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• ## Re: [GTh] A Curious Situation Explained by the Mark and Thomas Without Q Hypothesis

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• Where: A = A passage with a parallel in Th B = Three passages, two of them Lukan, which are parallels of the same Markan passage C = The two passages which
Message 1 of 1 , Dec 5, 2005
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Where:
A = A passage with a parallel in Th
B = Three passages, two of them Lukan, which are parallels of the same
Markan passage
C = The two passages which refer to the disciples as sheep/lambs in the
midst of wolves
we have this schema:
Mt Lk 1 Lk 2
A 9:37-38
B 10:1 ---> 10:1 9:1
A 10:2
C 10:16a <--- 10:3
A 10:16b
B 10:17-20 ---> 12:11-12 21:12-15
A 12:13-14
The Rule of the Road: The flow, which involves only the Mt and Lk 1 lines,
is from top to bottom except where there is an arrow and then the flow
follows the direction of the arrow.

This curious situation appears to be inexplicable in terms of the
2DH--according to which Matthew and Luke independently useed Mk and a
postulated gospel (i.e., Q) as sources. For example, the 2DH premises that
Matthew and Luke acted independently of each other, but this curious
situation implies that they did not act independently of each other. As a
result, it appears to present a grave, perhaps even fatal, peril to the 2DH
and to its component Q hypothesis.

This curious situation appears to be only partially explicable in terms of
the Farrer Hypothesis--according to which Matthew used Mk as his source and
Luke used Mk and Mt as his sources. In particular, the Farrer Hypothesis
fails to explain why the most frequently occurring element in this curious
situation is a parallel to a passage from Th.

This curious situation represents a grave, perhaps even fatal, peril to the
Goulder variation of the Farrer Hypothesis. This is because, according to
Goulder, Th was written later than the Synoptic gospels. As a result, that
the most frequently occurring element in this curious situation is a
parallel to a passage from Th appears to be, for all practical purposes,
inexplicable in terms of this Goulder variation of the Farrer Hypothesis.

This curious sitation is fully explained in terms of the Mark and Thomas
Without Q Hypothesis--according to which Matthew used Mk and Th as sources
and Luke used Mt, Mk and Th as sources. In this case, Matthew wrote Mt
using Mk and Th as sources and Luke knew this because he used Mt, Mk and Th
as sources. As a result, Luke wrote Lk 10:1-3 and Lk 12:11-14 the way he
did in order to create this elegant pattern of progression based on using
passages with parallels in Mk and Th in a mirror-symmetrical fahsion that
zig-zags between Mt and his own gospel.

Notes:
1. The order of progression is: Mt 9:37-38--->Mt 10:1--->Lk 10:1--->Lk
10:2--->Lk 10:3--->Mt 10:16a--->Mt 10:16b--->Mt 10:17-20---> Lk
12:11-12--->Lk 12:13-14.
2. The Th parallel to Mt 9:37-38 is Th 73:
Mt: 9:37 Then he says to his disciples, "Indeed, the harvest great, but the
workers few. Therefore, ask the Lord of the harvest, so that he may send
out workers into his harvest."
Th 73 Jesus said, "The harvest is great, but the laborers are few. Beseech
the Lord, therefore, to send out laborers to the harvest."
3. The Mk parallel to Mt 10:1, Lk 10:1 and Lk 9:1 is Mk 6:7:
Mk 6:7 And he summons the Twelve and he began to send them out two by two.
And he was giving to them authority over the unclean spirits
Lk 9:1 And, having called together the Twelve, he gave to them power and
authority over all the demons and all diseases. And he sent them out to
preach the Kingdom of God and to heal the sick.
Lk 10:1 And after these things, the Lord appointed seventy-two others and he
sent them, two by two, before his face into every city and place where he
was about to come*
Mt 10:1 And, summoning his twelve disciples, he gave to them authority
[over] unclean spirits (so as to cast them out) and to heal every disease
and every illness.

* It can be argued that Lk 10:1 is so different from the others that it does
not belong with them.

However, there is evidence that Luke primarily based 10:1 on Mk 6:7 and Mt
10:1.

