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Re: [GTh] Hellenist Material in Thomas

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  • Frank McCoy
    A. Introduction In post #7529, it is argued that the earliest Jesus Assembly in Jerusalem was divided into two main groups: 1. the Hebrews: They were behind
    Message 1 of 31 , Jul 26, 2007
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      A. Introduction

      In post #7529, it is argued that the earliest Jesus Assembly in
      Jerusalem was divided into two main groups:
      1. the Hebrews: They were behind the earliest Jesus Assembly in
      Jerusalem having a community of goods and community meals. They wanted
      to exclude women from full membership. They were strongly influenced by
      the Essenes. Their leader was Simon Peter, who had been the chief
      disciple of Jesus.
      2. The Hellenists: They were behind the earliest Jesus Assembly being a
      community of suppliants and admitting women, even single women, as full
      members. They were strongly influenced by the Therapeutae. Their
      leader was James, the brother of Jesus, who had also been the head of
      the Jesus Assembly. See:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gthomas/message/7529

      In post #7749, it is argued that the Hebrews gave rise to a tradition
      that underlies Mark and the two late additions to John, i.e., 6:1-14 and
      Chapter 21, while the Hellenists gave rise to a tradition that underlies
      Thomas and the original John (i.e., John before the additions of
      6:1-7:14 and chapter 21). See:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gthomas/message/7749

      In post #7755, it is argued that the Thomas community was founded by the
      Hellenist called Philip the Evangelist and was centered within a
      triangle that has the three cities of Samaria and Azotus and Caesarea
      Maratima at its three angles. See:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gthomas/message/7755

      In post #7785, it is argued that the Epistle of James is a genuine work
      of the chief Hellenist, James, the brother of Jesus, and, so is a
      Hellenist work. See:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gthomas/message/7785

      If, as has been argued, the Hellenists founded the Thomas community,
      then there should be evidence of this in Thomas. In particular, there
      should be a substantial amount of Hellenist material in it.

      But, is this the case?

      In this post, an attempt will be made to determine the amount of
      Hellenist material in Thomas. These are the criteria used to determine
      the material that is Hellenist:
      1. Material which is pro-Hellenist or anti-Hebrew (such as: (1)
      elevating James or (2) denigrading Peter or (3) advocating the
      empowerment of women or (4) advocating that one be a suppliant to God)
      2. Material which reflects Therapeutic thought--for the Hellenists had
      been strongly influenced by the Therapeutae,
      3. Material which reflects the thought in James--for James is a
      Hellenist work
      4. Material which reflects thought found in original John, but absent
      from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John--for the Hebrews gave
      rise to a tradition that underlies Mark and the two late additions to
      John, i.e., 6:1-14 and Chapter 21, while the Hellenists gave rise to a
      tradition that underlies Thomas and the original John (i.e., John before
      the additions of 6:1-7:14 and chapter 21). As a result, what is shared
      by original John and Thomas, but is absent from Mark and John 6:1-7:14
      and chapter 21 of John, should be relatively pure Hellenist material.
      5. Material which has a parallel in Mark or John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21
      of John--for, in a Venn diagram, there would be a broad overlap between
      the circle of the Hebrew tradition and the circle of the Hellenist
      tradition (for they all members of the early Jerusalem Assembly), so
      there should also be a broad overlap beween the tradition founded by the
      Hellenists that led to Thomas and the tradition founded by the Hebrews
      that led to Mark and John 6:1-7-14 and chapter 21 of John.

      What is found is that about 37 sayings appears to be Hellenist and
      another 16 sayings appear to be partially Hellenist. This is a
      substantial amount--roughly 45% of the sayings in Thomas. Further, in
      the sayings that appear to be partially Hellenist, there is radical
      difference between (1) the units in them that appear to be pre-Hellenist
      and (2) the units in them that appear to be post-Hellenist. The ones
      that are pre-Hellenist are Essenic in nature, suggesting that they arose
      among the Hebrews (who had been stongly influenced by the Essenes) and
      then adopted by the Hellenists. The ones that are post-Hellenist are
      neither Essenic nor Hellenist in nature. As a result, it will be
      concluded, it appears likely that the Thomas community was indeed
      founded by one or more Hellenists. Then, after the Hellenists left or
      died, the belief system of the Thomas community gradually evolved away
      from its Hellenist roots.

      B. The Search for Hellenist Material

      1. Material that is pro-Hellenist or anti-Hebrew
      12, "The disciples said to Jesus, 'We know that you will depart from us.
      Who is to be our leader?' Jesus said to them, 'Wherever you are, you
      are to go to James the righteous, for whose sake heaven and earth came
      into being." Reflects the Hellenist position that James was the
      legitimate successor to Jesus.

      2. Material that reflects Therapeutic thought
      76, "Jesus said, 'The kingdom of the father is like a merchant who had
      a consignment of merchandise and who discovered a pearl. That merchant
      was shrewd. He sold the merchandise and bought the pearl alone for
      himself. You too, seek his unfailing and enduring treasure where no
      moth comes near to devour and no worm destroys.'" The idea, here, of
      surrendering all of one's material wealth in order to obtain a more
      superior type of wealth one has found reflects Therapeutic thought. So,
      in the Contemplative Life (13), Philo states, "They abandon their
      property to their sons or daughters or to other kinsfolk, thus
      voluntarily advancing the time of their inheritance, while those with no
      kinsfolk give them to comrades and friends. For it was right that those
      who have received ready to their hand the wealth that has eyes to see
      should surrender the blind wealth to those who are still blind in mind."

      3. Material that reflects the thought in James
      10. "Jesus said, 'I have come to cast fire upon the world, and see, I am
      guarding it until it blazes.'" It relates to James 5:9b, "Behold, the
      Judge before the doors has stood." So, Jesus speaks as the Judge who
      will be coming soon to cast fire on the wicked.
      26, "Jesus said, 'You (sg.) see the mote in your brother's eye, but you
      do not see the beam in your own eye. When you cast the beam out of your
      own eye, then you will see clearly to cast the mote from your brother's
      eye.'" The same basic idea also expressed in James 4:12b, "But who are
      you, being the one to judging your neighbor?"
      54, "Jesus said, 'Blessed are the poor, for yours is the Kingdom of
      Heaven.'" Compare James 2:5b, "Did not God choose the poor of the
      world to be rich in faith and heirs of the Kingdom?"
      63, "Jesus said, 'There was a rich man who had much money. He said, I
      shall put my money to use so that I may sow, reap, plant, and fill my
      storehouse with produce, with the result that I shall lack nothing.
      Such were his intentions, but that same night he died. Let him who has
      ears hear.'" This idea that the rich die in their pursuit of yet more
      riches is reflected in James 1:11-12, "For the sun rose with the burning
      heat, dried the grass, and its flower fell and the beauty of its
      appearance perished. Thus also the rich man will fade away in his
      goings."

