind.'" So, Th 17 likely belongs
      to this postulated pre-James period in the development of Thomas.

      Frank McCoy
      2036 E. Magnolia
      St Paul, MN 55119

      Incipit, "These are the secret sayings which the living Jesus spoke and
      which Didymos Judas Thomas wrote down." No parallels

      1. "And he said, 'Whoever finds the interpretation of these sayings will
      not experience death.'" No parallels

      2, "Jesus said, 'Let him who seeks continue seeking until he finds.
      When he finds, he will become troubled. When he becomes troubled, he
      will be astonished, and he will rule over the all." No parallels

      3:1-5, "(1) Jesus said, 'If those who lead you say to you, See, the
      kingdom is in the sky, then the birds of the sky will precede you. (2)
      If they say to you, It is in the sea, then the fish will precede you.
      (3) Rather, the kingdom is inside of you, and it is outside of you. (4)
      When you come to know yourselves, then you will become known, and you
      will realize that it is you who are the sons of the living Father. (5)
      But if you will not know yourselves, you dwell in poverty and it is you
      who are that poverty '" No parallels.

      4:1, "Jesus said, 'The man old in days will not hesitate to ask a small
      child seven days old about the place of life, and he will live.'"
      Parallel in John 3:3,6, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless someone is
      born anew, he is not able to see the Kingdom of God....The thing having
      been born of the flesh is flesh and the thing having been born of the
      Spirit is spirit." The basic idea, then, is that a man who is old in
      fleshly terms can ask one who has just been reborn a week ago as spirit
      about the Kingdom and the information he will learn will enable him to
      be reborn himself.

      4:2, "For many who are first will become last." Parallel in Mark 10:31a,
      "And many first will be last."

      4:3, "And they will become oya oywt (single people)" No parallel

      5:1, "(1) Jesus said, 'Recognize what is in your (sg.) sight, and that
      which is hidden from you (sg.) will become plain to you (sg.)." No
      Parallel

      5:2, "For there is nothing hidden which will not become manifest.'"
      Parallel in Mark 4:22a, "For there is not anything hidden except that it
      may be revealed."

      6:1-4, "(1) "His disciples questioned him and said to him, 'Do you want
      us to fast? How shall we pray? Shall we give alms? What diet shall we
      observe?'" (2) Jesus said, 'Do not tell lies, (3) and do not do what you
      hate, (4) for all things are plain in the sight of heaven.'" It reflects
      the thought in James--particularly 3:3-13, which deals with sins of the
      tongue, and 2:8, where the Logos as the Law is said to be summed up in
      loving one's neighbor as oneself. (for "Do not do what you hate" is a
      negative version of the same idea) and 2:12, where, we learn, we will be
      judged by how well we observe the Law of Freedom (i.e., the Logos as the
      Law) rather than by how well we observe the Law of Moses.

      6:5-6, (5) "For nothing hidden will not become manifest, (6) and
      nothing covered will remain without being uncovered." Parallel in Mark
      4:22, "For there is not anything hidden except that it may be revealed,
      nor has it become hidden but that it might come into the open."

      7, "Jesus said, 'Blessed is the lion which becomes man when consumed by
      man; and cursed is the man whom the lion consumes, and the lion becomes
      man.'" No parallel

      8, "And he said, 'The man is like a wise fisherman who cast his net into
      the sea and drew it up from the sea full of small fish. Among them the
      wise fisherman found a fine large fish. He threw all the small fish
      back into the sea and chose the large fish without difficulty. Whoever
      has ears to hear, let him hear.'" No parallel

      9, "Jesus said, 'Now the sower went out, took a handful (of seeds), and
      scattered them. Some fell on the road, did not take root in the soil,
      and did not produce ears. And others fell on thorns; they choked the
      seed(s) and worms ate them. And others fell on the good soil and it
      produced good fruit: it bore sixty per measure and a hundred and twenty
      per measure.'" Markan version of this parallel of the sower found in
      Mark 4:3-9.

      10. "Jesus said, 'I have come to cast fire upon the world, and see, I am
      guarding it until it blazes.'" It reflects the thought in James--see
      James 5:9b, "Behold, the Judge before the doors has stood." So, Jesus
      speaks as the Judge who will be coming soon to cast fire on the wicked.

      11:1 "Jesus said, 'This heaven will pass away, and the one above it will
      pass away.'" No parallel

      11:2, "The dead are not alive, and the living will not die." A parallel
      in John. The same basic idea that there are two categories of people:
      (1) the dead and (2) the living who will not die is also found in John
      5:24b--which speaks of one who "has eternal life and does not come under
      judgment, but has passed from death to life."

      11:3-4 "(3) In the days when you consumed what is dead, you make it what
      is alive. When you come to dwell in the light, what will you do? (4)
      One the day when you were one you became two. But when you become two,
      what will you do?" No parallel

      12, "The disciples said to Jesus, 'We know that you will depart from us.
      Who is to be our leader?' Jesus said to them, 'Wherever you are, you
      are to go to James the righteous, for whose sake heaven and earth came
      into being." No parallel

