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Re: [GTh] Part V ofThe Synoptic Gospel Problem and Thomas

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  • fmmccoy
    (Note: This is the fifth in a series of five posts) V UNIT 3--MT 11:11//LK 7:28//TH 46 A. The Text of Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28 Next, let us turn to an analysis of
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 13, 2005
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      (Note: This is the fifth in a series of five posts)

      V UNIT 3--MT 11:11//LK 7:28//TH 46

      A. The Text of Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28

      Next, let us turn to an analysis of unit 3, MT 11:11//LK 7:28//TH 46.

      We will begin with Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28, which reads:
      Line 1
      Mt 11:11a Truly, I say to you, there has not arisen among [those] born of
      women greater that John the Baptist,
      Lk 7:28a I say to you, among those born of women, no one is greater than
      John
      Line 2
      Mt 11:11b but the least in the Kingdom of the Heavens is greater than him..
      Lk 7:28b But the least in the Kingdom of God is greater than him.

      B. The Perspectives of the 2DH and the FH

      Mt 11:11 and Lk 7:28 are so closely parallel that a literary relationship
      between them is necessitated.

      According to the 2DH, the nature of the literary relationship is that both
      Mt 11:11 and Lk 7:28 are based on Q 7:28.

      According to the FH, the nature of the literary relationship is that first
      Matthew wrote Mt 11:11 and then Luke based Lk 7:28 on Mt 11:11.

      Which explanation is more likely to be correct?

      C. The Least in the Kingdom of God

      Well, one of the striking features of Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28 is a reference to
      the least in the Kingdom:
      Mt 11:11b but the least (mikroteros) in the Kingdom of the Heavens is
      greater than him..
      Lk 7:28b But the least (mikroteros) in the Kingdom of God is greater than
      him.

      This feature is Matthean. This is because, while a different Greek word is
      used, the same concept of the least in the Kingdom is found in a uniquely
      Matthean passage, i.e., Mt 5:19, "Therefore, whoever breaks one of these
      least (alachistwn) commandments and teaches this to men, he will be called
      least (alachistos) in the Kingdom of the Heavens."

      This is, thus, an indication that Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28 originated with Matthew
      rather than with the author of Q.

      D. A Thematic Progression Only in Mt

      1 Introduction

      There is another indication that Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28 originated with Matthew
      rather than with the author of Q. That is, there appears to be a thematic
      development in Mt 11:10-11//Lk 7:27-28 that that continues into Mt 11:12 but
      not into Lk 7:29.

      2. The Significance of the Quotation Apparently Being Ex 23:20a-b

      As pointed out in Section IV, the quotation in Mt 11:10//Lk 7:27
      appears to be Ex 23:20a-b rather than Mal 3:1. This is very significant
      because this radically effects how this quotation is to be interpreted.

      If the quote is of Mal 3:1, then the speaker is God and the one being spoken
      to is Jesus and the angel/messenger is John--presumably as Elijah come
      again. So, in Q and the History of Early Christianity (p. 133), Christopher
      M. Tuckett states, "Unlike the MT of Mal 3:1, the text quoted in Q 7:27 has
      the speaker (presumably God) speaking about a messenger (John) directing his
      words to someone else (presumably for Q, Jesus). (In Mal 3:1 God says that
      he will send his messenger ahead of himself; in Q God says 'I will send my
      messenger before *you* to prepare *your* way',) Thus John is the expected
      Elijah who will prepare the way for *Jesus*. Hence, in v. 27 there is an
      emphatically positive statement about John's status, coupled with an implied
      corollary that John's significance is only to be seen relation to that of
      Jesus."

      However, the situation is quite different if the quote is of Ex 23:20a-b.

      Here is LXX Ex 23:20:
      And, behold, I send my angel/messenger before your face, that he may keep
      you in the way, that he may bring you into the land which I have prepared
      for you.

      In the context, the "you" are the people of God (see Ex 23:22b, "You shall
      be to me a peculiar people above all the nations".). In particular, they
      are the Israelites who have left Egypt and are now in the wilderness.

      In the context, the land which God has prepared for them is Palestine.

      In the context, the identity of the angel/messenger is not clear. If it is
      an angel, then it is a divine being. If it is a messenger, then it is
      Moses--who led the people of God to the Promised Land.

      The writers of the DSS apparently took the angel/messenger to be Moses. So,
      regarding a slightly later incident related in Ex 24:18a ("And Moses went
      into the midst of the cloud"), it is stated in 4Q377, "And Moses the man of
      God (was) with God in the cloud and the cloud covered him. For...when he
      was hallowed and out of His mouth he spoke like an angel. For who is a
      messenger like him?"