      4. Material that reflects thought found in original John, but absent
      from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John.
      59, "Jesus said, 'Take heed of the living one while you are alive, lest
      you die and seek to see him and be unable to do so.'" Compare John
      8:21, "Therefore, he said again to them, 'I go away and you will seek
      me, and in your sin you will die, where I go away, you cannot come.'"
      73, "Jesus said, 'The harvest is great but the laborers are few.
      Beseech the lord, therefore, to send out laborers to the harvest.'"
      Compare John 4:35b,38, "Look, I say to you! Lift up your eyes and that
      the fields are ripe for harvest....I sent you to reap that which you
      have not labored on. Others have labored and you have entered into
      their labor." Here, too, we have the sending out of missionaries to
      convert those already prepared for conversion likened to the sending out
      of laborers to reap the harvest.
      77, "Jesus said, 'It is I who am the light which is above them all. I
      is I who am the all. From me did the all come forth, and unto me did
      the all extend. Split a piece of wood and I am there. Lift up the
      stone, and you will find me there.'" As in John 1:1-18, Jesus is the
      Logos. The Logos is the true Light--see John 1:9. The Logos is the
      incorporeal all from which the corporeal all came forth--see On the
      Creation (36), where Philo states, "The incorporeal world, then, was now
      finished and firmly settled in the Divine Logos, and the world patent to
      sense was ripe for birth after the pattern of the incorporeal". Also
      see John 1:3a, "All things through him (i.e., the Logos) came to be."
      The Logos permeates the corporeal all--see On Flight and Finding (112),
      where Philo states, "For the Logos of Him that IS is, as has been
      stated, the bond of all existence, and holds and knits together all the
      parts, preventing them from being dissolved and separated."