      13:1-5, "(1) Jesus said to his disciples, 'Compare me to someone and
      tell me whom I am like.' (2) Simon Peter said to him, 'You are like a
      righteous angel.' (3) Matthew said to him, 'You are like a wise
      philosopher.' (4) Thomas said to him, 'Master, my mouth is wholly
      incapable of saying whom you are like.' (5) Jesus said, I am not your
      (sg.) master. Because you (sg.) have drunk, you (sg.) have become
      intoxicated from the bubbling spring which I have measured out.'"
      Reflects thoughts in John. In John, Jesus is the Logos--see 1:1-17. As
      the Logos, Jesus is unnamable and, so is inconceivable and
      incomprehensible. See On the Change of Names (15), where Philo states,
      "Think it not then a hard saying that the Highest of all things should
      be unnamable when His Logos has no name of its own which we can speak.
      And indeed if he is unnamble he is also inconceivable and
      incomprehensible." Also, in John, as in this passage, it is Thomas who
      utters the most lofty statement concerning Jesus--see John 20:28, where
      Thomas says to Jesus, "My Lord and my God!". Again, it is in John that
      we have the concept, also found here, of Jesus providing a type of water
      that is yet an intoxicating wine--see John 2:9, "When the steward of the
      feast tasted the water now become wine,..." Finally, as respects
      Jesus' statement, "I am not your master", we perhaps have a rather
      similar statement in John--see 15:15, "No longer do I call you servants
      because the servant does not know what his lord does. But I have called
      you friends because all things which I heard from my Father I made known
      to you."

      13:6-8, "And he took him and withdrew and told him three things. When
      Thomas returned to his companions, they asked him, 'What did Jesus say
      to you?' Thomas said to them, 'If I tell you one of these things which
      he told me, you will pick up stones and throw them at me; a fire will
      come out of the stones and burn you up.'" No parallel

      14:1-3, "Jesus said to them, 'If you fast, you will give rise to sin for
      yourselves; and if you pray, you will be condemned; and if you give
      alms, you will do harm to your spirits.'" No paralllel

      14:4, "When you go into any land and walk about in the districts, if
      they receive you, eat what they will set before you, and heal the sick
      among them. It reflects the thought in James--where it is the Law of
      Freedom, i.e., the Logos as a Law, rather than the Law of Moses, that is
      salvific (see 2:12, "So speak and do as though by the Law of Freedom
      about to be judged), and where the healing of the sick is stressed (see
      5:14, "If anyone is sick among you, let him call the elders of the
      Assembly and let them pray over him, having annointed him with oil in
      the name of the Lord.").

      14:5, "For what goes into you mouth will not defile you, but that which
      issues from your mouth--it is that which will defile you." Reflects
      thought in Mark 7:15, "There is nothing outside of the man entering into
      him which is able to defile him, but the things coming out from the man
      are the things defiling the man."

      15, "Jesus said, 'When you see one who was not born of a woman,
      prostrate yourselves on your faces and worship him. That one is your
      father.'" No parallel

      16:1-3, "Jesus said, 'Men think, perhaps, that it is peace which I have
      come to cast upon the world. They do not know that it is dessension
      which I have come to cast upon the earth: fire, sword, and war. For
      there will be five in a house: three against two, and two against three,
      the father against the son, and the son against the father. It reflects
      thought in Mark 13:7a,12, "But when you hear of wars and reports of
      wars, do not be troubled--it is necessary for these things to
      occur....And brother will hand over brother to death and the father his
      child and children will rise against parents and have them put to
      death."

      16:4, "And they will stand monaxoc (celibate)." No parallel

      17, "Jesus said, 'I shall give you what no eye has seen and what no ear
      has heard and what no hand has touched and what has never occurred to
      the human mind.'" No parallel

      18. "The disciples said to Jesus, 'Tell us how our end will be.' Jesus
      said, 'Have you discovered, then, the beginning, that you look for the
      end? For where the beginning is, there will the end be. Blessed is he
      who will take his place in the beginning; he will know the end and will
      not experience death.'" No parallel

      19, "Jesus said, 'Blessed is he who came into being before he came into
      being. If you become my disciples and listen to my words, these stones
      will minister to you. For there are five trees for you in Paradise
      which remain undisturbed summer and winter and whose leaves do not fall.
      Whoever becomes acquainted with them will not experience death.'" No
      parallel

      20, "The disciples said to Jesus, 'Tell us what the kingdom of heaven is
      like.' He said to them, 'It is like a mustard seed. It is the smallest
      of all seeds. But when it falls on tilled soil, it produces a great
      plant and becomes a shelter for birds of the sky.'" It has a parallel in
      Mark 4:30-32, "And he was saying, 'To what should we compare the Kingdom
      of God? Or, by what parable may we present it? (It is) as a mustard
      seed, which, when it is sown on the earth, being smaller than all of the
      seeds on the earth. And when it is sown, it grows up and becomes
      greater than all of the vegetables and makes large branches, so as to
      make it possible for the birds of heaven to nest under the shade of
      it.'"

      21:1-5, "Mary said to Jesus, 'Whom are your disciples like?' He said,
      'They are like children who have settled in a field which is not theirs.
      When the owners of the field come, they will say, Let us have back our
      field.They (will) undress in their presence in order to let them have
      back their field and to give it back to them. Therefore I say, if the
      owner of a house knows that the thief is coming, he will begin his vigil
      before he comes and will not let him dig into his house of his domain to
      carry away his goods.'" No parallel

      21:6-8, "You (pl.), then, be on your guard against the world. Arm
      yourselves with great strength, lest the robbers find a way to come to
      you, for the difficulty you expect will (surely) materialize. Let there
      be among you a man of understanding." Reflects thought in John--in
      which the disciples of Jesus are in the world, but do not belong to the
      world, and are hated by the world, e.g., see John 15:19b, "But because
      you are not from the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore
      the world hates you." Also, John has this idea that those in charge of
      the world are robbers and--see John 10:8, "All who came before me are
      thieves and robbers."

      21:9-10, "When the grain is ripened, he came quickly with his sickle in
      his hand and reaped it. Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear.'" Has a
      parallel in Mark 4:29, "But when permits the crop, immediately he puts
      forth the sickle, for has come the harvest."

