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Re: [GTh] Critique on the Paper by Goodacre--A Revision

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  • Frank McCoy
    In a post of 2-11, I made a critique on Mark Goodacre s paper, Luke 11.27-28 // Thom. 79a: A Case of Thomasine Dependence . This post is a revised version of
    Message 1 of 1 , Feb 18, 2007
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      In a post of 2-11, I made a critique on Mark Goodacre's paper,"Luke
      11.27-28 // Thom. 79a: A Case of Thomasine Dependence".

      This post is a revised version of the section of that post entitled,
      "FOIL QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS FROM ANONYMOUS INDIVIDUALS". The first
      three paragraphs are the same, but the rest is a radical revision of it.

      Goodacre (pp. 9-10) notes that there are five verses in Luke that
      contain foil questions or comments from anonymous individuals and that
      also contain the Greek word tis. They are 9:57, 11:27, 12:13, 13:23 and
      14:15

      Regarding these five verses, he states (pp. 10-11), "Now foil comments
      and questions are common in the Synoptics and they are common in Thomas
      too (e.g. 91, 99, 100 and 104). The distinctive features of the five
      cases listed above is that these are the only places in the Synoptic
      tradition where a teaching is introduced by foil comments from anonymous
      individuals, always with tis. This feature comes at least five times in
      Luke and it is probably due to his own redaction, especially since three
      of the occasions (9.57, 13.23 & 14.15) there is a contrast with
      Q/Matthew. It only occurs twice in Thomas (Thom. 72, Thom. 79) both
      times parallel to Luke."

      The implied scenario of this evidence presented by Goodacre: Luke
      deliberated created, either as something new or else as a redaction of
      Matthean or Q material, all five foil comments or questions from
      anonymous individuals, always with tis. Then Thomas utilized two of them
      in writing 72 and 79.

      However, in each case, the Lukan foil comment/question begins a passage
      with a parallel passage in Matthew and/or Thomas:
      1. Lk 9:57-60//Mt 8:19-22//Th 86
      2. Lk 11:27-28//Th 79:1-2
      3. Lk 12:13-15//Th 72
      4. Lk 13:23-24//Mt 7:13-14
      5. Lk 14:15-24//Mt 22:1-10//Th 64.

      Further, note that, where: A = a passage with parallels in both Mt and
      Th and B = a passage with a parallel either in Mt or else in Th, they
      form this pattern:
      1. A Lk 9:57-60
      2. B Lk 11:27-28
      3. B Lk 12:13-15
      4. B Lk 13:23-24
      5. A Lk 14:15-24

      Even further, THIS CANNOT BE A MERE COINCIDENCE because, when ---> = an
      immediately following Lukan passage and -/-/-> = a following Lukan
      passage with only a two verse gap of purely Lukan material, we also have
      this two sequence complex:
      1. Both A Lk 9:57-60//Mt 8:19-10//Th 86 -/-/-> Lk 10:2//Mt 9:37-38//Th
      73
      2. Both B Lk 11:27-28//Th 79:1-2 ---> Lk 11:29-32//Mt 12:38-42
      3. Both B Lk 12:13-15//Th 72 ---> Lk 12:16-20//Th 63
      4. Both B Lk 13:23-24//Mt 7:13-14 ---> Lk 13:25//Mt 25:10b-12
      5. Both A Lk 14:15-24//Mt 22:1-10//Th 64 ---> Lk 14:25-27//Mt
      10:37-38//Th 55.
      IMO, the simplest explanation for this situation is that, in creating
      his five passages that begin with a foil comment/question and having
      tis, as well as in creating their five associated passages, Luke used
      Matthew and Thomas as sources and deliberately used them as sources in a
      meaningful pattern.

