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Re: [GTh] GTh 76 and Babylonian Jewish Silk Merchants

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  • Jim Bauer
    ... Along ... this ... Frank, It seems to me that both the pearl & the merchandise may be metaphorical, & not at all linked to Tyre or Indian trade routes.
    Message 1 of 4 , Dec 27, 2002
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      > Let us look at GTh 76, "Jesus said, 'The Kingdom of the Father is like a
      > merchant who had a consignment of merchandise and who discovered a pearl.
      > That merchant was shrewd. He sold the merchandise and bought the pearl
      > alone for himself. You too, seek his unfailing and enduring treasure where
      > no moth comes near to devour and no worm destroys."
      >
      > So, I suggest, the Thomas community at Edessa was founded by Babylonian
      > Jewish silk merchants living there who had been converted to Thomas
      > Christianity by some of their Tryian brethern.
      >
      > A further thought: From Edessa, two major trade routes ran to India--one
      > going south and east to the Red Sea and from there eastwards through the
      > extreme northen Indian Ocean, the other going mainly east over land.
      Along
      > these trade routes, ideas might have flowed from India to Edessa. These
      > ideas, in turn, might have been picked up by the Babylonian Jewish silk
      > merchants at Edessa and then spread to their brethren in Tyre, So, if
      this
      > suggestion is correct, then it increases the probability that there is an
      > influence of Indian thought on the Thomas tradition.
      >
      > What do you think of this suggestion?

      Frank,

      It seems to me that both the "pearl" & the "merchandise" may be
      metaphorical, & not at all linked to Tyre or Indian trade routes. It
      certainly is true that much of the scriptures--from whatever religion--is
      intended to be taken symbolically. However, symbolic analyses often run
      into problems with individual bias: a Freudian & a Jungian will come to
      radically different understandings of the same image.

      The pearl as a symbol appears in both Gnostic & Christian literature--"do
      not throw your pearls before swine" pops into my mind immediately. So my
      question is, could the pearl mentioned here be part of the same tradition
      that gave us the "Hymn of the Pearl" & the pearl mentioned in the Acts of
      Thomas? Would this make of Thomas a Gnostic document? What does the pearl
      _mean_ as a symbol? Could the "moth" & "worm" which consume also be figures
      of speech? More importantly, could these latter 2 acts of destruction be
      just a common idiom, & not at all intended to refer to the "merchandise"?

      Jim Bauer
      Havre, MT
    • fmmccoy
      ... From: Jim Bauer To: Sent: Friday, December 27, 2002 10:50 AM Subject: Re: [GTh] GTh 76 and Babylonian
      Message 2 of 4 , Jan 1, 2003
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        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "Jim Bauer" <jbauer@...>
        To: <gthomas@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Friday, December 27, 2002 10:50 AM
        Subject: Re: [GTh] GTh 76 and Babylonian Jewish Silk Merchants


        >
        >
        (Frank McCoy)
        > > Let us look at GTh 76, "Jesus said, 'The Kingdom of the Father is like
        a
        > > merchant who had a consignment of merchandise and who discovered a
        pearl.
        > > That merchant was shrewd. He sold the merchandise and bought the pearl
        > > alone for himself. You too, seek his unfailing and enduring treasure
        where
        > > no moth comes near to devour and no worm destroys."
        > >
        > > So, I suggest, the Thomas community at Edessa was founded by Babylonian
        > > Jewish silk merchants living there who had been converted to Thomas
        > > Christianity by some of their Tryian brethern.
        > >
        > > A further thought: From Edessa, two major trade routes ran to India--one
        > > going south and east to the Red Sea and from there eastwards through the
        > > extreme northen Indian Ocean, the other going mainly east over land.
        > Along
        > > these trade routes, ideas might have flowed from India to Edessa. These
        > > ideas, in turn, might have been picked up by the Babylonian Jewish silk
        > > merchants at Edessa and then spread to their brethren in Tyre, So, if
        > this
        > > suggestion is correct, then it increases the probability that there is
        an
        > > influence of Indian thought on the Thomas tradition.
        > >
        > > What do you think of this suggestion?
        >
        > Frank,
        >
        > It seems to me that both the "pearl" & the "merchandise" may be
        > metaphorical, & not at all linked to Tyre or Indian trade routes. It
        > certainly is true that much of the scriptures--from whatever religion--is
        > intended to be taken symbolically. However, symbolic analyses often run
        > into problems with individual bias: a Freudian & a Jungian will come to
        > radically different understandings of the same image.
        >
        > The pearl as a symbol appears in both Gnostic & Christian literature--"do
        > not throw your pearls before swine" pops into my mind immediately. So my
        > question is, could the pearl mentioned here be part of the same tradition
        > that gave us the "Hymn of the Pearl" & the pearl mentioned in the Acts of
        > Thomas? Would this make of Thomas a Gnostic document? What does the
        pearl
        > _mean_ as a symbol? Could the "moth" & "worm" which consume also be
        figures
        > of speech? More importantly, could these latter 2 acts of destruction be
        > just a common idiom, & not at all intended to refer to the "merchandise"?
        >

        Jim,

        I analyzed this parable of the Kingdom strictly in terms of its literal
        text, arguing that, in it, the envisoned scene is that of a Babylonian
        Jewish silk merchandise who finds a pearl in some merchandise that has been
        consigned to him. This sort of analysis does not get into the meaning the
        parable.