      22 "(1) Jesus saw little babies nursing. He said to his disciples,
      'These little ones nursing are like those who enter the Kingdom.' (3)
      They said to him, 'Will we enter the Kingdom as little babies?' (4)
      Jesus said to them, 'When you make the two one, and when you make the
      inside like the outside, and the outside like the inside, and the above
      like the below. (5) And when you make the male and the female into a
      single being, with the result that the male is not male, nor the female
      female. (6) When you make eyes in place of an eye, and a hand in place
      of a hand, and a foot in place of a foot, and an image in place of an
      image, (7) then you will enter the Kingdom.'" This reflects thought in
      John 3:3,6, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless someone is born anew, he
      is not able to see the Kingdom of God....The thing having been born of
      the flesh is flesh and the thing having been born of the Spirit is
      spirit." The basic idea, then, is that one must be reborn as spirit,
      thereby becoming a babe once again, before one can enter the Kingdom.

      23:1-2, "(1) Jesus said, 'I shall choose you, one out of a thousand, and
      two out of ten thousand, (2) they shall stand as oya oywt (single
      people).'" No parallel

      24:1-3, "(1) *His disciples said, 'Teach us about the place where you
      are, because we must seek it.'* (2) He said to them, 'Whoever has ears
      should listen! There is light within a person of light. And it lights
      up the whole world. If it does not shine, it is dark.'" It reflects
      thought in John, where Jesus is the Logos and, as such, he is the
      Light--see John 1:9, "(The Logos), the true light that enlightens
      everyone, was coming into the world." As this true Light, he is the
      light of the world--see John 8:12, "I am the light of the world. The
      one following me will never walk in the darkness but will have the light
      of life." It also reflects the thought in James--where Jesus is the
      Logos and, as such, he indwells in a just/righteous soul--see James
      1:21, "Therefore, put away all filthiness and what remains of
      wickedness, in meekness receive the implanted Logos, being able to save
      your souls." So, in 24:1-3, the basic idea is that the place where
      Jesus, the Logos who is the light of the world, is to be found is within
      a just/righeous soul. Futher, a person having a just righteous soul is
      a person of light precisely because Jesus, the Logos who the light of
      the world, resides in this person's soul.

      25, "Jesus said, 'Love your (sg.) brother like your soul, guard him like
      the pupil of your eye.'" It reflects the thought in James--see 2:8, "If
      you do the Royal Law according to scripture, 'You shall love your
      neighbor as you love yourself', you do well." It reflects thought in
      Mark 12:31, "The second (great commandment) is this, 'You shall love
      your neighbor as yourself.'" It reflects thought in John 14:9a, "I give
      a new commandment to you--that you love one another."

      26, "Jesus said, 'You (sg.) see the mote in your brother's eye, but you
      do not see the beam in your own eye. When you cast the beam out of your
      own eye, then you will see clearly to cast the mote from your brother's
      eye.'" It expresses the same basic idea found in James 4:12b, "But who
      are you, being the one to judging your neighbor?"

      27:1, "<Jesus said,> 'If you do not fast as regards the world, you will
      not find the kingdom.' It reflects the thought in James. One must
      choose between God and the world--see 4:4, "Adultresses! Do you not
      know that the friendship with the world is emnity with God?" Further,
      only those who choose God enter the Kingdom--see 2:8b, which speaks of
      "the Kingdom that He has promised to those who love Him." Therefore,
      one's duty is to stay clear of the world--see 1:27, "Religion that is
      pure and undefiled before God, even the Father, is this:...to keep
      oneself unspotted from the world."

      27:2, "If you do not observe the Sabbath as a Sabbath, you will not see
      the Father." No parallel

      28, "Jesus said, 'I took my place in the midst of the world, and I
      appeared to them in flesh. I found all of them intoxicated; I found
      none of them thirsty. And my soul became afflicted for the soms of men,
      because they are blind in their hearts and do not have sight; for empty
      they come into the world, and empty too they seek to leave the world.
      But for the moment they are intoxicated. When they shake off their
      wine, then they will repent.'" No parallel

      29, "Jesus said, 'If the flesh came into being because of spirit, it is
      a wonder. But if spirit came into being because of the body, it is a
      wonder of wonders. Indeed, I am amazed at how this great wealth has
      made its home in this poverty.'" No parallel

      30, "Jesus said, 'Where there are three gods, they are gods. Where
      there are two or one, I am with him.'" No parallel

      31:1, "(1) Jesus said, 'No prophet is accepted in his own village.'" It
      has a parallel in Mark 6:4a, "And Jesus was saying to them, 'A prophet
      is not dishonored except in his home town.'"

      31:2, "No physician heals those who know him." No parallel

      32, "Jesus said, 'A city being built on a high mountain and fortified
      cannot fall, nor can it be hidden.'" No parallel

      33:1, "Jesus said, ''Preach from your (pl.) housetops that which you
      (sg.) will hear in your (sg.) ear.'" No parallel

      33:2-3, "(2) For no one lights a lamp and puts it under a bushel, nor
      does he put it in a hidden place, (3) but rather he sets it on a
      lampstand so that everyone who enters and leaves will see its light." It
      has a parallel in Mark 4:21b, "Is a lamp brought in to be put under the
      bushel basket or under the bed, and not on the lampstand?"

      34, "Jesus said, 'If a blind man leads a blind man, they will both fall
      into a pit.'" No parallel

      35. "Jesus said, 'It is not possible for anyone to enter the house of a
      strong man and take by force unless he binds his hands; then he will (be
      able to) ransack his house.'" It has a parallel in Mark 3:27, "But no
      one is able, having entered into the house of the strong man, to plunder
      it unless, first, he binds the strongman and then his house he will
      plunder."