      In this regard, it is noteworthy that:
      1. In the sequence of five foil/tis passages, the Thomasine parallels
      are in reverse order, so that the first Thomasine parallel is 86, the
      second is 79, the third is 72 and the fourth is 64
      2. In the sequence of five associated passages, the Thomasine parallels
      are in reverse order so that the first Thomasine parallel is 73, the
      second is 63 and the third is 55.
      IMO, the simplest explanation for this situation is that, in creating
      both his five foil/tis passages and their five associated passages, Luke
      deliberately worked backwards in Thomas when utilizing it as a source.
      Further, he deliberately limited his utilization of Thomas to just two
      over-lapping sections of it, i.e., 64-86 and 55-73.

      Nor is this all.

      If Luke had been using Matthew as a source, then he knew that Mt
      10:37-38 and Mt 16:24-28 thusly inter-lock:
      Mt 10:37
      Mt 10:38//Mt 16:24
      Mt 16:25-28.

      This would explain a most perplexing situation. That is, while (1) Lk
      14:25-27, Luke's parallel to Mt 10:37-38, comes immediately after Lk
      14:15-24-- the *last* of his five passages headed by foil
      comments/questions with tis, it is also the case that (2) Lk 9:23-27,
      Luke's parallel to Mt 16:24-2, comes not long before Lk 9:57-60--the
      *first* of his five passages headed by foil comments/questions with tis.

      In this case, the reason for this most perplexing situation is that Luke
      deliberately placed his five passages headed by foil comments/questions
      with tis in-between Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27, his parallels to two
      interlocking Matthean passages, because he wanted the reader to
      interpret the five passages headed by foil comments/questions with tis
      in light of what is said by Jesus in Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-26.

      Here is how these two Lukan passages read:
      Luke 9:23-27, (23) "And he was saying to all, 'If anyone wishes to come
      after me, let him deny himself and lift up his cross daily and let him
      follow me. (24) For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it. But
      whoever loses his life on account of me, this one will save it. (25) For
      what profits a man, having gained the whole Cosmos, but himself having
      forfeit? (26) For whoever is ashamed of me and my words, this one the
      Son of Man will be ashamed of when he comes in the glory of himself and
      of the Father and of the holy angels. (27) But I say to you, truly,
      there are some here, having stood, who will by no means taste death
      until they see the Kingdom of God.'"
      Luke 14:25-27, (25) "And a large crowd was accompanying him. And,
      having turned, he said to them, (26) 'If someone comes to me and does
      not hate his father and the mother and the wife and the children and the
      brothers and the sisters and, in addition, also his life, he is not able
      to be my disciple. (27) Whoever does not carry his cross and come after
      me is not able to be my disciple."

      Did Luke, as suggested above, place his five passages headed by foil
      comments/questions and with tis in-between Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27
      because he wanted them to be interpreted in light of these two passages?

      Indeed, this does appear to be likely.

      Here is the first of his five passages headed by foil comments/questions
      and with tis:
      Luke 9:57-60, (57) "And, as they were going on the road, a certain one
      (tis) said to him, 'I will follow you wherever you go.' (58) And Jesus
      said to him, 'The foxes have dens, and the birds of the heaven nests,
      but the Son of Man does not have a place where he may lay down his
      head.' (59) And he said to another, 'Follow me.' But he said, 'Lord,
      allow me first, having gone, to bury my father.' (60) But he said to
      him, 'Leave the dead to bury their dead. But you, having gone, proclaim
      the Kingdom of God.'"
      Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Following Jesus, the Son
      of Man, is unimaginably difficult, like lifting a cross daily, involving
      even the renouncing of all of one's possessions. It involves one's
      death to life in a mortal sense so that one will live to life in an
      immortal sense. Further, one is to forsake those living to life in a
      mortal sense, leaving them, the dead to life in an immortal sense, to
      bury their own dead in a physical sense--and one is to forsake them even
      if they are father, mother, children, sisters and brothers. Further,
      you are proclaim to others how the Kingdom will be coming.