      In Exodus II, Philo first identifies this angel/messenger as being the
      Logos. So, regarding Ex 23:20-21, he states (13), "Of necessity was the
      Logos appointed as judge and mediator who is called 'angel'."

      However, soon thereafter (16), he speaks of this angel/messenger being a
      prophet, stating, "What is the meaning of the words (in Ex. 23:22), 'If
      hearing thou wilt hear My voice and thou wilt do all that I say to thee, I
      shall be an enemy to thine enemies and I will oppose those who oppose thee'?
      Because some men do not hearken when hearing or, rather, pretend not to have
      heard, He has specified in this passage, 'If hearing ye will hear My voice,'
      (which), it must be supposed, refers to the angel mentioned a little while
      ago. For the prophet of Him who speaks is properly an angel."

      Although the translator continues to translate the underlying word as
      "angel", I think the meaning of it has shifted here to "messenger", with the
      idea being that this messenger is Moses. The reason I think this way is
      that Philo believed Moses to be "the prophet of Him". See, for example,
      Moses II (257-258), where Philo states, "All these myraids were persuaded by
      Moses to sing with hearts in accord with the same song, telling of those
      mighty and marvellous works which I have recorded just above. And the
      prophet, rejoicing at this, seeing the people also overjoyed, and himself no
      longer able to contain his delight, led off the song, and his hearers massed
      in two choirs sang with him the story of these same deeds. It was thus that
      Moses began and opened his work as a prophet possessed by God's Spirit."

      Further, Philo frequently interpreted passages on two levels--the literal
      level and the inner meaning level. So, I think we have a case, in Exodus
      II, where Philo is interpeting Ex 23:20 on both of these two levels: with
      the angel/messenger being the messenger Moses on the literal level and being
      an angel, i.e., the Logos, on the level of its inner meaning.

      In any event, it appears that there was some differences of opinion over
      whether this angel/messenger was a divine angel or a human messenger. When
      he was taken to be a human messenger, he was taken to be Moses. Judging by
      what Philo states in Exodus II (16), as this messenger, Moses was believed
      to have acted as a prophet.

      So, to summarize, in terms of first century CE Jewish thought, it apparently
      was understood that, in the original context of Ex 23:20:
      (1) the speaker is God
      (2) "you" are the people of God who are in the wilderness
      (3) the land prepared for the people of God is Palestine
      (4) the angel/messenger is a divine being if an angel, but Moses (likely in
      the role of being a prophet) if a messenger.

      4. How Intepreted in the New Context of c. 30 CE

      In Mt 11:10//Lk 7:27, I suggest, it is further understood that history
      is repeating itself in that Ex 23:20 is applicable anew in a new context.
      In this new context, the "you" are the new people of God, i.e., those who
      are in the wilderness to see John (Mt 11:7//Lk 7:24). As for John, he is
      the new messenger and, like the original messenger (i.e., Moses), he acts in
      the role of a prophet (Mt 11:9-10//Lk 11:26-27).

      As for the new land that is prepared for the new people of God, it is the
      Kingdom--as is made clear in the ensuing Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28:
      Line 1
      Mt 11:11a Truly, I say to you, there has not arisen among [those] born of
      women greater that John the Baptist,
      Lk 7:28a I say to you, among those born of women, no one is greater than
      John
      Line 2
      Mt 11:11b but the least in the Kingdom of the Heavens is greater than him..
      Lk 7:28b But the least in the Kingdom of God is greater than him.

      Here, the stress is on John being a second Moses the prophet. Because of
      this, even the previously incomparable Moses (e.g., note the previously
      cited 4Q377, "For who is a messenger like him?") now has someone on par with
      him--a someone about whom it can, therefore, be said, there is no one born
      of a woman higher than himself.

      Further, as the original messenger, Moses the prophet, led the original
      people of God (i.e., those in the wilderness because they have fled from
      Egypt) to the original land prepared for them (i.e., Palestine), but did not
      enter into it himself, so, now, the new messenger, who is the new Moses the
      prophet (i.e., John), leads the new people of God (i.e., those in the
      wilderness because they want to see him) to the new land prepared for them
      (i.e., the Kingdom), but has not entered into it himself--which is why even
      the least in the Kingdom is greater than he.

      Therefore, in Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28, John is given the exalted role of being a
      prophet like unto Moses. As such, he is being viewed as being the fulfiller
      of Deuteronomy 18:18-19, which is thusly cited in 4Q175 (4-5):
      The Lord spoke to Moses saying:..."I will raise up for them a Prophet like
      unto you from among their brethren. I will put words into his mouth and he
      shall tell them all that I command him. And I will require a reckoning of
      whoever will not listen to the words which the Prophet shall speak in my
      Name."