      36, "Jesus said, 'Do not be concerned from morning until evening and
      from evening until morning about what you will wear.'" No parallel

      37, "His disciples said, 'When will you become revealed to us and when
      shall we see you?' Jesus said, 'When you disrobe without being ashamed
      and take up your garments and placethem under your feet like little
      children and tread on them, then [will you see] the son of the living
      one, and you will not be afraid.'" No parallel

      38:1, "Jesus said, 'Many times have you desired to hear these words
      which I am saying to you, and you have no one else to hear them from.'"
      No parallel

      38:2, "There will be days when you will look for me and will not find
      me." It has a parallel in John 7:33b, "You will seek me and you will not
      find me."

      39, "Jesus said, 'The pharisees and the scribes have taken the keys of
      knowledge (gnosis) and hidden them. They themselves have not entered,
      nor have they allowed to enter those who wish to. You, however, be as
      wise as serpents and innocent as doves.'" No parallel

      40, "Jesus said, 'A grapevine has been planted outside of the father,
      but being unsound, it will be pulled up by its roots and destroyed.'" No
      parallel

      41, "Jesus said, 'Whoever has something in his hand will receive more,
      and whoever has nothing will be deprived of even the little he has.'" It
      has a parallel in Mark 4:25, "For whoever has, it will be given to him
      and whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken away from
      him."

      42, "Jesus said, 'Become passers-by.'" No parallel

      43, "His disciples said to him, 'Who are you that you should say these
      things to us?' <Jesus said to them,> 'You do not realize who I am from
      what I say to you, but you have become like the Jews, for they (eithr)
      love the tree and hate its fruit (or) love the fruit and hate the tree.'
      No parallel

      44 "Jesus said, 'Whoever blasphemes against the father will be forgiven
      and whoever blasphemes against the son will be forgiven, but whoever
      blasphemes against the holy spirit will not be forgiven either on earth
      or in heaven.'" It has a parallel in Mark 3:28-29, "Truly, truly, I say
      to you, that will be forgiven the sons of men...their blasphemes,
      whatever they may blaspheme, but whoever blasphemes against the Holy
      Spirit does not have forgiveness into the age, but is guilty of an
      eternal sin.'"

      45, "Jesus said, 'Grapes are not harvested from thorns, nor are figs
      gathered from thistles, for they do not produce fruit. A good man
      brings forth good from his storehouse; an evil man brings forth evil
      things from his storehouse, which is in his heart, and says evil things.
      For out of the abundance of the heart he brings forth evil things.'" No
      parallel

      46:1-2, "(1) Jesus said, 'From Adam to John the Baptist, no one among
      those born of women is more exalted than John the Baptist that the
      person's gaze should not be deferent. (2) Yet I have said, Whoever from
      among you will become a child, this person will know the Kingdom and
      will be more exalted than John.'" It reflects thought found in John
      3:3,6, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless someone is born anew, he is
      not able to see the Kingdom of God....The thing having been born of the
      flesh is flesh and the thing having been born of the Spirit is spirit."
      The basic idea, then, is that while no one having been born of flesh is
      greater than John the Baptist, anyone who has reborn as spirit, thereby
      becoming a babe again and knowing the Kingdom, is greater than he.

      47:1-3, "(1) Jesus said, 'It is impossible for a man to mount two horses
      or to stretch two bows. (2) And it is impossible for a servant to serve
      two masters; otherwise he will honor the one and treat the other contem
      ptuously. (3) No man drinks old wine and immediately desires to drink
      new wine.'" No parallel

      47:4-5. "(4) And new wine is not put into old wineskins, lest they
      burst; nor is old wine put into a new wineskin, lest it spoil it. (5) An
      old patch is not sewn into a new garment, because a tear would result.'"
      It has a parallel in Mark 2:21-22, "No one sews a patch of unshrunk
      cloth on an old garment. Otherwise, the patch will pull away from it,
      the new from the old, and a worse tear results. And no one puts new
      wine into old wineskins. Otherwise, will the wine will tear the
      wineskins and the wine is ruined--and the wineskins! Instead, new wine
      is put into new wineskins.'"

      48, "Jesus said, 'If two make peace with each other in this one house,
      they will say to the mountain, Move away, and it will move.'" It
      reflects the thought in James, e.g., see James 3:18 ('And the fruit of
      righteousness is sown in peace by the ones making peace.") and James
      5:16b ("The petition of a righteous man, being effective, has great
      power."). It reflects Mark 11:23, "Truly, I say to you that whoever
      says to this mountain be lifted up and thrown into the sea,...it will be
      so for you."

      49, "Jesus said, 'Blessed are the monaxoc (celibate) and elect, for you
      will find the kingdom. For you are from it, and to it you will return."
      No parallel

      50, "Jesus said, 'If they say to you, Where did you come from?', say to
      them, We came from the light, the place where the light came into being
      on its own accord and established [itself] and became manifest through
      their image. If they say to you, Is it you?, say, We are its children,
      and we are the elect of the living Father. If they ask you, 'What is
      the sign of you father in you?, say to them, It is movement and
      repose.'" No parallel

      51, "His disciples said to him, 'When will the repose of the dead come
      about, and when will the new world come?' He said to them, 'What you
      look forward to has already come, but you do not recognize it.'" No
      parallel

      52, "His disciples said to him, 'Twenty-four prophets spoke in Israel,
      and all of them spoke in you.' He said to them, "You have omitted the
      one in your presence and have spoken (only) of the dead." It reflects
      thought in John 8:53b, "And the prophets died! Whom do you make
      yourself?" It reflects thought in James 5:10, which speaks of "the
      prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord."

