Re: [GTh] Critique on the Paper by Goodacre--A Revision
- In a post of 2-11, I made a critique on Mark Goodacre's paper,"Luke
11.27-28 // Thom. 79a: A Case of Thomasine Dependence".
This post is a revised version of the section of that post entitled,
"FOIL QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS FROM ANONYMOUS INDIVIDUALS". The first
three paragraphs are the same, but the rest is a radical revision of it.
Goodacre (pp. 9-10) notes that there are five verses in Luke that
contain foil questions or comments from anonymous individuals and that
also contain the Greek word tis. They are 9:57, 11:27, 12:13, 13:23 and
Regarding these five verses, he states (pp. 10-11), "Now foil comments
and questions are common in the Synoptics and they are common in Thomas
too (e.g. 91, 99, 100 and 104). The distinctive features of the five
cases listed above is that these are the only places in the Synoptic
tradition where a teaching is introduced by foil comments from anonymous
individuals, always with tis. This feature comes at least five times in
Luke and it is probably due to his own redaction, especially since three
of the occasions (9.57, 13.23 & 14.15) there is a contrast with
Q/Matthew. It only occurs twice in Thomas (Thom. 72, Thom. 79) both
times parallel to Luke."
The implied scenario of this evidence presented by Goodacre: Luke
deliberated created, either as something new or else as a redaction of
Matthean or Q material, all five foil comments or questions from
anonymous individuals, always with tis. Then Thomas utilized two of them
in writing 72 and 79.
However, in each case, the Lukan foil comment/question begins a passage
with a parallel passage in Matthew and/or Thomas:
1. Lk 9:57-60//Mt 8:19-22//Th 86
2. Lk 11:27-28//Th 79:1-2
3. Lk 12:13-15//Th 72
4. Lk 13:23-24//Mt 7:13-14
5. Lk 14:15-24//Mt 22:1-10//Th 64.
Further, note that, where: A = a passage with parallels in both Mt and
Th and B = a passage with a parallel either in Mt or else in Th, they
form this pattern:
1. A Lk 9:57-60
2. B Lk 11:27-28
3. B Lk 12:13-15
4. B Lk 13:23-24
5. A Lk 14:15-24
Even further, THIS CANNOT BE A MERE COINCIDENCE because, when ---> = an
immediately following Lukan passage and -/-/-> = a following Lukan
passage with only a two verse gap of purely Lukan material, we also have
this two sequence complex:
1. Both A Lk 9:57-60//Mt 8:19-10//Th 86 -/-/-> Lk 10:2//Mt 9:37-38//Th
2. Both B Lk 11:27-28//Th 79:1-2 ---> Lk 11:29-32//Mt 12:38-42
3. Both B Lk 12:13-15//Th 72 ---> Lk 12:16-20//Th 63
4. Both B Lk 13:23-24//Mt 7:13-14 ---> Lk 13:25//Mt 25:10b-12
5. Both A Lk 14:15-24//Mt 22:1-10//Th 64 ---> Lk 14:25-27//Mt
IMO, the simplest explanation for this situation is that, in creating
his five passages that begin with a foil comment/question and having
tis, as well as in creating their five associated passages, Luke used
Matthew and Thomas as sources and deliberately used them as sources in a
In this regard, it is noteworthy that:
1. In the sequence of five foil/tis passages, the Thomasine parallels
are in reverse order, so that the first Thomasine parallel is 86, the
second is 79, the third is 72 and the fourth is 64
2. In the sequence of five associated passages, the Thomasine parallels
are in reverse order so that the first Thomasine parallel is 73, the
second is 63 and the third is 55.
IMO, the simplest explanation for this situation is that, in creating
both his five foil/tis passages and their five associated passages, Luke
deliberately worked backwards in Thomas when utilizing it as a source.
Further, he deliberately limited his utilization of Thomas to just two
over-lapping sections of it, i.e., 64-86 and 55-73.
Nor is this all.
If Luke had been using Matthew as a source, then he knew that Mt
10:37-38 and Mt 16:24-28 thusly inter-lock:
Mt 10:38//Mt 16:24
This would explain a most perplexing situation. That is, while (1) Lk
14:25-27, Luke's parallel to Mt 10:37-38, comes immediately after Lk
14:15-24-- the *last* of his five passages headed by foil
comments/questions with tis, it is also the case that (2) Lk 9:23-27,
Luke's parallel to Mt 16:24-2, comes not long before Lk 9:57-60--the
*first* of his five passages headed by foil comments/questions with tis.
In this case, the reason for this most perplexing situation is that Luke
deliberately placed his five passages headed by foil comments/questions
with tis in-between Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27, his parallels to two
interlocking Matthean passages, because he wanted the reader to
interpret the five passages headed by foil comments/questions with tis
in light of what is said by Jesus in Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-26.
Here is how these two Lukan passages read:
Luke 9:23-27, (23) "And he was saying to all, 'If anyone wishes to come
after me, let him deny himself and lift up his cross daily and let him
follow me. (24) For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it. But
whoever loses his life on account of me, this one will save it. (25) For
what profits a man, having gained the whole Cosmos, but himself having
forfeit? (26) For whoever is ashamed of me and my words, this one the
Son of Man will be ashamed of when he comes in the glory of himself and
of the Father and of the holy angels. (27) But I say to you, truly,
there are some here, having stood, who will by no means taste death
until they see the Kingdom of God.'"