      This relates back to the preceding Mt 11:9//Lk 7:26:
      Mt 11:9 But what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you--and
      one greater than a prophet.
      Lk 7:26 But who did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I say to you--and
      more than a prophet

      In this case, then they can be roughly paraphrased::
      But who did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, the prophet Elijah come
      again. Yet he is more than just a prophet--for he is also *the* Prophet,
      i.e., the Prophet like unto Moses.

      Compare John 1:21, where some priests and Levites from Jerusalem are
      questioning John the Baptist:
      And they asked him, "What, then? Are you Elijah?" And he says, "I am not!"
      "Are you the Prophet?" And he answered, "No!"

      Here, it appears, John the Evangelist is polemicizing against the viewpoint
      that John the Baptist was Elijah come again and/or the Prophet--the Prophet
      like unto Moses. This polemicizing would not have been done by John the
      Evangelist unless he was aware that there those who believed John the
      Baptist to be Elijah and/or the Prophet like unto Moses.

      To summarize, the idea in Mt 11:10-11/Lk 7:27-28 appears to be on how
      salvation history has, in a significant sense, repeated itself. First, and
      this is on the implicit level of the narrative, there was the time of the
      first Exodus. Then the people of God (i.e., those who had left Egypt) in
      the wilderness were led by the prophet Moses to the Promised Land (i.e.,
      Palestine), but he did not enter into it himself. Second, and this is on
      the explicit level of the narrative, there was the time for the second
      Exodus.. Then the people of God in the wilderness (i.e., those who came to
      see John) were led by this prophet like unto Moses to the Promised Land
      (i.e., the Kingdom), but he did not enter into it himself.

      4. The Thematic Development Continues in Mt 11:12 But Not in Lk 7:29

      There is a progression of this theme in Mt 11:12, "And from the days of
      John the Baptist until now, the Kingdom of the Heavens is forcibly entered
      and violent men sieze it."

      Thus, as at the time of the Exodus, the people of God (i.e., those who left
      Egypt) forcibly entered the Promised Land (i.e., Palestine) and violently
      siezed it, so, now, the people of God (i.e., those who came to see John)
      forcibly enter the Promised Land (i.e., the Kingdom) and violently seize it.

      However, this theme is abandoned in Lk 7:29, "And all the people and the tax
      collectors, having listened, justified God, having been baptized with the
      baptism of John."

      This situation is readily explicable under the hypothesis that this is a
      theme which was created and developed by Matthew in Mt 11:10-12.. If so,
      then Luke 7:27-28 is based on Mt 11:10-11, but Luke 7:29 is a Lukan
      substitute for Mt 11:12.

      E. The Argument for Mt 11:7-15 being a Matthean Creation

      1 Linkages of Mt 3:1-4 to Mt 11:7-15
      .
      Indeed, there is evidence that not just Mt 11:11-12 is a Matthean creation,
      but, beyond it, all of Mt 11:7-15 as well.

      What I am referring to are these linkages of Mt 3:1-4 to Mt 11:7-15

      1. Mt 3:1
      Mt 3:1a Now in those days comes John the Baptist preaching in the
      *wilderness*
      Mt 11:7b What did you go out into the *wilderness* to see?

      Comment: here Mt 3:1 links to the other passages through the word
      "wilderness"

      2. Mt 3:2
      Mt 3:2 saying, 'Repent, for has come near *the Kingdom of the Heavens*.
      Mt 11:11b but the least in *the Kingdom of the Heavens* is greater than
      him..
      Mt 11:12a And from the days of John the Baptist until now, *the Kingdom of
      the Heavens* is forcibly entered

      Comment: here Mt 3:2 links to the other passages through the phrase *the
      Kingdom of the Heavens*

      3. Mt 3:3
      Mt 3:3a For this is the one spoken [of] through Isaiah the *prophet*
      Mt 11:9 But what did you go out to see? A *prophet*? Yes, I tell you--and
      one greater than a *prophet*
      Mt 11:13a "For all the *prophets* and the Law prophecied until John

      Comment: here Mt 3:3 links to the other passages through the word
      "prophet(s)". Note that, while Matthew has the order of (1) the Law and (2)
      the prophets in 5:17 and 22:40, he reverses the order to (1) the prophets
      and (2) the Law in 11:13a in order to lay stress on the word "prophets".