      53, "His disciples said to him, 'Is circumcision beneficial or not?' He
      said to them, 'If it were beneficial, their father would beget them
      already circumcised from their mother. Rather, the true circumcision in
      spirit has become completely profitable.'" No parallel

      54, "Jesus said, 'Blessed are the poor, for yours is the Kingdom of
      Heaven.'" It reflects thought in James 2:5b, "Did not God choose the
      poor of the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the Kingdom?"

      55, "(1) Jesus said, 'Whoever does not hate his father and his mother
      cannot become a disciple to me. (2) And whoever does not hate his
      brothers and sisters and take up his cross in my way will not be worthy
      of me.'" It reflects thought in Mark 10:28-29a ("Peter (Jesus' chief
      disciple) began to say, 'Behold, we have left everything and have
      followed you.' Jesus said, 'Truly, I say to you, there is no one who
      has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father...") and Mark
      8:34b ("If someone desires to follow after me, let him deny himself and
      take up the cross and let him follow me.").

      56, "Jesus said, 'Whoever has come to understand the world has found
      (only) a corpse, and whoever has found a corpse is superior to the
      world.'" No parallel

      57, "Jesus said, 'The Kingdom of the father is like a man who had [good]
      seed. His enemy came by night and sowed weeds among the good seed. The
      man did not allow them to pull up the weeds; he said to them, I am
      afraid that you will go intending to pull up the weeds and pull up the
      wheat along with them. For on the day of harvest the weeds will be
      plainly visible, and they will be pulled up and burned.'" No parallel

      58, "Jesus said, 'Blessed is the man who has suffered and found life.'"
      No parallel

      59, "Jesus said, 'Take heed of the living one while you are alive, lest
      you die and seek to see him and be unable to do so.'" It has thought
      reflected in John 8:21, "Therefore, he said again to them, 'I go away
      and you will seek me, and in your sin you will die, where I go away, you
      cannot come.'"

      60, "<They saw> a Samaritan carrying a lamb on his way to Judea. He
      said to his disciples, 'That man is round about the lamb.' They said to
      him, 'So that he may kill it and eat it.' He said to them, 'While it is
      alive, he will not eat it, but only when he has killed it and it has
      become a corpse.' They said to him, 'He cannot so so otherwise.' He
      said to them, 'You too, look for a place for yourselves within repose,
      lest you become a corpse and be eaten.'" No parallel

      61:1, "Jesus said, 'Two will rest on a bed: the one will die and the
      other will live.'" No parallel

      61:2-3, "(2) Salome said, 'Who are you, man, that you...have come up on
      my couch and eaten from my table?' (3)Jesus said to her, 'I am he who
      exists from the undivided. I was given some of the things of my
      father.' It reflects thought found in John 3:35, "The Father loves
      the Son and has given all things into his hand."

      61:4-5. "(4) <...> 'I am your disciple.'<...> Therefore I say, if he is
      destroyed he will be filled with light, but if he is divided, he will be
      filled with darkness." No parallel

      62, "Jesus said, 'It is those [who are worthy of my] mysteries that I
      tell my mysteries. Do not let your (sg.) left hand know what your (sg.)
      right hand is doing.'" No parallel

      63, "Jesus said, 'There was a rich man who had much money. He said, I
      shall put my money to use so that I may sow, reap, plant, and fill my
      storehouse with produce, with the result that I shall lack nothing.
      Such were his intentions, but that same night he died. Let him who has
      ears hear.'" It reflects thought in James--for this idea that the rich
      die in their pursuit of yet more riches is reflected in James 1:11-12,
      "For the sun rose with the burning heat dried the grass and its flower
      fell and the beauty of its appearance perished. Thus also the rich man
      will fade away in his goings."

      64:1-11, "Jesus said, 'A man had received visitors. And when he had
      prepared the dinner, he sent his servant to invite the guests. He went
      to the first one and said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I
      have claims against some merchants. They are coming to me this evening.
      I must go and give them my orders. I ask to be excused from the
      dinner.' He went to another and said to him, 'My master has invited
      you.' He said to him, 'I have just bought a house and am required for
      the day. I shall not have any spare time.' He went to another and said
      to him, 'My master invites you.' He said to him, 'My friend is going to
      get married, and I am to prepare the banquet. I ask to be excused from
      the dinner.' He went to another and said to him, 'My master invites
      you.' He said to him, 'I have just bought a farm, and I am on my way to
      collect the rent. I shall not be able to come. I ask to be excused.'
      The servant returned and said to his master, 'Those whom you invited to
      the dinner have asked to be excused.' The master said to his servant,
      'Go outside to the streets and bring back those whom you happen to meet,
      so that they may dine.'" No parallel

      64:12, "Businessmen and merchants [will] not enter the places of my
      father." It reflects thought in James--see James 4:13-16, "Come now,
      the ones saying, 'Today or tomorrow we will go into this or that city
      and we will do (business) there for a year and will merchandize and will
      make a profit.' You do not know what tomorrow or your life (will be).
      For you are a mist, for a little while appearing, then, indeed,
      disappearing....But now you boast in your pretensions. All such
      boasting is evil. Therefore, to the one knowing to do good, but not
      doing it, to him it is sin."

      65, "He said, 'There was a good man who owned a vineyard. He leased it
      to tenant farmers so that they might work it and he might collect the
      produce from them. He sent his servant so that the tenants might give
      him the produce of the vineyard. They siezed his servant and beat him,
      all but killing him. The servant went back and told his master. The
      master said, Perhaps he did not recognize them. He sent another
      servant. The tenants beat this one as well. Then the owner sent his
      son and said, Perhaps they will show respect to my son. Because the
      tenants knew that it was he who was the heir to the vineyard, they
      seized him and killed him. Let him who has ears hear.'" It has a
      parallel in Mark 12:1-9, which is the Markan version of this parable of
      the vineyard.