      Here is the second:
      Luke 11:27-28, (27) "And it came about, while he says these things, a
      certain (tis) woman from the crowd, having lifted up her voice, said to
      him, 'Blessed the womb having carried you and the breasts which you
      sucked.' (28) But he said, 'Rather, blessed the ones hearing the word of
      God and observing it.'"
      Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Jesus, the Son of Man,
      proclaims the word of God, so those who are not ashamed of what he says
      (i.e., who listen to and obey his words) are those who both hear and
      observe the word of God and they are blessed because they they will
      enter into the Kingdom when he returns as the Son of Man.

      Here is the third:
      Luke 12:13-15, (13) "And someone (tis) out of the crowd said, 'Teacher,
      speak to my brother, to share with me the inheritance.' (14) But he
      said to him, 'Man, who appointed me a judge or arbitrator over you?'
      (15) And he said to them, 'Take care and be on guard from all
      covetousness because, to anyone, does not abound his life from his
      possessions.'"
      Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: While Jesus, as the Son of
      Man, has been appointed by the Father to be the judge of mankind, he is
      not the judge of mankind in the sense of resolving disputes over
      material possessions. To even ask him to be a judge in this sense and
      to rule in your favor is to be greedy and is to forget that life in an
      eternal sense cannot be obtained through material possessions, not even
      if one possesses the whole Cosmos.

      Here is the fourth:
      Luke 13:23-24, (23) "And someone (tis) said to him, 'Lord, few the ones
      being saved?' And he said to him, (24) 'Strive to enter through the
      narrow door, because many, I say to you, will seek to enter and they
      will not be able to."
      Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Entry into the Kingdom is
      gained only through the narrow door of following Jesus by denying
      oneself, dying to life in a mortal sense, forsaking those still living
      to life in a mortal sense, and hearing and keeping his words.

      Here is the fifth:
      Luke 14:15-24, (15) "And, having heard these things, a certain one (tis)
      of those reclining at table said to him, 'Blessed who will eat bread in
      the Kingdom of God.' (16) And he said to him, 'A certain (tis) man was
      preparing a big dinner, and he invited many. (17) And he sent his slave
      at the hour of the dinner to say to the ones have been invited, Come,
      because it is now ready. (18) And all unanimously began to be excused.
      The first said to him, I bought a field and I am compelled having gone
      out to see it. I ask you, have me having been excused.(19) And another
      said, I bought five pair of oxen and I am going to examine them. I ask
      you, have me having been excused. (20) And another said, I married a
      woman and thereore I am not able to come. (21) And, having arrived, the
      slave reported to his lord these thing. Then, having been angry, the
      master of the house said to his slave, Go out quickly into the streets
      and lanes of the city and the poor and crippled and blind and lame bring
      in here. (22) And said the slave, Lord, what you commanded has been done
      and there still is a place. (23) And said the lord to the slave, Go out
      to the roads and fences and urge them to come in, in order that my house
      may be filled. (24) For I say to you that no one of those men having
      been invited will taste my dinner.'"
      Interpretation in light of 9:23-27, 14:25-27: Failing to take the
      unimaginably difficult task of following Jesus, with its renouncing of
      all of one's possessions and, even, of one's wife if she remains alive
      only to life in a mortal sense, is to miss out on entering into the
      Kingdom. The dispossessed will enter it, but not they.

      To conclude, Luke created five passages headed by foil
      comments/questions and with the Greek word tis. There is evidence
      suggesting that he created them using Matthew and Thomas as his sources.
      Further, it appears that he deliberately placed them in-between Lk
      9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27, his two parallels to an interlocking pair of
      Matthean passages, because he wanted them to be interpreted in terms of
      Lk 9:23-27 and Lk 14:25-27. This suggests that, rather than Th 79:1-2
      being based on Lk 11:27-28, it is the case that Lk 11:27-28 is based on
      Th 79:1-2.

      Frank McCoy
      St. Paul, MN USA 55119





      Frank McCoy
      St. Paul, MN 55119



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