      Mt 3:4a Now John, himself, had his clothing from [the] hairs of a camel and
      a leather belt around his waist,
      Mt 11:8a But what did you go out to see? A man dressed in soft clothes?
      Mt 11:14a And if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah

      Comment: here Mt 3:4 links to the other passages through the description of
      the clothing of John. Since this clothing is rough, it links to Mt
      11:8a--where the questions are rhetorical and are based on the understanding
      that John wore rough clothing. Since this clothing is also the clothing of
      Elijah in II (IV) Kings 1:8, this links it to Mt 11:14a--where John is said
      to be Elijah

      Here is the schema of the linkages of Mt 3:1-4 to Mt 11:7-15:
      Mt 3:1-4 Mt 11:7-11 Mt 11:12-15
      3:1 11:7 ---
      3:2 11:10-11 11:12
      3:3 11:9 11:13
      3:4 11:8 11:14-15

      When one omits the first linkage of Mt 3:1 to Mt 11:7, then, where:
      A = a passage which links to Mt 3:2
      B = a passage which links to Mt 3:3
      C = a passage which links to Mt 3:4
      this mirror symmetrical schema results:
      11:8 C
      11:9 B
      11:10-11 A
      -------mirror plane-----
      11:12 A
      11:13 B
      11:14-15 C

      Further, this mirror symmetrical schema directly relates to the Prophetology
      (is there such a word?) of John the Baptist in Matthean thought:
      1. The two A units (11:10-11, 11:12 regard John as *the* Prophet, i.e., the
      prophet like unto Moses. 11:10 is the citation of Ex 23:20 and 11:11 and
      11:12 develop the scenario of the new Exodus to the new Promised Land of the
      Kingdom, with this prophet like unto Moses, like the prophet Moses earlier,
      leading the people of God to the Promised Land, but not entering himself.
      2. The two C units (11:8 and 11:14-15) regard John as Elijah the Prophet.
      This is explicit in 11:14-15. This is implicit in 11:8, which links to Mt
      3:4 which, in turn, links to II(IV) Kings 1:8.
      3. The two B units (11:9 and 11:13) have linkage with each other and with
      3:3 through the word "prophet(s)". The word is singular in 11:9 since we
      are dealing with one person, i.e., John the Baptist. The word is plural in
      11:13 because he embodies, in himself, two awaited prophets, i.e., Elijah
      the Prophet come again and the Prephet like unto Moses

      So, it appears, Mt 11:7-15 is a Matthean creation, rooted in Mt 3:1-4, in
      which Matthew outlines his Prophetology of John the Baptist. As a result,
      it appears, it supports the FH.

      Conversely, under the 2DH, as:
      1. Mt 11:7-11//Lk 7:24-28 is based on Q 7:24-28
      and as:
      2. the classic definition of Q is that it consists of the non-Markan
      material common to Mt and Lk
      then, as:
      3. Mt 11:7-11/Lk 7:24-28 has connectivity with each of the four verses in Mt
      3:1-4
      it should be the case that:
      4. each of the verses in Mt 3:1-4 has a Lukan parallel in Lk 3:1-6.
      However, there is no Lukan parallel for either Mt 3:2 or Mt 3:4: meaning
      that, it appears, the 2DH cannot explain this situation.

      So, it appears, the sequence for Mt 11:7-11//Lk 7:24-28 is that first
      Matthew wrote Mt 11:7-11 and then Luke based Lk 7:24-28 on Mt 11:7-11.

      F Concluding Remarks on Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28

      It appears that Lk 7:28 is based on Mt 11:11. The concept of the least in
      the Kingdom appears to be Matthean--which suggests that Matthew wrote Mt
      11:11 and Luke based Lk 7:28 on Mt 11:11. There is a thematic development
      in Mt 11:10-12 that is also found in Lk 7:27-28, but is prematurely ended in
      Lk 7:29 and this situation appears to reflect Luke basing Lk 7:27-28 on Mt
      11:10-11, but substituting what he writes in Lk 7:29 for what he saw in Mt
      11:12. Third, Mt 11:11 is a part of a larger unit, i.e., Mt 11:7-15, that
      appears to have been written by Matthew and this suggests that first Mt
      wrote Mt 11:11 and then Luke based Lk 7:28 on Mt 11:11.