      66, "Jesus said, 'Show me the stone which the builders have rejected.
      That one is the cornerstone.'" It has a parallel in Mark 12:10, "Have
      you not read the scripture, 'A stone which the ones building rejected,
      this one has come to be the cornerstone.'?"

      67, "Jesus said, 'If one who knows the all still feels a personal
      drficiency, he is completely deficient.'" No parallel

      68, "Jesus said, 'Blessed are you when you are hated and persecuted.
      Whereveryou have been persecuted they will find no place.'" No parallel

      69:1-2, "Jesus said, 'Blessed are they who have been persecuted within
      themselves. It is they who have truly come to know the father. Blessed
      are the hungry, for the belly of him who desires will be filled.'" No
      parallel

      70, "Jesus said, 'That which you have sill save you if you bring it
      forth from yourselves. That which you do not have within you [will]
      kill you if you do not have it within you.'" No parallel

      71, "Jesus said, 'I shall [destroy this] house, and no one will be able
      to build it [...]'" It has a parallel in Mark 14:58b, "We heard him
      saying, 'I will destroy this temple made with human hands, and...I will
      build another not made with hands.'"

      72, "[A man said] to him, 'Tell my brothers to divide my father's
      possessions with me.' He turned to his disciples and said, 'I am not a
      divider, am I?'" No parallel

      73, "Jesus said, 'The harvest is great but the laborers are few.
      Beseech the lord, therefore, to send out laborers to the harvest.'" It
      reflects thought in John 4:35b,38, "Look, I say to you! Lift up your
      eyes and that the fields are ripe for harvest....I sent you to reap that
      which you have not labored on. Others have labored and you have entered
      into their labor." Here, too, we have the sending out of missionaries
      to convert those already prepared for conversion likened to the sending
      out of laborers to reap the harvest.

      74, Jesus said, 'O lord, there are many around the drinking trough, but
      there is nothing in the cistern.'" No parallel

      75, "Jesus said, 'Many are standing at the door, but it is the monaxoc
      (single) who will enter the bridal chamber.'" No parallel

      76, "Jesus said, 'The kingdom of the father is like a merchant who had a
      consignment of merchandise and who discovered a pearl. That merchant
      was shrewd. He sold the merchandise and bought the pearl alone for
      himself. You too, seek his unfailing and enduring treasure where no
      moth comes near to devour and no worm destroys.'" No parallel

      77, "Jesus said, 'It is I who am the light which is above them all. I
      is I who am the all. From me did the all come forth, and unto me did
      the all extend. Split a piece of wood and I am there. Lift up the
      stone, and you will find me there.'" It reflects thought found in James
      and in John. In particular, as in John and James, Jesus is the Logos.
      The Logos is the true Light--see John 1:9. The Logos is the incorporeal
      all from which the corporeal all came forth--see On the Creation (36),
      where Philo states, "The incorporeal world, then, was now finished and
      firmly settled in the Divine Logos, and the world patent to sense was
      ripe for birth after the pattern of the incorporeal". Also see John
      1:3a, "All things through him (i.e., the Logos) came to be." The Logos
      permeates the corporeal all--see On Flight and Finding (112), where
      Philo states, "For the Logos of Him that IS is, as has been stated, the
      bond of all existence, and holds and knits together all the parts,
      preventing them from being dissolved and separated."

      78:1, "Jesus said, 'Why have you come out into the desert? To see a
      reed shaken by the wind?'" It reflects thought in James: where,
      similarly, we have the idea that an inferior person can be likened to
      something moved about by the wind--see James 1:6b, "For the one doubting
      is like a wave of the sea, being blown and being tossed by the wind."

      78:2-3, "And to see a man clothed in fine garments [like your] kings
      and your great men? Upon them are fine garments, and they are unable to
      discern the truth." No parallel

      79:1-2, "A woman from the crowd said to him, 'Blessed are the womb which
      bore you and the breasts which nourished you.' He said to [her],
      'Blessed are those who have heard the word of the father and have truly
      kept it.'" It reflects thought in James 1:22, "Now be doers of the
      Word and not only hearers, deceiving yourself."

      79:3, "For there will be days when you (pl.) will say, 'Blessed are the
      womb which has not conceived and the breasts which have not given
      milk.'" No parallel

      80, "Jesus said, "He who has recognized the world has found the body,
      but he who has found the body is superior to the world.'" No parallel

      81, "Jesus said, 'Let him who has grown rich be king, and let him who
      possesses power renounce it.'" No parallel

      82, "Jesus said. 'He who is near to me is near the fire, and he who is
      far from me is far from the kingdom.'" It reflects the thought in James
      5:7-9, where Jesus is the Judge. As such, he has the power to save and
      to destroy. At his hand are both the Kingdom, into which the saved
      proceed, and the fire he will be hurling on the wicked, just as he did
      before at Sodom and Gomorrah and the Kingdom

      83, "Jesus said, 'The images are manifest to man, but the light in them
      remains concealed in the image of the light of the father. He will
      become manifest, but his image will remain concealed by his light.'" No
      parallel

      84, "Jesus said, 'When you see your likeness, you rejoice. But when you
      see your images which came into being before you, and which neither die
      nor become manifest, how much you will have to bear!'" No parallel

      85, "Jesus said, 'Adam came into being from a great power and a great
      wealth, but he did not become worthy of you. For had he been worthy,
      [he would] not [have experienced] death.'" No parallel