      5. Material that circulated freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles
      and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John.
      9, "Jesus said, 'Now the sower went out, took a handful (of seeds), and
      scattered them. Some fell on the road, did not take root in the soil,
      and did not produce ears. And others fell on thorns; they choked the
      seed(s) and worms ate them. And others fell on the good soil and it
      produced good fruit: it bore sixty per measure and a hundred and twenty
      per measure.'" See Mark 4:3-9 for a Markan version of this parable of
      the sower.
      20, "The disciples said to Jesus, 'Tell us what the kingdom of heaven is
      like.' He said to them, 'It is like a mustard seed. It is the smallest
      of all seeds. But when it falls on tilled soil, it produces a great
      plant and becomes a shelter for birds of the sky.'" Compare Mark
      4:30-32, "And he was saying, 'To what should we compare the Kingdom of
      God? Or, by what parable may we present it? (It is) as a mustard seed,
      which, when it is sown on the earth, being smaller than all of the seeds
      on the earth. And when it is sown, it grows up and becomes greater than
      all of the vegetables and makes large branches, so as to make it
      possible for the birds of heaven to nest under the shade of it.'"
      35. "Jesus said, 'It is not possible for anyone to enter the house of a
      strong man and take by force unless he binds his hands; then he will (be
      able to) ransack his house.'" Compare Mark 3:27, "But no one is able,
      having entered into the house of the strong man, to plunder it unless,
      first, he binds the strongman and then his house he will plunder."
      41, "Jesus said, 'Whoever has something in his hand will receive more,
      and whoever has nothing will be deprived of even the little he has.'"
      Compare Mark 4:25, "For whoever has, it will be given to him and whoever
      does not have, even what he has will be taken away from him."
      44 "Jesus said, 'Whoever blasphemes against the father will be forgiven
      and whoever blasphemes against the son will be forgiven, but whoever
      blasphemes against the holy spirit will not be forgiven either on earth
      or in heaven.'" Compare Mark 3:28-29, "Truly, truly, I say to you,
      that will be forgiven the sons of men...their blasphemes, whatever they
      may blaspheme, but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit does not
      have forgiveness into the age, but is guilty of an eternal sin.'
      55, "(1) Jesus said, 'Whoever does not hate his father and his mother
      cannot become a disciple to me. (2) And whoever does not hate his
      brothers and sisters and take up his cross in my way will not be worthy
      of me.'" Compare Mark 10:28-29a ("Peter (Jesus' chief disciple) began
      to say, 'Behold, we have left everything and have followed you.' Jesus
      said, 'Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or
      brothers or sisters or mother or father...") and Mark 8:34b ("If someone
      desires to follow after me, let him deny himself and take up the cross
      and let him follow me.").
      65, "He said, 'There was a good man who owned a vineyard. He leased it
      to tenant farmers so that they might work it and he might collect the
      produce from them. He sent his servant so that the tenants might give
      him the produce of the vineyard. They siezed his servant and beat him,
      all but killing him. The servant went back and told his master. The
      master said, Perhaps he did not recognize them. He sent another
      servant. The tenants beat this one as well. Then the owner sent his
      son and said, Perhaps they will show respect to my son. Because the
      tenants knew that it was he who was the heir to the vineyard, they
      seized him and killed him. Let him who has ears hear.'" See Mark
      12:1-9 for a Markan version of this parable of the vineyard.
      66, "Jesus said, 'Show me the stone which the builders have rejected.
      That one is the cornerstone.'" Compare Mark 12:10, "Have you not read
      the scripture, 'A stone which the ones building rejected, this one has
      come to be the cornerstone.'?"
      71, "Jesus said, 'I shall [destroy this] house, and no one will be able
      to build it [...]'" Compare Mark 14:58b, "We heard him saying, 'I will
      destroy this temple made with human hands, and...I will build another
      not made with hands.'"
      7 Material That Reflects More than One of the Above
      24:1-3, "(1) *His disciples said, 'Teach us about the place where you
      are, because we must seek it.'* (2) He said to them, 'Whoever has ears
      should listen! There is light within a person of light. And it lights
      up the whole world. If it does not shine, it is dark.'"
      A. It reflects thought found in original John, but absent from Mark,
      John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John. In original John, Jesus is the
      Logos and, as such, he is the Light--see John 1:9, "(The Logos), the
      true light that enlightens everyone, was coming into the world." As
      this true Light, he is the light of the world--see John 8:12, "I am the
      light of the world. The one following me will never walk in the
      darkness but will have the light of life."
      B It reflects the thought in James--where Jesus is the Logos and, as
      such, he indwells in a just/righteous soul--see James 1:21, "Therefore,
      put away all filthiness and what remains of wickedness, in meekness
      receive the implanted Logos, being able to save your souls."
      So, in 24:1-3, the basic idea is that the place where Jesus, the Logos
      who is the light of the world, is to be found is within a just/righteous
      soul. Futher, a person having a just righteous soul is a person of
      light precisely because Jesus, the Logos who the light of the world,
      resides in this person's soul.
      25, "Jesus said, 'Love your (sg.) brother like your soul, guard him like
      the pupil of your eye.
      A. It reflects the thought in James--see 2:8, "If you do the Royal Law
      according to scripture, 'You shall love your neighbor as you love
      yourself', you do well."
      B. It circulated freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so,
      has a parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark
      12:31, "The second (great commandment) is this, 'You shall love your
      neighbor as yourself.'"
      48, "Jesus said, 'If two make peace with each other in this one house,
      they will say to the mountain, Move away, and it will move.'"
      A. It reflects the thought in James, e.g., see James 3:18 ('And the
      fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by the ones making peace.") and
      James 5:16b ("The petition of a righteous man, being effective, has
      great power.").
      B. It circulated freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so,
      has a parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark
      11:23, "Truly, I say to you that whoever says to this mountain be lifted
      up and thrown into the sea,...it will be so for you."
      So, if two make peace with each other, they become righteous. Since the
      petition of a righteous person is effective and has great power,
      whatever they ask be done will be done.
      52, "His disciples said to him, 'Twenty-four prophets spoke in Israel,
      and all of them spoke in you.' He said to them, "You have omitted the
      one in your presence and have spoken (only) of the dead."
      A. It reflects thought found in original John, but absent from Mark,
      John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John--see John 8:53b, "And the prophets
      died! Whom do you make yourself?"
      B. It reflects thought in James--see 5:10, which speaks of "the prophets
      who spoke in the name of the Lord
      64, "Jesus said, 'A man had received visitors. And when he had prepared
      the dinner, he sent his servant to invite the guests. He went to the
      first one and said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I have
      claims against some merchants. They are coming to me this evening. I
      must go and give them my orders. I ask to be excused from the dinner.'
      He went to another and said to him, 'My master has invited you.' He
      said to him, 'I have just bought a house and am required for the day. I
      shall not have any spare time.' He went to another and said to him, 'My
      master invites you.' He said to him, 'My friend is going to get
      married, and I am to prepare the banquet. I ask to be excused from the
      dinner.' He went to another and said to him, 'My master invites you.'
      He said to him, 'I have just bought a farm, and I am on my way to
      collect the rent. I shall not be able to come. I ask to be excused.'
      The servant returned and said to his master, 'Those whom you invited to
      the dinner have asked to be excused.' The master said to his servant,
      'Go outside to the streets and bring back those whom you happen to meet,
      so that they may dine.' Businessmen and merchants [will] not enter the
      places of my father.'"
      A. It reflects Therapeutic thought. So, in the Contemplative Life (66),
      Philo relates that they raise their hands "in token that they are clean
      from gain-taking and not defiled though any cause of the profit-making
      kind."
      B. It reflects thought found in original John, but absent from Mark,
      John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John--see John 14:2, "In the house of my
      Father are many rooms. And if it were not so, would I have told you
      that I go to prepare a place for you?" Here, we have the idea, found
      at the close of this saying, that the Father of Jesus has many
      rooms/places which the saved can enter.
      C. It reflects thought in James--see James 4:13-16, "Come now, the ones
      saying, 'Today or tomorrow we will go into this or that city and we will
      do (business) there for a year and will merchandize and will make a
      profit.' You do not know what tomorrow or your life (will be). For you