      As a result, when just analyzing Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28, so that Th 46 is not
      taken into account, the FH appears to be clearly superior to the 2DH

      G. Mt 11:11//Lk 7:24-26Th 46

      1. The Texts

      Next, let us turn to Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28//Th 46:
      Line 1
      Mt 11:11a Truly, I say to you, there has not arisen among [those] born of
      women greater that John the Baptist,
      Th 46:1 Said Jesus this, From Adam up to John the Baptist, among the
      begotten of woman, no one is raised up above John the Baptist so that to
      break his eyes.
      Lk 7:28a I say to you, among those born of women, no one is greater than
      John
      Line 2
      Mt 11:11b but the least in the Kingdom of the Heavens is greater than him.
      Th 46:2 However, I spoke this: He among you who will come to being a little
      one, he will know the Kingdom and will be raised above John.
      Lk 7:28b But the least in the Kingdom of God is greater than him.

      2. The Major Differences

      There are at least three major differences between the Synoptic and Th
      versions of this saying::
      1. Only Th 46 has the phrase "From Adam up to John the Baptist"
      2. Only Th 46 has the phrase "so that to break his eyes"
      3. In Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28, it is the least in the Kingdom who are greater than
      John while, in Th 46, it is a little one who knows the Kingdom who is
      greater than John..

      3. Which Version is Earlier?

      a. The First Two Differences are Ambiguous

      As respects the first two major differences, it appears that either Matthew
      and Luke shorten the saying by omitting two phrases found in Th 46 or else
      Thomas lengthens the saying by adding two phrases not found in Mt 11:11//Lk
      7:28, but there doesn't appear to be a clear indication as to which
      alternative is preferable.

      b. But the Third Favors the MTH

      As respects the third major difference, though, there appears to be a clear
      indication that Th 46 is earlier than Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28.

      In both Mt 11:11a//Lk 7:28a and Th 46:1, the stress is on the idea that no
      one born of a woman is greater than John.

      What one would expect, then, in Mt 11:11b//Lk 7:28b and Th 46:2, is a stress
      on the idea that anyone reborn not of a woman is greater than John.

      Indeed, this appears to be the case in Th 46:2, where the one greater than
      John is a "little one" who "knows" the Kingdom. This relates to Th 22:1,
      where Jesus states, "These infants being suckled are like those who enter
      the Kingdom."

      As a result, the "little one" is an infant in the sense of being someone who
      has just been reborn not of a woman and such a babe knows the Kingdom
      because such a babe has entered into the Kingdom.

      Compare John 3:3, where Jesus says, "Amen. Amen. I say to you, unless
      someone is born again, he is not able to enter the Kingdom of God."

      However, this is not the case in Mt 11:11b//Lk 7:26b, where the one greater
      than John is one who is least in the Kingdom.

      As a result, it appears, the Th 46 version of the saying reflects an
      original contrast between one born of a woman and one reborn not of a woman,
      while Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28 represents a later stage in the development of the
      saying that lacks this original contrast.

      This is in accord with the MTH--according to which Mt 11:11 is based on Th
      46 and with Luke basing Lk 7:28 on Mt 11:11.

      Indeed, there is a reason why one might expect Matthew to have changed
      the Thomasine idea of one greater than John being a little one knowing the
      Kingdom into the idea of one greater than John being one who is least in the
      Kingdom. That is, as pointed out above, it appears that the concept of the
      least in the Kingdom was pleasing to Matthew.

      So, as respects the last major difference between the Synoptic version of
      the saying and the Th version of the saying, it indicates that Th 46
      belongs to an earlier stage of development for the saying than does Mt
      11:11, and this indication is strengthened by the observation that Matthew
      had motivation to alter Th 46:2 into what we see in Mt 11:11b. As a result,
      it appears most likely that Mt 11:11 is based on Th 46.

      d. The Baptist

      Still, an argment can be made that, rather, Th 46 is based on Mt 11:11.

      For example, in Studies in The Gospel of Thomas (p. 62), R. McL Wilson
      states the following as respects Th 46, "Grant and Freeman plausibly suggest
      that the opening words are modelled on the following verse in Matthew (xi.
      12), in which case Thomas has re-written the saying."

      The argument here is that this phrase in the first part of Mt 11:12:
      And from the days of John the Baptist until now
      is the inspiration for this phrase in the first part of Th 46:
      From Adam up to John the Baptist.

      Indeed, there appears to be some sort of literary relationship here: for
      each is a temporal phrase in which "John the Baptist" is a key element.

      But, if there be a literary relationship here, which is earlier and which is
      later? Is it the case that the temporal phrase in Th 46 is based on the
      temporal phrase in Mt 11:12, or is it the case that the temporal phrase in
      Mt 11:12 is based on the temporal phrase in Th 46?

      On the basis of a five step argument, I think it most likely that the
      temporal phrase in Mt 11:12 is based on the temporal phrase in Th 46.