      86, "Jesus said, '[The foxes have their holes] and the birds have their
      nests, but the son of man has no place to lay his head and rest.'" No
      parallel

      87, "Jesus said, 'Wretched is the body that is dependent upon a body,
      and wretched is the soul that is dependent upon these two.'" No
      parallel

      88, "Jesus said, 'The angels and the prophets will come to you and give
      to you those things you (already) have. And you too, give them those
      things which you have, and say to yourselves, When will they come and
      take what is theirs?'" No parallel

      89, "Jesus said, 'Why do you wash the outside of the cup? Do you not
      realize that he who made the inside is the same one who made the
      outside?'" No parallel

      90, "Jesus said, 'Come unto me, for my yoke is easy and my lordship is
      mild and you will find repose for yourselves.'" No parallel

      91, "They said to him, 'Tell us who you are so that we may believe in
      you.' He said to them, 'You read the face of the sky and of the earth,
      but you have not recognized the one who is before you, and you do not
      know how to read this moment.'" No parallel

      92, "Jesus said, 'Seek and you will find. Yet, what you asked me about
      in former times and which I did not tell you then, now do I desire to
      tell, but you do not inquire after.'" No parallel

      93, "[Jesus said], 'Do not give what is holy to dogs, lest they throw
      them on the dung heap. Do not throw the pearls [to] swine, lest
      they...it [...].'" No parallel

      94, "Jesus said, 'He who seeks will find, and [he who knocks] will be
      let in.'" No parallel

      95, "[Jesus said], 'If you have money, do not lend it at interest, but
      give [it] to one from whom you will not get it back.'" No parallel

      96, "Jesus said, 'The kingdom of the father is like [a certain] woman.
      She took a little leaven, [concealed] it in some dough, and made it into
      large loaves. Let him who has ears hear.'" No parallel

      97, "Jesus said, 'The kingdom of the [father] is like a certain woman
      who was carrying a [jar] full meal. While she was walking [on the]
      road, still some distance from home, the handle on the jar broke and the
      meal emptied out behind her [on] the road. She did not realize it;she
      had noticed no accident. When she reached her house, she set the jar
      down and found it empty.'" No parallel

      98, "Jesus said, 'The kingdom of the father is like a certain man who
      wanted to kill a powerful man. In his own house he drew his sword and
      stuck it into the wall in order to find out whether his hand could carry
      through. Then he slew the powerful man.'" No parallel

      99:1-2, "(1) The disciples said to him, 'Your brothers and your mother
      are standing outside.' (2) He said to them, 'Those here who do the will
      of my father are my brothers and my mother.'" It has a parallel in Mark
      3:32b-33a,35, "They are saying to him, 'Behold, your mother and your
      brothers and your sisters are outside, looking for you. And he
      answered them,...'For whoever does the will of God, this one is my
      brother and sister and mother.'"

      99:3, "It is they who will enter the kingdom of my father." No parallel

      100:1-3, "(1) They showed Jesus a gold coin and said to him, 'Caesar's
      men demand taxes from us.' (2) He said to them, 'Give Caesar what
      belongs to Caesar, (3) give God what belongs to God." It has a parallel
      in Mark 12:14b,17a, "'Is it permissible to give a tax to Caesar or not?
      Should we give or should we not give?' ...And Jesus said to them, 'The
      things of Caesar, give to Caesar, and the things of God, give to God.'"

      100:4, "And give me what is mine." No parallel

      101, "<Jesus said,> 'Whoever does not hate his [father] and his mother
      as I do cannot become a [disciple] to me. And whoever does [not] love
      his [father and] his mother as I do cannot become a [disciple to] me.
      For my mother [...], but (my) true (mother) gave me life.'" No parallel

      102, "Jesus said, 'Woe to the pharisees, for they are like a dog
      sleeping in the manger of oxen, for neither does he eat nor does he
      [let] the oxen eat.'" No parallel

      103, "Jesus said, 'Fortunate is the man who knows where the grigands
      will enter, so that [he] may get up, muster his domain, and arm himself
      before they invade.'" No parallel

      104:1-2, "They said to Jesus, 'Come, let us pray today and let us fast.'
      Jesus said, 'What is the sin that I have committed, or wherein have I
      been defeated?'" No parallel

      104:3 "But when the bridgroom leaves the bridal chamber, then let them
      fast and pray." It reflects thought in James. For example, see 4:4,
      "Adultresses! Do you not know that the friendship of the world is
      emnity with God? Therefore, whoever chooses to be a friend of the world
      is made an enemy of God." The intended readers are wedded to God. But,
      because they have become friends of the world, they have become enemies
      of God. So, for each of them, God, her husband, has, so to speak, left
      the bridal chamber. The way to rectify the situation, so that God will
      again draw near to you, re-entering the bridal chamber so to speak, is
      to supplicate God. So, soon thereafter, in 4:8a,9-10, it is said, "Draw
      near to God and he will draw near to you....Lament and mourn and weep.
      Let your laughter be changed into mourning and the joy into gloom. Be
      humbled before the Lord, and He will exalt you."