      are a mist, for a little while appearing, then, indeed,
      disappearing....But now you boast in your pretensions. All such
      boasting is evil. Therefore, to the one knowing to do good, but not
      doing it, to him it is sin."
      75, "Jesus said, 'Many are standing at the door, but it is the monaxoc
      (single) who will enter the bridal chamber.'"
      A. It reflects Therapeutic thought. In particular, it reflects the
      Therapeutic belief that the spiritually advanced are celibate and have
      either never married or else are no longer are with their spouses (i.e.,
      have either abandoned their spouses or have become widow(er)s). This
      Therapeutic belief appears to have been advocated by at least one
      Hellenist, i.e., Philip the Evangelist: who, according to Luke, had
      five virgin daughters who prophecied.
      B. It reflects thought in James. To "are standing at the door", compare
      James 5:9b, "before the doors has stood". Also see James 4:4,
      "Adultresses! Do you not know that the friendship of the world is
      emnity to God." Here, we have the idea that the intended readers have
      been wedded to God.
      78, "Jesus said, why have you come out into the desert? To see a reed
      shaken by the wind? And to see a man clothed in fine garments [like
      your] kings and your great men? Upon them are fine garments, and they
      are unable to discern the truth."
      A. It reflects thought in James: where, similarly, we have the idea that
      an inferior person can be likened to something moved about by the
      wind--see James 1:6b, "For the one doubting is like a wave of the sea,
      being blown and being tossed by the wind."
      B. It reflects Therapeutic thought. In particular, the statement that
      those in fine garments are unable to discern the Truth reflects the
      Therapeutic belief that only those with simple clothing can know the
      Truth--see the Contemplative Life (38-39), where Philo states, "Their
      clothing likewise is the most inexpensive, enough to protect them
      against extreme cold and heat, a thick coat of shaggy skin in winter and
      in summer a vest or linen shirt. For they practice an all-round
      simplicity knowing that its opposite, vanity, is the source of Falsehood
      as simplicity is of Truth."
      95, "[Jesus said], 'If you have money, do not lend it at interest, but
      give [it] to one from whom you will not get it back.'"
      A. It reflects Therapeutic thought. In the Contemplative Life (66),
      Philo states that they raise their hands "in token that they are clean
      from gain-taking and not defiled through any cause of the profit-making
      kind."
      B. It reflects thought in James--see James 2:15-16, "If a brother or
      sister is living unclothed and lacking daily food and says any one of
      you to them, 'Go in peace, be warmed and fed', you do not give to them
      the needful things for the body. What is the good of that?"
      104:3, "But when the bridgroom leaves the bridal chamber, then let them
      fast and pray."
      A. It is pro-Hellenist or anti-Hebrew. In particular, it is
      pro-Hellenist because it advocates being a suppliant of God
      B. It reflects thought in James. For example, see 4:4, "Adultresses!
      Do you not know that the friendship of the world is emnity with God?
      Therefore, whoever chooses to be a friend of the world is made an enemy
      of God." The intended readers are wedded to God. But, because they
      have become friends of the world, they have become enemies of God--so,
      for each of them, God, her husband, has, so to speak, left the bridal
      chamber. The way to rectify the situation, so that God will again draw
      near to you, re-entering the bridal chamber so to speak, is to
      supplicate God. So, soon thereafter, in 4:8a,9-10, it is said, "Draw
      near to God and he will draw near to you....Lament and mourn and weep.
      Let your laughter be changed into mourning and the joy into gloom. Be
      humbled before the Lord, and He will exalt you."
      106, "Jesus said, 'When you make the two one, you will become the sons
      of man, and when you say, Mountain, move away, it will move away.'"
      A. It reflects thought found in original John, but absent from Mark,
      John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John. In original John, Jesus is the
      Logos--see John 1:1-18. This Logos is the Man who has sons. So, in the
      Confusion of Tongues (41), Philo states, "And therefore when I hear
      those who say ,'We are all sons (huioi) of one man (anthrwpou), we are
      peaceful' (Gen. xlii. 11), I am filled with admiration....'Ah! my
      friends,' I would say, 'how should you not hate war and love peace--you
      who have enrolled yourselves as children of one and the same Father, who
      is not mortal but immortal--God's Man, who being the Logos of the
      Eternal must needs himself be imperishable?'"
      B. It reflects thought in James. Here, unlike one who has an
      unwavering faith, the doubter is double-minded--see 1:6a,8, "But let him
      ask in faith, not doubting. For the one doubting...is a man,
      double-minded (dipsychos), unstable in all his ways." Also relevant is
      James 5:16b, "The petition of a righteous man, being effective, has
      great power."
      C. It circulated freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so,
      has a parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark
      11:23, "Truly, I say to you that whoever says to this mountain be lifted
      up and thrown into the sea,...it will be so for you."
      So, it relates that those who cease being double-minded doubters become
      sons of Jesus as the Logos. This makes them righteous, so that their
      petitions will be effective. As a result, whatever they ask will be
      done for them.
      108, "Jesus said, 'He who will drink from my mouth will become like me.
      I myself shall become he, and the things that are hidden will be
      revealed to him.'"
      A. It reflects thought found in original John, but absent from Mark,
      John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John. In original John, Jesus is the
      Logos--see John 1:1-18, Further, Jesus provides one with a type of
      water to drink, e.g., see 7:37b-39a, "If anyone thirsts, let him come to
      me and drink. The one believing in me, as said the scriptures, 'Out of
      his belly will flow living water.' Now this he spoke about the Spirit."
      Even further, this living water which is the Spirit is the means by
      which one is reborn as soul/spirit, thereby enabling one to see the
      Kingdom--see 3:3,6-7, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless someone is
      born again, he is not able to see the Kingdom of God....The thing having
      been born of the flesh is flesh and the thing having been born of the
      Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that, I said, it is necessary for you
      to be born again."
      B. It reflects thought found in James. In particular, as with the
      mirror analogy in James 1:22-25 (where to observe one's soul/spirit is,
      in effect, to observe the Logos), underlying this passage is the idea
      that the Logos is the Image of God, of which a human soul/spirit is a
      copy
      So, in 108, Jesus is the Logos and what he gives you to drink is the
      living water that enables you to reborn as soul/spirit. In this rebirth
      as soul/spirit, since Jesus, as the Logos, is the Image of God, of which
      your soul/spirit is a copy, what happens is that: (1) from your own
      perspective, you see yourself becoming like Jesus in that you becomes a
      copy of him and (2) from the perspective of Jesus, he sees you becoming
      himself in that you become a copy of him. Further, since this rebirth
      enables you to see the Kingdom, this enables you to see the things
      hidden in the Kingdom.
      114, "Simon Peter said to them, 'Let Mary leave us, for women are not
      worthy of life.' Jesus said, I myself shall lead her in order to make
      her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling you
      males. For every woman who will make herself male will enter the
      kingdom of heaven.'":
      A. It is pro-Hellenist or anti-Hebrew In particular, it portrays Peter,
      the chief Hebrew, as being strongly rebuked by Jesus for espousing the
      Hebrew position that women should not be empowered.
      B. It reflects thought found in original John, but absent from Mark,
      John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John. It reflects the position, in
      original John, that one enters the Kingdom after being reborn in the
      spirit alone--see 3:3,6-7, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless someone
      is born again, he is not able to see the Kingdom of God....The thing
      having been born of the flesh is flesh and the thing having been born of
      the Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that, I said, it is necessary for
      you to be born again." Again, it reflects the position, in original
      John, that Jesus, as the Logos, can help one to be reborn--see John
      1:12-13, "But as many as received him (i.e., the Logos), he gave them
      the right to become children of God: to the ones believing in his
      name--the ones born not of bloods nor of the will of flesh nor of the
      will of a husband, but of God."
      C. It reflects thought found in James. In particular, as with the
      mirror analogy in James 1:22-25 (where to observe one's soul/spirit is,
      in effect, to observe the Logos), underlying this passage is the idea
      that the Logos is the Image of God, of which a human soul/spirit is a
      copy--which means that, as the Logos is masculine in some meaningful
      sense, so is the reborn soul/spirit.
      The basic idea, then, is that anyone who is a woman in a bodily sense
      can, just like a male in a bodily sense, become a male in a spiritual
      sense by being reborn, with the help of Jesus as the Logos, in the
      soul/spirit alone and can, then, enter into the Kingdom.