Luke 14:25-27, (25) "And a large crowd was accompanying him. And,
having turned, he said to them, (26) 'If someone comes to me and does
not hate his father and the mother and the wife and the children and the
brothers and the sisters and, in addition, also his life, he is not able
to be my disciple. (27) Whoever does not carry his cross and come after
me is not able to be my disciple."
Did Luke, as suggested above, place his five passages headed by foil
comments/questions and with tis in-between Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27
because he wanted them to be interpreted in light of these two passages?
Indeed, this does appear to be likely.
Here is the first of his five passages headed by foil comments/questions
and with tis:
Luke 9:57-60, (57) "And, as they were going on the road, a certain one
(tis) said to him, 'I will follow you wherever you go.' (58) And Jesus
said to him, 'The foxes have dens, and the birds of the heaven nests,
but the Son of Man does not have a place where he may lay down his
head.' (59) And he said to another, 'Follow me.' But he said, 'Lord,
allow me first, having gone, to bury my father.' (60) But he said to
him, 'Leave the dead to bury their dead. But you, having gone, proclaim
the Kingdom of God.'"
Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Following Jesus, the Son
of Man, is unimaginably difficult, like lifting a cross daily, involving
even the renouncing of all of one's possessions. It involves one's
death to life in a mortal sense so that one will live to life in an
immortal sense. Further, one is to forsake those living to life in a
mortal sense, leaving them, the dead to life in an immortal sense, to
bury their own dead in a physical sense--and one is to forsake them even
if they are father, mother, children, sisters and brothers. Further,
you are proclaim to others how the Kingdom will be coming.
Here is the second:
Luke 11:27-28, (27) "And it came about, while he says these things, a
certain (tis) woman from the crowd, having lifted up her voice, said to
him, 'Blessed the womb having carried you and the breasts which you
sucked.' (28) But he said, 'Rather, blessed the ones hearing the word of
God and observing it.'"
Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Jesus, the Son of Man,
proclaims the word of God, so those who are not ashamed of what he says
(i.e., who listen to and obey his words) are those who both hear and
observe the word of God and they are blessed because they they will
enter into the Kingdom when he returns as the Son of Man.
Here is the third:
Luke 12:13-15, (13) "And someone (tis) out of the crowd said, 'Teacher,
speak to my brother, to share with me the inheritance.' (14) But he
said to him, 'Man, who appointed me a judge or arbitrator over you?'
(15) And he said to them, 'Take care and be on guard from all
covetousness because, to anyone, does not abound his life from his
Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: While Jesus, as the Son of
Man, has been appointed by the Father to be the judge of mankind, he is
not the judge of mankind in the sense of resolving disputes over
material possessions. To even ask him to be a judge in this sense and
to rule in your favor is to be greedy and is to forget that life in an
eternal sense cannot be obtained through material possessions, not even
if one possesses the whole Cosmos.
Here is the fourth:
Luke 13:23-24, (23) "And someone (tis) said to him, 'Lord, few the ones
being saved?' And he said to him, (24) 'Strive to enter through the
narrow door, because many, I say to you, will seek to enter and they
will not be able to."
Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Entry into the Kingdom is
gained only through the narrow door of following Jesus by denying
oneself, dying to life in a mortal sense, forsaking those still living
to life in a mortal sense, and hearing and keeping his words.
Here is the fifth:
Luke 14:15-24, (15) "And, having heard these things, a certain one (tis)
of those reclining at table said to him, 'Blessed who will eat bread in
the Kingdom of God.' (16) And he said to him, 'A certain (tis) man was
preparing a big dinner, and he invited many. (17) And he sent his slave
at the hour of the dinner to say to the ones have been invited, Come,
because it is now ready. (18) And all unanimously began to be excused.
The first said to him, I bought a field and I am compelled having gone
out to see it. I ask you, have me having been excused.(19) And another
said, I bought five pair of oxen and I am going to examine them. I ask
you, have me having been excused. (20) And another said, I married a
woman and thereore I am not able to come. (21) And, having arrived, the
slave reported to his lord these thing. Then, having been angry, the
master of the house said to his slave, Go out quickly into the streets
and lanes of the city and the poor and crippled and blind and lame bring
in here. (22) And said the slave, Lord, what you commanded has been done
and there still is a place. (23) And said the lord to the slave, Go out
to the roads and fences and urge them to come in, in order that my house
may be filled. (24) For I say to you that no one of those men having
been invited will taste my dinner.'"
Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Failing to take the
unimaginably difficult task of following Jesus, with its renouncing of
all of one's possessions and, even, of one's wife if she remains alive
only to life in a mortal sense, is to miss out on entering into the
Kingdom. The dispossessed will enter it, but not they.
To conclude, Luke created five passages headed by foil
comments/questions and with the Greek word tis. There is evidence
suggesting that he created them using Matthew and Thomas as his sources.
Further, it appears that he deliberately placed them in-between Lk
9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27, his two parallels to an interlocking pair of
Matthean passages, because he wanted them to be interpreted in terms of
Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27. This suggests that, rather than Th 79:1-2
being based on Lk 11:27-28, it is the case that Lk 11:27-28 is based on
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