      105, "Jesus said, 'He who knows the father and the mother will be called
      the son of a harlot.'" No parallel

      106, "Jesus said, 'When you make the two one, you will become the sons
      of man, and when you say, Mountain, move away, it will move away.'" It
      reflects thought found in John. In John, Jesus is the Logos--see John
      1:1-18. This Logos is the Man who has sons--who, therefore, are sons of
      man. So, in the Confusion of Tongues (41), Philo states, "And therefore
      when I hear those who say ,'We are all sons (huioi) of one man
      (anthrwpou), we are peaceful' (Gen. xlii. 11), I am filled with
      admiration....'Ah! my friends,' I would say, 'how should you not hate
      war and love peace--you who have enrolled yourselves as children of one
      and the same Father, who is not mortal but immortal--God's Man, who
      being the Logos of the Eternal must needs himself be imperishable?'" It
      reflects thought in James. Here, unlike one who has an unwavering
      faith, the doubter is double-minded--see 1:6a,8, "But let him ask in
      faith, not doubting. For the one doubting...is a man, double-minded
      (dipsychos), unstable in all his ways." Also relevant is James 5:16b,
      "The petition of a righteous man, being effective, has great power." It
      has a parallel Mark 11:23, "Truly, I say to you that whoever says to
      this mountain be lifted up and thrown into the sea,...it will be so for
      you." So, it relates that those who cease being double-minded doubters
      become sons of Jesus as the Logos. This makes them righteous, so that
      their petitions will be effective. As a result, whatever they ask will
      be done for them.

      107, "Jesus said, 'The kingdom is like a shepherd who had a hundred
      sheep. One of them, the largest, went astray. He left the ninety-nine
      and looked for that one until he found it. When he had gone to such
      trouble, he said to the sheep, I care for you more than the
      ninety-nine.'" No parallel

      108, "Jesus said, 'He who will drink from my mouth will become like me.
      I myself shall become he, and the things that are hidden will be
      revealed to him.'" It reflects thought found in John. In John, Jesus
      is the Logos--see John 1:1-18, Further, Jesus provides one with a type
      of water to drink, e.g., see 7:37b-39a, "If anyone thirsts, let him come
      to me and drink. The one believing in me, as said the scriptures, 'Out
      of his belly will flow living water.' Now this he spoke about the
      Spirit." Even further, this living water which is the Spirit is the
      means by which one is reborn as soul/spirit, thereby enabling one to see
      the Kingdom--see 3:3,6-7, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless someone is
      born again, he is not able to see the Kingdom of God....The thing having
      been born of the flesh is flesh and the thing having been born of the
      Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that, I said, it is necessary for you
      to be born again. It also reflects thought found in James. In
      particular, as with the mirror analogy in James 1:22-25 (where to
      observe one's soul/spirit is, in effect, to observe the Logos),
      underlying this passage is the idea that the Logos is the Image of God,
      of which a human soul/spirit is a copy. So, in 108, Jesus is the Logos
      and what he gives one to drink is the living water that enables one to
      reborn as soul/spirit. In this rebirth as soul/spirit, since Jesus, as
      the Logos, is the Image of God, of which the soul/spirit is a copy, what
      happens is that: (1) from one's own perspective, one sees oneself
      becoming like Jesus in that oneself becomes a copy of him and (2) from
      the perspective of Jesus, he sees one becoming himself in that one
      becomes a copy of himself. Further, since this rebirth enables one to
      see the Kingdom, this enables one to see the things hidden in the
      Kingdom.

      109, "Jesus said, 'The kingdom is like a man who had a [hidden] treasure
      in his field without knowing it. And [after] he died, he left it to his
      [son]. The son [did] not know (about the treasure). He inherited the
      field and sold [it]. And the one who bought it went plowing and [found]
      the treasure. He began to lend money at interest to whomever he
      wished.'" No parallel

      110, "Jesus said, 'Whoever finds the world and becomes rich, let him
      renounce the world.'" No parallel

      111:1, "Jesus said, 'The heavens and the earth will be rolled up in your
      presence.'" It reflects the thought in Mark 13:31a, "Heaven.and earth
      will pass away.",

      111.2, "And the one who lives from the living one will not see death."
      It has a parallel in John 14:19b, "Because I live, you also will live."

      111:3, "Does not Jesus say, 'Whoever finds himself is superior to the
      world'?" No parallel

      112, "Jesus said, 'Woe to the flesh that depends on the soul; woe to the
      soul that depends on the flesh.'" No parallel

      113, "His disciples said to him, 'When will the kingdom come?' <Jesus
      said,> 'It will not come by waiting for it. It will not be a matter of
      saying here it is or there it is. Rather, the kingdom of the father is
      spread out upon the earth, and men do not see it.'" No parallel

      114, "Simon Peter said to them, 'Let Mary leave us, for women are not
      worthy of life.' Jesus said, I myself shall lead her in order to make
      her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling you
      males. For every woman who will make herself male will enter the
      kingdom of heaven.'" It reflects the position, in John, that one
      enters the Kingdom after being reborn in the spirit alone--see 3:3,6-7,
      "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless someone is born again, he is not
      able to see the Kingdom of God....The thing having been born of the
      flesh is flesh and the thing having been born of the Spirit is spirit.
      Do not marvel that, I said, it is necessary for you to be born again."
      Again, it reflects the position, in original John, that Jesus, as the
      Logos, can help one to be reborn--see John 1:12-13, "But as many as
      received him (i.e., the Logos), he gave them the right to become
      children of God: to the ones believing in his name--the ones born not of
      bloods nor of the will of flesh nor of the will of a husband, but of
      God." It also reflects thought found in James. In particular, as with
      the mirror analogy in James 1:22-25 (where to observe one's soul/spirit
      is, in effect, to observe the Logos), underlying this passage is the
      idea that the Logos is the Image of God, of which a human soul/spirit is
      a copy--which means that, as the Logos is masculine in some meaningful
      sense, so is the reborn soul/spirit. In 114, then, the basic idea is
      that anyone who is a woman in a bodily sense can, just like a male in a
      bodily sense, become a male in a spiritual sense by being reborn, with
      the help of Jesus as the Logos, in the soul/spirit alone and can, then,
      enter into the Kingdom.



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