      8 Material That is Hellenist and has Accretal Development
      a. Thomas 4
      The original unit is 4:1, "Jesus said, 'The man old in days will not
      hesitate to ask a small child seven days old about the place of life,
      and he will live.'" This is a Hellenist unit because it reflects
      thought found in original John, but absent from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and
      Chapter 21 of John--see John 3:3,6, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless
      someone is born anew, he is not able to see the Kingdom of God....The
      thing having been born of the flesh is flesh and the thing having been
      born of the Spirit is spirit." The basic idea, then, is that a man who
      is old in fleshly terms can ask one who has just been reborn a week ago
      as spirit about the Kingdom and the information he will learn will
      enable him to be reborn himself.
      The first accretal unit is 4:2, "For many who are first will become
      last." This is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both
      Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John
      6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 10:31a, "And many first will be
      last."
      Whatever this unit meant while orally circulating in both Hellenist and
      Hebrew circles, as accreted to 4:1, its meaning is that many who are
      born first in a fleshly sense (and, so, are old in a fleshly sense) will
      become last to be reborn in a spiritual sense
      The second accretal unit is 4:3, "And they will become oya oywt (single
      people)" This is a Hellenist unit because it reflects the Therapeutic
      belief that the spiritually advanced are celibate and have either never
      married or else are no longer are with their spouses (i.e., have either
      abandoned their spouses or have become widow(er)s). This unit might
      have been created by Philip the Evangelist: who, according to Luke, had
      five virgin daughters who prophecied.
      b.Thomas 6
      The original unit is 6:1-4, "(1) "His disciples questioned him and said
      to him, 'Do you want us to fast? How shall we pray? Shall we give
      alms? What diet shall we observe?'" (2) Jesus said, 'Do not tell lies,
      (3) and do not do what you hate, (4) for all things are plain in the
      sight of heaven.'" This is Hellenist because it reflects the thought in
      James--particularly 3:3-13, which deals with sins of the tongue, and
      2:8, where the Logos as the Law is said to be summed up in loving one's
      neighbor as oneself. (for "Do not do what you hate" is a negative
      version of the same idea) and 2:12, where, we learn, we will be judged
      by how well we observe the Law of Freedom (i.e., the Logos as the Law)
      rather than by how well we observe the Law of Moses.
      To it has been accreted 6:5-6, (5) "For nothing hidden will not become
      manifest, (6) and nothing covered will remain without being uncovered."
      This is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both Hellenist and
      Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter
      21 of John--see Mark 4:22, "For there is not anything hidden except that
      it may be revealed, nor has it become hidden but that it might come into
      the open."
      Whatever this unit meant while orally circulating in both Hellenist and
      Hebrew circles, its meaning, as accreted onto 6:1-4, is that, when comes
      the time for you to be judged, everthing you have thought and done will
      be known to the Judge. Probably, in light of James 5:7-9 and Thomas 10,
      we are to think of Jesus as being the Judge.
      c. Thomas 16
      The original unit is 16:1-3, "Jesus said, 'Men think, perhaps, that it
      is peace which I have come to cast upon the world. They do not know
      that it is dissension which I have come to cast upon the earth: fire,
      sword, and war. For there will be five in a house: three against two,
      and two against three, the father against the son, and the son against
      the father.'" This is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both
      Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John
      6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 13:7a,12, "But when you hear of
      wars and reports of wars, do not be troubled--it is necessary for these
      things to occur....And brother will hand over brother to death and the
      father his child and children will rise against parents and have them
      put to death."
      To it has been accreted 16:4, "And they will stand monaxoc (celibate)."
      This is a Hellenist unit because it reflects the Therapeutic belief that
      the spiritually advanced are celibate and have either never married or
      else are no longer are with their spouses (i.e., have either abandoned
      their spouses or have become widow(er)s). This unit might have been
      added by Philip the Evangelist: who, according to Luke, had five virgin
      daughters who prophecied.
      d. Thomas 23
      The original unit is 23:1, "Jesus said, 'I shall choose you, one out of
      a thousand, and two out of ten thousand.'" This is Hellenist becaus it
      circulated freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a
      parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John. See, for
      example, John 6:70, "Jesus answered them, 'Did I not choose you, the
      Twelve?'" So, the basic idea is to stress that Jesus' inner circle of
      disciples were elite in the sense that he chose them out a much larger
      group of people.
      The accretion to it is 23:2, "They shall stand as oya oywt (single
      people).'" This is a Hellenist unit because it reflects the Therapeutic
      belief that the spiritually advanced are celibate and have either never
      married or else are no longer are with their spouses (i.e., have either
      abandoned their spouses or have become widow(er)s). This unit might
      have been added by Philip the Evangelist: who, according to Luke, had
      five virgin daughters who prophecied.
      The accretion radically changes the meaning of 23:1. With 23:2 added to
      it, it relates how Jesus chooses the few who are celibate and without a
      spouse to have a special and unique relationship with him.
      e. Thomas 79
      The original unit is 79:1-2, "A woman from the crowd said to him,
      'Blessed are the womb which bore you and the breasts which nourished
      you.' He said to [her], 'Blessed are those who have heard the word of
      the father and have truly kept it.'" This is Hellenist because it
      reflects thought in James--such as James 1:22, "Now be doers of the Word
      and not only hearers, deceiving yourself." Also, God is called the
      Father in James 1:17 and 1:27.
      The accretion to it is 79:3, "For there will be days when you (pl.) will
      say, 'Blessed are the womb which has not conceived and the breasts which
      have not given milk.'" This is a Hellenist unit because it reflects the
      Therapeutic belief that the spiritually advanced are celibate and have
      either never married or else are no longer are with their spouses (i.e.,
      have either abandoned their spouses or have become widow(er)s). This
      unit might have been created by Philip the Evangelist: who, according to
      Luke, had five virgin daughters who prophecied.
      f. Thomas 100
      The original unit is 100:1-3, "(1) They showed Jesus a gold coin and
      said to him, 'Caesar's men demand taxes from us.' (2) He said to them,
      'Give Caesar what belongs to Caesar, (3) give God what belongs to God.'"
      This is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both Hellenist and
      Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter
      21 of John--see Mark 12:14b,17a, "'Is it permissible to give a tax to
      Caesar or not? Should we give or should we not give?' ...And Jesus said
      to them, 'The things of Caesar, give to Caesar, and the things of God,
      give to God.'"
      The accretion to it is 100:4, "And give me what is mine." This is
      Hellenist because it reflects thought found in original John, but absent
      from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John. In particular, it
      reflects the idea, in original John, that, like Caesar and God, Jesus
      has a Kingdom--see John 18:35, "Answered Jesus, 'My Kingdom is not of
      this world. If my Kingdom was of this world, my servants would have
      fought, that I should not be delivered to the Jews. But, now, my
      Kingdom is not from here.'"
      In essence, what the Hellenists did was to expand a saying orally
      circulating in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles.