      First, this rule apparently applies:
      When using Mk as a source, Matthew uses the appositive of "the Baptist" for
      John only when Mark does.

      I have found three examples of where Matthew uses this appositive for John
      when utilizing Mk as a source and, in each case, an appositive occurs in Mk
      as well. They are Mt 3:1//Mk 1:4, Mt 14:2//Mk 6:14, and Mt 14:8//Mk 6:25.

      Second, the expectation, then, is that Matthew will use this appositive of
      "the Baptist" elsewhere in Mt only when it appears in a source he is using.

      Third, as far as I can tell, there are two examples of where he uses this
      appositive elsewhere in his gospel:
      1. Mt 11:11
      2. Mt 11:12.

      Fourth, the inference is that he uses the appositive of "the Baptist" in
      these two verses because he sees it in a non-Markan source he is using.

      Fifth, the application of the inference is this:
      1. As:
      a. Mt 11:11 has a parallel in Th 46
      and as:
      b. Th 46 has this appositive
      it is the case that:
      c. Matthew used Th 46 as a source in writing Mt 11:11
      and:
      2. As:
      a. in Mt 11:12, the appositive occurs in a temporal phrase
      and as:
      b. the appositive also occurs in a related temporal phrase in Th 46
      it is the case that:
      c. the temporal phrase in Th 46 is the inspiration for the temporal phrase
      in Mt 11:12.

      As a result, it appears, Matthew used Th 46 as a source for Mt 11:11 and the
      first part of Mt 11:12.

      In support of this conclusion, it is the case that the appositive of "the
      Baptist" is quite necessary in Th 46 because it is the first and only
      mention of this John in Th.

      However, the appositive of "the Baptist" for John is quite unnecesary in Mt
      11:11 because, just a few verses earlier (i.e., in Mt 11:7) Matthew simply
      calls him John.

      Further, as this appositive does not occur in Lk 7:28, it cannot be
      plausibly argued that it occurred in Q 7:28 (Indeed, the IQP does not have
      this appositive in Q 7:28)

      So, what is anomalous is the appearance of the appositive of "the Baptist"
      in Mt 11:11--where it is neither needed nor to be expected.

      The most plausible explanation for this situation: Matthew saw this
      appositive in Th 46 (where it is needed) and mechanically copied it in Mt
      11:11 (where it is not needed).

      The bottom line: the evidence appears to indicate that Mt 11:11 is based on
      Th 46. This is inconsistent with the 2DH and the FH--both of which presume
      that either Th 46 is based on Mt 11:11 or else Th 46 and Mt 11:11 are
      independent of each other. This is, however, consistent with the
      MTH--according to which Matthew used Th as a source in writing his gospel.

      4. Deliberate Design?

      a. A Pattern

      Note that, when:
      A = a passage with a parallel in Th
      B = a passage without a parallel in Th
      it is the case that, in Mt 11:7-11, we have this pattern:
      Mt 11:7-9 A
      Mt 11:10 B
      Mt 11:11 A

      b. The Pattern Repeated

      This pattern is repeated in Matt 11:27-30.

      It begins with Mt 11:27a ("All things were given to me by my Father."),
      which has a parallel in Th 61:3b ("I was given some of the things of my
      Father.").

      It closes with Mt. 11:28-30 ("Come to me all the ones becoming weary and
      being burdened and I will give rest to you. Take up my yoke upon you and
      learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart, and you will find rest
      for your souls. For my yoke is easy and the load of it is light."), which
      has a parallel in Th 90 ("Jesus said, 'Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and
      My lordship is mild, and you will find repose for yourself.").

      In-between is a passage without a parallel in Th.

      So, here, we have the same A-B-A pattern:
      Mt 11:27a A
      Mt 11:27b B
      Mt 11:28-30 A

      c. Coincidence or Deliberate Design?

      Is it coincidence that we find the same A-B-A pattern in Mt 11:7-11 and Mt
      11:27-30? Or, is it due to deliberate design--with, in this case, the
      author of these two passages using Th as the source for the "A" units?

      d. It Appears to be Deliberate Design

      IMO, it is very unlikely that this is due to coincidence because Mt 11:7-30
      is a monologue of Jesus to the crowds, interrupted only twice with asides by
      the author:
      1. Mt 11:20, "Then he began to reproach the cities in which were performed
      the majority of his miracles because they did not repent."
      2. Mt 11:25, "At that time, having answered, Jesus said,...".

      As a result, these two structurally identical units are not randomly placed
      but, rather, appear precisely at the beginning and the close of a monologue
      by Jesus.

