The leased vineyard
- The parable of the 'leased vineyard' is yet another parable that we may show is prior to the other parallels found in Mark, Matthew and Luke. As with the other parables we have looked at we see that Mark looks like the first redaction (by addition) of the parable from Thomas. I believe the authors did this for the sake of adding an explanation about the parable.
Thomas uses the term farmer while the canonical use husbandmen. That might suggest that Matthew and Luke where composed from Mark, maybe? Mark, Matthew, and Luke add 'the stone that the builders rejected' to the end of the passages about the landowner. This provides a commonality to the canonicals which might also show redaction from other than Thomas. I will defer to others on the list that can put chronologies and parallels together better than I can.
I have enclosed the corresponding Thomas 65, and canonicals below. Is there any speculation on what the 'rejected stone' might mean in this parable? Why did Mark and the others add it?
Th- 65. He said, "A [...] person owned a vineyard and rented it to some farmers, so they could work it and he could collect its crop from them. He sent his slave so the farmers would give him the vineyard's crop. They grabbed him, beat him, and almost killed him, and the slave returned and told his master. His master said, 'Perhaps he didn't know them.' He sent another slave, and the farmers beat that one as well. Then the master sent his son and said, 'Perhaps they'll show my son some respect.' Because the farmers knew that he was the heir to the vineyard, they grabbed him and killed him. Anyone here with two ears had better listen!"
Mk (12-1,11) 1. And he began to speak unto them in parables. A man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a pit for the winepress, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another country.
2. And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruits of the vineyard.
3. And they took him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.
4. And again he sent unto them another servant; and him they wounded in the head, and handled shamefully.
5. And he sent another; and him they killed: and many others; beating some, and killing some.
6. He had yet one, a beloved son: he sent him last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son.
7. But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours.
8. And they took him, and killed him, and cast him forth out of the vineyard.
9. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others.
10. Have ye not read even this scripture: The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner; 11. This was from the Lord, And it is marvellous in our eyes?
Mt (21-33,44) 33. Hear another parable: There was a man that was a householder, who planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another country.
34. And when the season of the fruits drew near, he sent his servants to the husbandmen, to receive his fruits.
35. And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another.
36. Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they did unto them in like manner.
37. But afterward he sent unto them his son, saying, They will reverence my son.
38. But the husbandmen, when they saw the son, said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and take his inheritance.
39. And they took him, and cast him forth out of the vineyard, and killed him.
40. When therefore the lord of the vineyard shall come, what will he do unto those husbandmen?
41. They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those miserable men, and will let out the vineyard unto other husbandmen, who shall render him the fruits in their seasons.
42. Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner; This was from the Lord, And it is marvelous in our eyes?
43. Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken away from you, and shall be given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof.
44. And he that falleth on this stone shall be broken to pieces: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will scatter him as dust.
Lk (20-9,118) 9. And he began to speak unto the people this parable: A man planted a vineyard, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another country for a long time.
10. And at the season he sent unto the husbandmen a servant, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.
11. And he sent yet another servant: and him also they beat, and handled him shamefully, and sent him away empty.
12. And he sent yet a third: and him also they wounded, and cast him forth.
13. And the lord of the vineyard said, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son; it may be they will reverence him.
14. But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned one with another, saying, This is the heir; let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.
15. And they cast him forth out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do unto them?
16. He will come and destroy these husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others. And when they heard it, they said, God forbid.
17. But he looked upon them, and said, What then is this that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner?
18. Every one that falleth on that stone shall be broken to pieces; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will scatter him as dust.
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