      9. Material That has Accretal Development and is Partially Hellenist
      a. Thomas 5
      The original unit is 5:1, "(1) Jesus said, 'Recognize what is in your
      (sg.) sight, and that which is hidden from you (sg.) will become plain
      to you (sg.). It is non-Hellenist.
      To it has been accreted 5:2, "For there is nothing hidden which will not
      become manifest.'" This is a Hellenist unit because it circulated
      freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in
      Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 4:22a, "For there is
      not anything hidden except that it may be revealed."
      Therefore, it appears, 5:1 is a pre-Hellenist unit, to which the
      Hellenists added 5:2.
      b Thomas 11
      The original unit is 11:1 "Jesus said, 'This heaven will pass away, and
      the one above it will pass away.'" This unit is not Hellenist. It
      appears to refer to a time when the Cosmos will be passing away.
      The first accretion is 11:2, "The dead are not alive, and the living
      will not die." It is Hellenist because it reflects thought found in
      original John, but absent from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of
      John. In particular, the same basic idea that there are two categories
      of people: (1) the dead and (2) the living who will not die is also
      found in John 5:24b--which speaks of one who "has eternal life and does
      not come under judgment, but has passed from death to life."
      As accreted to 11:1, the meaning of this unit is that, even though the
      Cosmos will be passing away, the saved will not perish with it, but
      eternally live.
      Since 11:2 is an accretion to 11:1, and since 11:2 is a Hellenist
      accretion, 11:1 is not Hellenist in the sense of being pre-Hellenist.
      The second accretion is 11:3-4 "(3) In the days when you consumed what
      is dead, you make it what is alive. When you come to dwell in the
      light, what will you do? (4) One the day when you were one you became
      two. But when you become two, what will you do?" This is not a
      Hellenist unit. To be more specific, since it is accreted to a
      Hellenist unit, it is a post-Hellenist unit.
      Here, the thoughts turn to what it will be like after the Cosmos passes
      away. It is envisoned that the saved will eternally live in a place of
      light.
      c. Thomas 13
      The original unit is 13:1-5, "(1) Jesus said to his disciples, 'Compare
      me to someone and tell me whom I am like.' (2) Simon Peter said to him,
      'You are like a righteous angel.' (3) Matthew said to him, 'You are like
      a wise philosopher.' (4) Thomas said to him, 'Master, my mouth is
      wholly incapable of saying whom you are like.' (5) Jesus said, I am not
      your (sg.) master. Because you (sg.) have drunk, you (sg.) have become
      intoxicated from the bubbling spring which I have measured out.'" This
      is a Hellenist unit for two reasons. First, it reflects thought found
      in original John, but absent from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of
      John. In original John, Jesus is the Logos--see 1:1-17. As the Logos,
      Jesus is unnamable and, so is inconceivable and incomprehensible. See
      On the Change of Names (15), where Philo states, "Think it not then a
      hard saying that the Highest of all things should be unnamable when His
      Logos has no name of its own which we can speak. And indeed if he is
      unnamble he is also inconceivable and incomprehensible." Also, in
      original John, as in this passage, it is Thomas who utters the most
      lofty statement concerning Jesus--see John 20:28, where Thomas says to
      Jesus, "My Lord and my God!". Again, it is in original John that we
      have the concept, also found here, of Jesus providing a type of water
      that is yet an intoxicating wine--see John 2:9, "When the steward of the
      feast tasted the water now become wine,..." Finally, as respects
      Jesus' statement, "I am not your master", we perhaps have a rather
      similar statement in original John--see 15:15, "No longer do I call you
      servants because the servant does not know what his lord does. But I
      have called you friends because all things which I heard from my Father
      I made known to you." Second, it is pro-Hellenist or anti-Hebrew.. In
      the case of this passage, the portrayal of Peter as uttering an
      inadequate Christology can be viewed as being a criticism of Hebrew
      Christology--for Peter had been the head of the Hebrews, their
      spokesperson.
      To it has been accreted 13:6-8, "And he took him and withdrew and told
      him three things. When Thomas returned to his companions, they asked
      him, 'What did Jesus say to you?' Thomas said to them, 'If I tell you
      one of these things which he told me, you will pick up stones and throw
      them at me; a fire will come out of the stones and burn you up.'" This
      is not Hellenist. In particular, since it has been added to Hellenist
      unit, it is a post-Hellenist unit.
      d. Thomas 14
      The original unit is 14:4, "When you go into any land and walk about in
      the districts, if they receive you, eat what they will set before you,
      and heal the sick among them." It is Hellenist because it reflects the
      thought in James--where it is the Law of Freedom, i.e., the Logos as a
      Law, rather than the Law of Moses, that is salvific (see 2:12, "So speak
      and do as though by the Law of Freedom about to be judged), and where
      the healing of the sick is stressed (see 5:14, "If anyone is sick among
      you, let him call the elders of the Assembly and let them pray over him,
      having annointed him with oil in the name of the Lord.").
      The first accretion is 14:5, "For what goes into you mouth will not
      defile you, but that which issues from your mouth--it is that which will
      defile you." This is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both
      Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John
      6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 7:15, "There is nothing outside
      of the man entering into him which is able to defile him, but the things
      coming out from the man are the things defiling the man."
      It was taken out of the oral traditions circulating in both Hellenist
      and Hebrew circles and added to 14:4 to fore-stall objections to the
      injunction to eat whatever is set before you.
      The second accretion is 14:1-3, "Jesus said to them, 'If you fast, you
      will give rise to sin for yourselves; and if you pray, you will be
      condemned; and if you give alms, you will do harm to your spirits.'"
      Despite its position at the beginning of the saying, it reflects a
      post-Hellenist milieu. The Hellenists did not believe the Law of Moses
      to be salvific, but there is no indication that they deemed its
      observance to be sinful.
      Since 13:6-8, the close to the previous saying, is also post-Hellenist,
      I think that 13:6-14:3 should probably be seen as constituting one big
      post-Hellenist accretion to the text of Thomas.
      e. Thomas 21
      The original unit is 21:1-3,6-8 "Mary said to Jesus, 'Whom are your
      disciples like?' He said, 'They are like children who have settled in a
      field which is not theirs. When the owners of the field come, they will
      say, Let us have back our field....You (pl.), then, be on your guard
      against the world. Arm yourselves with great strength, lest the robbers
      find a way to come to you, for the difficulty you expect will (surely)
      materialize. Let there be among you a man of understanding.'" It is
      Hellenist because it reflects thought found in original John, but absent
      from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John. It is in original John
      that we also have a woman named Mary speaking to Jesus--see John 20:16,
      "Jesus said to her, 'Mary!' She turned and said to him in Hebrew,
      'Rabbi!'" Also, if (as I think is the case) the field represents the
      world, then the situation here reflects original John--in which the
      disciples of Jesus are in the world, but do not belong to the world, and
      are hated by the world, e.g., see John 15:19b, "But because you are not
      from the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world
      hates you." As they are hated by the world, they must be on guard
      against the world--for this world will be making things difficult for
      them. Also, it is original John that one has this idea that those in
      charge of the world are robbers--see John 10:8, "All who came before me
      are thieves and robbers."
      The first accretion is 21:9-10, "When the grain is ripened, he came
      quickly with his sickle in his hand and reaped it. Whoever has ears to
      hear, let him hear.'" This is Hellenist because it circulated freely in
      both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John
      6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 4:29, "But when permits the
      crop, immediately he puts forth the sickle, for has come the harvest."
      21:9-10 has been taken out of the oral traditions circulating among the
      Hellenists and Hebrews and added to 12:1-2,6-8 to emphasise that you are
      in the "field" of the world for a purpose, i.e., to be saved when comes
      the "harvest"--the time when Jesus will be coming as Judge. Therefore,
      you must resist the world so that you will be found worthy of eternal
      life when comes the time for you to be judged.
      The second accretion is 21:4-5, "(4) They (will) undress in their
      presence in order to let them have back their field and to give it back
      to them. (5) Therefore I say, if the owner of a house knows that the
      thief is coming, he will begin his vigil before he comes and will not
      let him dig into his house of his domain to carry away his goods." It
      is not Hellenist and, since it is an accretion to a Hellenist unit, is
      is post-Hellenist.
      It is unusual in that it is made in the middle of the original unit of
      21:1-3,6-8. It has the effect of dividing it into two units--the first
      (i.e., 21:1-4) regarding the topic of the field and its owners and the
      second (i.e., 21:5-8) regarding thieves and robbers.
      f. Thomas 22
      The original unit is 22:2 "He said to his disciples, 'These little ones
      nursing are like those who enter the Kingdom.'" It is Hellenist
      because it reflects thought found in original John, but absent from
      Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John--see John 3:3,6, "Truly,
      truly, I say to you, unless someone is born anew, he is not able to see
      the Kingdom of God....The thing having been born of the flesh is flesh
      and the thing having been born of the Spirit is spirit." The basic
      idea, then, is that one must be reborn as spirit, thereby becoming a
      babe once again, before one can enter the Kingdom.