      Therefore, they appear to be deliberately placed: and if they have been
      deliberately placed then, almost certainly, they have been deliberately
      designed as well--with the author basing all the "A" passages on passages
      from Th.

      e. But, Who, Then, is the Author of Mt 11:7-30?

      Who, though, is the author of the monologue of Jesus in Mt 11:7-30? Is it
      the creation of Matthew? Or, is it Matthew's version of a monologue of
      Jesus created by the author of Q? The answers to these questions are not
      self-evident because almost all of Mt 11:7-30 has parallels in Lk and, so,
      might come from Q.

      f. A Way to Determine the Answers

      A way to answering these questions might lie in this line schema for Mk
      6:7-11//Mt 8:37-10:16//Lk 10:1-12:

      Line 1 Mt 9:37-38
      Mt: Then he says to his disciples, ' Indeed, the harvest great, but the
      workers few. Therefore, ask the Lord of the harvest, so that he may send
      out workers into his harvest.'
      Line 2 Mk 6:7//Lk 10:1//Mt 10:1
      Mk And he summons the Twelve and he began to send them out two by two. And
      he was giving to them authority over the unclean spirits
      Lk And after these things, the Lord appointed seventy-two others and he
      sent them, two by two, before his face into every city and place where he
      was about to come
      Mt And, summoning his twelve disciples, he gave to them authority [over]
      unclean spirits (so as to cast them out) and to heal every disease and every
      illness.
      Line 3 Lk 10:2-3//Mt 10:2-8
      Lk And he was saying to them, 'Indeed, the harvest is plentiful, but the
      workers few. Therefore, ask the Lord of the Harvest that he might send out
      workers into his harvest. Go! Behold, I send you as lambs in the midst of
      wolves.
      Mt Now, of the twelve apostles, the names are these. First, Simon, the one
      called Peter, and Andrew, his brother, and James the [son} of Zebedee and
      John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas, and Matthew, the tax
      collector; James the [son] of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananaean,
      and Judas Iscariot--the one also betraying him. Jesus sent out these
      twelve, commanding them, saying, 'Do not go into the way of the Gentiles and
      do not enter into a Samaritan city. But go, instead, to the lost sheep of
      the house of Israel--and, going, preach: saying, 'The Kingdom of the Heavens
      is near!' Heal the ailing, raise the dead, clease the lepers, cast out
      demons. Freely you received, freely give.'
      Line 4 Mk 6:8-9//Lk 10:4//Mt 10:9-10a
      Mk And he gave orders to them that they should take nothing with them on the
      road except a walking stick: not bread, nor a knapsack, nor coppers in the
      belt (but having had sandals tied on) and do not dress (with) two shirts
      Lk Do not carry a purse, nor a beggar's bag, nor sandals, and greet no one
      along the way
      Mt Do not acquire gold nor silver nor copper in your belts--nor a knapsack
      for the road, nor two shirts, nor sandals nor a staff.
      Line 5 Lk 10:5-7a//Mt 10:10b
      Lk And into what house you enter, first say, Peace to this house, and if
      there is a son of peace, upon him your peace will rest: otherwise, on you it
      will return. And in the same house remain: eating and drinking the things
      with them--for worthy is the worker of his work.
      Mt For worthy is the worker of his food.
      Line 6 Mk 6:10//Lk 10:7b//Mt 10:11
      Mk And he was saying to them, 'Wherever you enter into a house, stay there
      until you leave from there.
      Lk Do not move from house to house.
      Mt And into whichever city or village you enter, inquire who in it is
      worthy and there remain until you leave.
      Line 7 Lk 10:8-9//Mt 10:12-13
      Lk And into whichever city you enter and they receive you, eat the things
      being set before you and heal the ones in it who are sick and say to them,
      Has come near to you the Kingdom of God.
      Mt And, entering into the house, greet it. And, if indeed the house is
      worthy, let come youir peace upon it. But if it is not worthy, let your
      peace return to you.
      Line 8 Mk 6:11//Lk 10:10-11a//Mt 10:14
      Mk And whatever place does not welcome you, nor listen to you, going out
      from there, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony to them.
      Lk And into what ever city you enter and they do not receive you, having
      gone out into its streets, say, Even the dust of your city, having clinging
      to us, to our feet, we shake off [against] you.
      Mt And whoever does not receive you, nor listen to your words, going out
      outside of the house or that city, shake off the dust of your feet.
      Line 9 Lk 10:11b-12//Mt 10:15-16a
      Lk But know this: that has come near the Kingdom of God. I say to you that
      for Sodom in that day it will be more bearable than with that city.
      Mt Amen, I say to you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and
      Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that city. Behold, I send you as
      sheep in the midst of wolves.
      Line 10 Mt 10:16b
      Mt Therefore be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.