Let us look at this three line schema:
Mk 6:7///Lk 10:1//Mt 10:1
Line 1
Mk And he summons the Twelve
Lk And after these things, the Lord appointed seventy-two others
Mt And, summoning his twelve disciples,
Line 2
Mk and he began to send them out two by two.
Lk and he sent them, two by two, before his face into every city and place
where he was about to come
Line 3
Mk And he was giving to them authority over the unclean spirits
Mt he gave to them authority [over] unclean spirits (so as to cast them out)
and to heal every disease and every illness

To explain this situation, I suggest the scenario:
1. Mark wrote Mk 6:7
2. Matthew wrote Mt 10:1, basing it on Mk 6:7. Further, he divided Mk 6:7
into three lines:
a. And he summons the Twelve
b. and he began to send them out two by two.
c. And he was giving to them authority over the unclean spirits
Finally, he rephrased the first line, omitted the second line, and rephrased
the third line and also added an extension to it..
3. Luke wrote Lk 10:1, basing it on both Mk 6:7 and Mt 10:1. He saw how
Matthew had divided Mk 6:7 into three lines and rephrased the first, omitted
the second, and rephrased and expanded the third. He liked this idea, but
decided to make two changes: (1) since he had already written about Jesus
sending out the Twelve in Lk 9:1-6, he decided to have the first line regard
a second group of 72, (2) rather than omitting the second line and
rephrasing the third and adding an extension to it, he decided to do the
converse by rephrasing the second line and adding an extension to it and by
omitting the third line.

4. The Th parallel to Lk 10:2 is Th 73:
Lk 10:2 And he was saying to them, "Indeed, the harvest is plentiful, but
the workers few. Therefore, ask the Lord of the Harvest that he might send
out workers into his harvest."
Th 73 Jesus said, "The harvest is great, but the laborers are few. Beseech
the Lord, therefore, to send out laborers to the harvest."
5. This is the parallelism between Mt 10:16a and Lk 10:3:
Mt 10:16a Behold, I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves.
Lk 10:3 Go! Behold, I send you as lambs in the midst of wolves.
6. The Th parallel to Mt 10:16b is Th 39:3:
Mt 10:16b Therefore be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.
Th 3 You, however, be as wise as serpents and as innocent as doves
7. The Mk parallel to Mt 10:17-20, Lk 12:11-12 and Lk 21:12-15 is Mt
13:9-11:
Mk 13:9-11, "But you, take heed to yourselves. They will hand you over to
the Sanheidrin and in synagogues you will be beatern and before governors
and kings you will stand for my sake as a testimony to them. And it is
first necessary for the gospel to be preached to all nations. And when they
lead you, handing you over, do not be worried beforehand what you might say,
but whatever is given to you in that hour, this you will say. For you
yourselves are not the ones speaking, but the Holy Spirit."
Mt 10:17-20, "And beware of men, for they will deliver you up to the
councils and in their synagogues they will scourge you and before governors
and kings you will be led for my sake as a testimony to them and to the
Gentiles. But when they deliver you up, do not be anxious, how or what you
may say, for it will be given to you in that hour what you may say. For you
are not the ones speaking, but the Spirit of your Father will be the One
speaking in you."
Lk 12:11-12, "And when they bring you in before the synagogues and the
rulers and the authorities, do not worry how or what you should speak in
defense or what you should say for the Holy Spirit will teach you in the
same hour what it is necessary to say."
Lk 21:12-15, "But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you
and they will persecute you, handing you over to the synagogues and jails,
bing led away to kings and governors because of my name. For you, it will
turn out to be for you for testimony. Therefore, keep in your hearts not to
prepare to defend, for I will give to you a mouth and Wisdom, so all the
ones being opposed to you will not be able to resist or contradict."
8. The Th parallel to Lk 12:13-14 is Th 72:1-2:
Lk 12:13-14, "And said someone out of the crowd to him, 'Teacher, speak to
my brother to share the inheritance with me.' But he said to him, 'Man,
who appointed me a judge or arbitrator over you?' "
Th 72:1-2, "[A man said] to Him, 'Tell my brothers to divide my father's
possessions with me.' He said to him, 'O man, who has made Me a divider?'"

Frank McCoy
1809 N. English Apt 15
Maplewood, MN USA 55109
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