      To it has been accreted 22:1,3-6, "(1) Jesus saw little babies nursing..
      .(3) They said to him, 'Will we enter the Kingdom as little babies?'
      (4) Jesus said to them, 'When you make the two one, and when you make
      the inside like the outside, and the outside like the inside, and the
      above like the below. (5) And when you make the male and the female into
      a single being, with the result that the male is not male, nor the
      female female. (6) When you make eyes in place of an eye, and a hand in
      place of a hand, and a foot in place of a foot, and an image in place of
      an image, (7) then you will enter the Kingdom.'" This is not
      Hellenist. In particular, as it has been added to a Hellenist unit, it
      is a post-Hellenist unit.
      This is a remarkable reversal of Thomas 21 in that, while the
      post-Hellenist accretion to 21 occurs in the middle of the original
      unit, this post-Hellenist accretion to 22 wraps around the original
      unit! Is this deliberate?
      g. Thomas 27
      The original unit is 27:1, "<Jesus said,> 'If you do not fast as regards
      the world, you will not find the kingdom.' This is Hellenist because it
      reflects the thought in James. One must choose between God and the
      world--see 4:4, "Adultresses! Do you not know that the friendship with
      the world is emnity with God?" Further, only those who choose God enter
      the Kingdom--see 2:8b, which speaks of "the Kingdom that He has promised
      to those who love Him." So, it is only those who choose not to be a
      friend of the world who enter the Kingdom. Therefore, one's duty is to
      stay clear of the world--see 1:27, "Religion that is pure and undefiled
      before God, even the Father, is this:...to keep oneself unspotted from
      the world."
      The accretion to it is 27:2, "If you do not observe the Sabbath as a
      Sabbath, you will not see the Father." This is not Hellenist and, as
      it is an addition to a Hellenist unit, it is, therefore, a
      post-Hellenist unit.
      h. Thomas 31
      The original unit is 31:1, "Jesus said, 'No prophet is accepted in his
      own village.'" It is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both
      Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John
      6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 6:4a, "And Jesus was saying to
      them, 'A prophet is not dishonored except in his home town.'"
      The accretion to it is 31:2, "No physician heals those who know him.'"
      It is not Hellenist and, as it is an addition to Hellenist unit, it,
      therefore, is a post-Hellenist unit
      i. Thomas 33
      The original unit is 33:1, "Jesus said, ''Preach from your (pl.)
      housetops that which you (sg.) will hear in your (sg.) ear.'" This is
      not Hellenist.
      The accretion to it is 33:2-3, "(2) For no one lights a lamp and puts
      it under a bushel, nor does he put it in a hidden place, (3) but rather
      he sets it on a lampstand so that everyone who enters and leaves will
      see its light.'" This is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both
      Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John
      6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 4:21b, "Is a lamp brought in to
      be put under the bushel basket or under the bed, and not on the
      lampstand?"
      Since the original unit of 33:1 has a Hellenist accretion attached to
      it, it is not Hellenist in the sense of being pre-Hellenist.
      j. Thomas 38
      The original unit is 38:1, "Jesus said, 'Many times have you desired to
      hear these words which I am saying to you, and you have no one else to
      hear them from.'" This is not Hellenist.
      The accretion to it is 38:2, "There will be days when you will look for
      me and will not find me." This is Hellenist because it reflects thought
      found in original John, but absent from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter
      21 of John--see John 7:33b, "You will seek me and you will not find me."
      Since the original unit of 38:1 has a Hellenist accretion attached to
      it, it is not Hellenist in the sense of being pre-Hellenist.
      k. Thomas 47
      The original unit is 47:1-3, "(1) Jesus said, 'It is impossible for a
      man to mount two horses or to stretch two bows. (2) And it is
      impossible for a servant to serve two masters; otherwise he will honor
      the one and treat the other contemptuously. (3) No man drinks old wine
      and immediately desires to drink new wine.'" This is not Hellenist.
      The accretion to it is 47:4-5. "(4) And new wine is not put into old
      wineskins, lest they burst; nor is old wine put into a new wineskin,
      lest it spoil it. (5) An old patch is not sewn into a new garment,
      because a tear would result.'" This is Hellenist because it circulated
      freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in
      Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 2:21-22, "No one
      sews a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment. Otherwise, the patch
      will pull away from it, the new from the old, and a worse tear results.
      And no one puts new wine into old wineskins. Otherwise, will the wine
      will tear the wineskins and the wine is ruined--and the wineskins!
      Instead, new wine is put into new wineskins.'"
      Since the original unit of 47:1-3 has a Hellenist accretion attached to
      it, it is not Hellenist in the sense of being pre-Hellenist.
      l. Thomas 49
      The original unit is 49a, "Jesus said, 'Blessed are the monaxoc
      (celibate) and elect, for you will find the kingdom.'" This is a
      Hellenist unit because it reflects the Therapeutic belief that the
      spiritually advanced are celibate and have either never married or else
      are no longer are with their spouses (i.e., have either abandoned their
      spouses or have become widow(er)s). This unit might have been created
      by Philip the Evangelist: who, according to Luke, had five virgin
      daughters who prophecied.
      The accretion to it is 49b, "For you are from it, and to it you will
      return." This is not Hellenist. Since it is attached to a Hellenist
      unit, it not Hellenist in the sense of being post-Hellenist.
      m. Thomas 61
      The original unit is 61:1, "Jesus said, 'Two will rest on a bed: the one
      will die and the other will live.'" It is not Hellenist.
      The first accretion is 61:2-4, "(2) Salome said, 'Who are you, man, that
      you...have come up on my couch and eaten from my table?' (3)Jesus said
      to her, 'I am he who exists from the undivided. I was given some of the
      things of my father.' (4) <...> 'I am your disciple.'" This is
      Hellenist for two reasons. First, it is pro-Hellenist or anti-Hebrew:
      for, here, the Hellenist position that women should be empowered is
      reflected in Salome being explicitly identified as being a disciple of
      Jesus. Second, it reflects thought found in original John, but absent
      from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter 21 of John--see John 3:35, "The
      Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand."
      Since the original unit of 38:1 has a Hellenist accretion attached to
      it, it is not Hellenist in the sense of being pre-Hellenist.
      The second accretion is 61:5. "<...> Therefore I say, if he is destroyed
      he will be filled with light, but if he is divided, he will be filled
      with darkness." This is not Hellenist. Since it is attached to a
      Hellenist unit, it is not Hellenist in the sense of being
      post-Hellenist.
      o. Thomas 99
      The original unit is 99:1-2, "(1) The disciples said to him, 'Your
      brothers and your mother are standing outside.' (2) He said to them,
      'Those here who do the will of my father are my brothers and my
      mother.'" It is Hellenist because it circulated freely in both Hellenist
      and Hebrew circles and, so, has a parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or
      chapter 21 of John--see Mark 3:32b-33a,35, "They are saying to him,
      'Behold, your mother and your brothers and your sisters are outside,
      looking for you. And he answered them,...'For whoever does the will of
      God, this one is my brother and sister and mother.'"
      The accretion to it is 99:3, "It is they who will enter the kingdom of
      my father." It is not Hellenist. Since it is attached to a Hellenist
      unit, it is not Hellenist in the sense of being post-Hellenist.
      p. Thomas 104
      The original unit is 104:1-2, "They said to Jesus, 'Come, let us pray
      today and let us fast.' Jesus said, 'What is the sin that I have
      committed, or wherein have I been defeated?'" This is not Hellenist.
      The accretion to it is 104:3 "But when the bridgroom leaves the bridal
      chamber, then let them fast and pray." This is Hellenist for two
      reasons. First, it is pro-Hellenist or anti-Hebrew. In particular, it
      is pro-Hellenist because it advocates being a suppliant of God.
      Second, it reflects thought in James. For example, see 4:4,
      "Adultresses! Do you not know that the friendship of the world is
      emnity with God? Therefore, whoever chooses to be a friend of the world
      is made an enemy of God." The intended readers are wedded to God. But,
      because they have become friends of the world, they have become enemies
      of God. So, for each of them, God, her husband, has, so to speak, left
      the bridal chamber. The way to rectify the situation, so that God will
      again draw near to you, re-entering the bridal chamber so to speak, is
      to supplicate God. So, soon thereafter, in 4:8a,9-10, it is said, "Draw
      near to God and he will draw near to you....Lament and mourn and weep.
      Let your laughter be changed into mourning and the joy into gloom. Be
      humbled before the Lord, and He will exalt you."
      q. Thomas 111
      The original unit is 111:1, "Jesus said, 'The heavens and the earth will
      be rolled up in your presence.'" This is Hellenist because it
      circulated freely in both Hellenist and Hebrew circles and, so, has a
      parallel in Mark, John 6:1-7:14 or chapter 21 of John--see Mark 13:31a,
      "Heaven.and earth will pass away.",
      The first accretion is 111.2, "And the one who lives from the living one
      will not see death." This is Hellenist because it reflects thought
      found in original John, but absent from Mark, John 6:1-7:14 and Chapter
      21 of John--see John 14:19b, "Because I live, you also will live." It
      adds the thought that, while the Cosmos will be perishing, those who
      live through Jesus will, will eternally continue living.
      The second accretion is 111:3, "Does not Jesus say, 'Whoever finds
      himself is superior to the world'?" This is not Hellenist. Since it
      is an accretion to a Hellenist unit, it is not Hellenist in the sense of
      being post-Hellenist.