      There are a number of remarkable features to this line schema.

      For the purposes of the present discussion, though, only one of these
      remarkable feautres is relevant, i.e., the remarkable feature that both the
      first line and the last line of Mt 9:37-10:16 have parallels in Th.

      For the first line:
      Then he says to his disciples, "Indeed, the harvest great, but the workers
      few. Therefore, ask the Lord of the harvest, so that he may send out
      workers into his harvest."
      the parallel is Th 73
      Jesus said, "The harvest is great but the laborers are few. Beseech the
      Lord, therefore, to send out laborers to the harvest."
      For the last line:
      Therefore be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.
      the parallel is Th 39:3:
      You, however, be as wise as serpents and as innocent as doves.

      Further, while:
      (1) the Matthean first line has a parallel in the Lukan version of line 4
      and, so, might come from Q
      it is the case that:
      (2) the Matthean last line has no parallel anwhere in Lk and, therefore,
      apparently does not come from Q.

      Therefore, this design of having Mt 9:37-10:16 begin and end with a passage
      that has a parallel in Th appears to be a design created by Matthew rather
      than by the author of Q.

      This favors the hypothesis that Mt 11:7-30, which both begins and ends with
      a passage that has a parallel in Th, is the creation of Matthew rather than
      the creation of the author of Q.

      g. Concluding Remarks on A Pattern

      Where:
      A = a passage with a parallel in Th
      B = a passage without a parallel in Th
      both Mt 11:7-11 and Mt 11:27-30 have an A-B-A pattern.

      Further, this appears to be by deliberate design because they open and close
      a monologue of Jesus. As a result, it appears, the author of Mt 11:7-30
      based the "A" passages on passages in Th.

      Finally, it appears, the author of Mt 11:7-30 is Matthew rather than the
      author of Q.

      So, it appears, Matthew created Mt 11:7-30 and used Th as one of his sources
      in writing it.

      In particular, it appears, Matthew based Mt 11:7-9, Mt 11:11, Mt 11:27a, and
      Mt 11:28-30 on passages from Th.

      5. Concluding Remarks on Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28//Th 46

      It appears that Lk 7:28 is based on Mt 11:11. The concept of the least in
      the Kingdom appears to be Matthean--which suggests that Matthew wrote Mt
      11:11 and Luke based Lk 7:28 on Mt 11:11. There is a thematic development
      in Mt 11:10-12 that is also found in Lk 7:27-28, but is prematurely ended in
      Lk 7:29 and this situation appears to reflect Luke basing Lk 7:27-28 on Mt
      11:10-11, but substituting what he writes in Lk 7:29 for what he saw in Mt
      11:12. Third, Mt 11:11 is a part of a larger unit, i.e., Mt 11:7-15, that
      appears to have been written by Matthew and this suggests that first Mt
      wrote Mt 11:11 and then Luke based Lk 7:28 on Mt 11:11.

      As a result, when just analyzing Mt 11:11//Lk 7:28, so that Th 46 is not
      taken into account, the FH appears to be clearly superior to the 2DH.

      It also appears that Mt 11:11 is based on Th 46. It appears that Th 46 is
      closer to the original meaning of the saying. The appositive of "John the
      Baptist" also indicates that Mt 11:11 is based on Th 46. So does the the
      apparent deliberate design of Mt 11:7-40.

      As a result, when also taking Th 46 into account, the MTH appears to be
      superior to both the FH and the 2DH.

      VI CONCLUSION

      This concludes the examination of Mt 11:7-11//Lk 7:24-28//Mk 1:2//Th 46, 78.

      There is considerable evidence to support the 2DH, so it is a viable
      hypothesis. However, some of the evidence does bring into question its
      validity.

      Further, it appears that the overall weight of the evidence::
      1. supports the FH over the 2DH where the discussion of the Synoptic
      material does not take into account any Th parallels,
      2. supports the MTH over both the 2DH and the FH where the discussion of the
      Synoptic material does take into account any Th parallels.

      As a result, since the MTH becomes the FH whenever there are no parallel
      passages in Th, the cumulative weight of the evidence provided by Mt
      11:7-11//Lk 7:24-28//Mk 1:2//Th 46, 78 apparently provides the beginning of
      making a credible case for the validity of the 2DH.

      Frank McCoy
      Maplewood, MN USA 55109
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