      C. Evaluation of the Search for Hellenist Material

      Of the 114 sayings in Thomas, it appears that about 37 are fully
      Hellenist and another 16 are partially Hellenist. As a result, it
      appears, about 45% of the sayings in Thomas are Hellenist in whole or in
      part.

      In addition, this material has been identified as being pre-Hellenist:
      5:1, "Jesus said, 'Recognize what is in your (sg.) sight, and that which
      is hidden from you (sg.) will become plain to you (sg.).
      11:1 "Jesus said, 'This heaven will pass away, and the one above it will
      pass away.'"
      33:1, "Jesus said, ''Preach from your (pl.) housetops that which you
      (sg.) will hear in your (sg.) ear.'"
      38:1, "Jesus said, 'Many times have you desired to hear these words
      which I am saying to you, and you have no one else to hear them from.'"
      47:1-3, "(1) Jesus said, 'It is impossible for a man to mount two horses
      or to stretch two bows. (2) And it is impossible for a servant to serve
      two masters; otherwise he will honor the one and treat the other
      contemptuously. (3) No man drinks old wine and immediately desires to
      drink new wine.'
      61:1, "Jesus said, 'Two will rest on a bed: the one will die and the
      other will live.'"
      104:1-2, "They said to Jesus, 'Come, let us pray today and let us fast.'
      Jesus said, 'What is the sin that I have committed, or wherein have I
      been defeated?'"

      This pre-Hellenist material has these characteristics:
      1. The end of the Cosmos is near
      2. Jesus has come to proclaim a new revelation and his followers, in
      turn, should preach it to others
      3. Mankind is divided into two groups, for you are either for Jesus and
      his new revelation or against him and his new revelation, there can be
      no straddling of the middle.
      4. The time for judgment is near.
      5. Jesus is righteous.
      In general, there is a strong Essene influence here--we are now in the
      End-time, mankind is divided into two opposing groups, one good and the
      other evil, and Jesus has come as a second Teacher of Righteousness
      and/or as the Prophet.

      Because this pre-Hellenist material has a strong Essene influence on it,
      it appears to be material from the oral traditions of the Hebrews--for
      they had been strongly influenced by the Essenes. In this case, the
      Hellenists adopted this Hebrew material after adding accretions to it
      that modified it enough to make it acceptable to them.

      Also, this material has been identified as being post-Hellenist:
      11:3-4 "(3) In the days when you consumed what is dead, you make it what
      is alive. When you come to dwell in the light, what will you do? (4)
      One the day when you were one you became two. But when you become two,
      what will you do?"
      13:6-8, "And he took him and withdrew and told him three things. When
      Thomas returned to his companions, they asked him, 'What did Jesus say
      to you?' Thomas said to them, 'If I tell you one of these things which
      he told me, you will pick up stones and throw them at me; a fire will
      come out of the stones and burn you up.'"
      14:1-3, "Jesus said to them, 'If you fast, you will give rise to sin for
      yourselves; and if you pray, you will be condemned; and if you give
      alms, you will do harm to your spirits.'"
      21:4-5, "(4) They (will) undress in their presence in order to let them
      have back their field and to give it back to them. (5) Therefore I say,
      if the owner of a house knows that the thief is coming, he will begin
      his vigil before he comes and will not let him dig into his house of his
      domain to carry away his goods."
      22:1,3-6, "(1) Jesus saw little babies nursing.. ..(3) They said to him,
      'Will we enter the Kingdom as little babies?' (4) Jesus said to them,
      'When you make the two one, and when you make the inside like the
      outside, and the outside like the inside, and the above like the below.
      (5) And when you make the male and the female into a single being, with
      the result that the male is not male, nor the female female. (6) When
      you make eyes in place of an eye, and a hand in place of a hand, and a
      foot in place of a foot, and an image in place of an image, (7) then you
      will enter the Kingdom.'"
      27:2, "If you do not observe the Sabbath as a Sabbath, you will not see
      the Father."
      31:2, "No physician heals those who know him.'"
      49b, "For you are from it (i.e., the Kingdom), and to it you will
      return."
      61:5. "<...> Therefore I say, if he is destroyed he will be filled with
      light, but if he is divided, he will be filled with darkness."
      99:3, "It is they (i.e., those who do the will of my Father) who will
      enter the kingdom of my father."
      111:3, "Does not Jesus say, 'Whoever finds himself is superior to the
      world'?"

      This post-Hellenist material has these characteristics:
      1. There is talk of consuming/eating
      2. There is a place of light where the saved reside
      3. Some things need to be kept secret from those unworthy to know them
      4. The observance of the Law of Moses is sinful, although following its
      inner meaning is good
      5. There are mysteries/secrets to be hid from those unfit to hear them
      6. There is talk of undressing/becoming naked.
      7. There is an interest in the relationship between you body/flesh and
      your soul/spirit (for 22:1,3-6 regards the comparison/contrast between
      your original birth as body/flesh and your birth for a second time as
      soul/spirit)
      8. There is talk of images
      9. The elect pre-exist
      10. One needs to find/know oneself.
      11. One needs to become superior to the world

      This list of characteristics of the post-Hellenist material is not only
      non-Hellenist in nature. Rather, in addition, since this list of
      characteristics is quite unlike the list of characteristics of the
      pre-Hellenist material, it is also not pre-Hellenist in nature.

      As a result, this post-Hellenist material can be viewed as reflecting an
      extended period of time during which the belief system of the Thomas
      group gradually evolved away from the Hellenist belief system it
      initially received into a much different belief system.

      Frank McCoy
      2036 E. Magnolia Ave.
      St. Paul, MN 55119



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    • Ron McCann
      Thanks, Frank. Clearly, I totally misunderstood you and the point you were making in your post, and further confused the references to James the son of
      Message 31 of 31 , Aug 9, 2007
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        Thanks, Frank.

        Clearly, I totally misunderstood you and the point you were making in your post, and further confused the references to James the son of Alphaeus and James the son of Zebedee. Can't keep track of so many durned Jameses! Creeping Alzheimers, no doubt.. (grin). My apologies.

        Ron
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: FMMCCOY@...
        To: gthomas@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Thursday, August 09, 2007 2:47 PM
        Subject: Re: [GTh] Hellenist Material in Thomas


        Ron McCann writes, "In closing, Frank. Just one more point on the
        Jerusalem Council, the leadership of James and your suggestions that it
        was James sons of Zebbedee, not James the Just that lead it. I remember
        now reading something you posted about that and recall shaking my head
        at the time. How do you square that with the fact that Acts 12 tells us
        that James Zebedee was killed by Herod at about the same time that Peter
        was arrested by him and made his miraculous escape from Prison-
        something that occurs much much earlier and earlier in the account than
        the Jerusalem Council events?"

        Ron, if you re-read what I said, you will realize that what I maintain
        is that, Luke wants us to believe, the James of the Jerusalem Council is
        James *the son of Alphaeus*. Luke nowhere, in either Luke or Acts, ever
        states that Jesus had a brother named James. He names two James in
        Acts--one the son of Zebedee and the other the son of Alphaeus. Since
        the son of Zebedee was dead by the time of this Council, Luke implies
        that the James of this Council is the son of Alphaeus. It is only by
        illegitimate importation of ideas from outside the conceptual universe
        of Luke-Acts that anyone can conclude that the James of this Council
        meeting is a brother of Jesus. In any event, IMO, Luke's account of the
        Council meeting, including the edict, is bogus. IMO, if such an edict
        had ever been issued, Paul would have said something about it because it
        directly impacted on the Gentiles under his jurisdiction.

        Ron, you have an interesting line of argumentation in the rest of your
        post. I will be responding to it, but only after giving it much
        thought.

        Frank McCoy
        2036 E. Magnolia Ave.
        St. Paul, MN 55119









































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