        A much simpler version of this parable is found in Matthew 13:45-46, "Again,
        the Kingdom of Heaven is like a merchant in search of fine pearls, who, on
        finding one pearl of great value, went and sold all that he had and bought
        it."

        Because the Matthean version of the parable is simpler, I think it likely
        that it is a more primitive version of the parable. If so, then the
        elaborations to the Thomas version of it (that turn the merchant into what
        appears to be a Babylonian Jewish silk merchant) probably occurred in a
        place where there were Babylonian Jewish silk merchants.

        This is not to deny that the parable has an inner meaning. Indeed, I'm sure
        that it has one.

        As for the pearl, it is explicitly said, in GTh 76, to represent "His
        unfailing and enduring treasure".

        I take this to mean that the pearl represents Wisdom: who, in Wisdom of
        Solomon 7:14, is said to be "a treasure unto men that never faileth."

        Similarly, the pearl apparently represents Wisdom in the Matthean parallel
        as well--see Matthew 13:44-46, "The Kingdom of Heaven is like a treasure
        hid in a field, which a man found and and covered up; then in his joy he
        goes and sells all that he has and buys that field. Again, the Kingdom of
        Heaven is like a merchant in search of fine pearls, who, on finding one
        pearl of great value, went and sold all that he had and bought it."

        Initially, the Kingdom is likened to a hidden treasure in a field that a man
        found (by digging it up). This appears to identify the Kingdom as being
        Wisdom: for Wisdom can be likened to a treasure uncovered by digging. So,
        in Deus (91-92), Philo relates, "On the other hand, it is a common
        experience that things befall us of which we have not even dreamt, like the
        story of the husbandman who, digging his orchard to plant some fruit-trees,
        lighted on a treasure, and thus met with prosperity beyond his hopes....For
        when God delivers to us that lore of His eternal Wisdom without our toil or
        labour, we find in it suddenly and unexpectedly a treasure of perfect
        happiness."

        Next, the Kingdom, which we now know is Wisdom is, I think, likened to a
        pearl of great price. So, ISTM, the pearl of great price symbolizes the
        spiritual treasure of Wisdom.

        In this case, then, the point of Matthew 13:44-46 is that the Kingdom (i.e.,
        Wisdom) is so priceless a spiritual treasure that one ought to do whatever
        is necessary to obtain her--even if this requires you to forsake all your
        worldly possessions.

        In any event, the bottom line is that, in both the Thomas and Matthean
        versions of the parable of the merchant, the pearl appears to represent the
        Kingdom (i.e., Wisdom).

        I am not familiar with the Hymn of the Pearl. Could you cite the document
        and passage where it is found? Or, better yet, if it is a short hymn, could
        you copy it down in a posting?

        Jim, you also ask whether the "moth" and "worm" might be figures of speech.
        In terms of the inner meaning of GTh 76, I think that they symbolize the
        forces of destruction that make all material things perishable, with the
        intent being to emphasise the superiority of the spiritual treasure of
        Wisdom to material treasure because Wisdom is imperishable, while everything
        material is perishable.

        Frank McCoy
        1809 N. English Apt. 17
        Maplewood, MN USA 55109
      • Jim Bauer
        ... could ... Frank, The best source to find it in is Hans Jonas _The Gnostic Religion_. Since it takes up most of a chapter, I d be reluctant to
        Message 3 of 4 , Jan 1, 2003
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          > >
          > >
          > (Frank McCoy)
          > I am not familiar with the Hymn of the Pearl. Could you cite the document
          > and passage where it is found? Or, better yet, if it is a short hymn,
          could
          > you copy it down in a posting?
          >
          Frank,

          The best source to find it in is Hans Jonas' _The Gnostic Religion_. Since
          it takes up most of a chapter, I'd be reluctant to copy-&-paste it into a
          posting. You might also want to try the search engine at www.gnosis.org.

          Jim Bauer
          Havre, MT
        • Michael Grondin
          ... Gnostic Religion_. The Hymn of the Pearl is embedded in the Acts of Thomas. It can be found in several sources, including Bentley Layton s _The Gnostic
          Message 4 of 4 , Jan 2, 2003
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            > The best source to find [The Hymn of the Pearl] is Hans Jonas' _The
            Gnostic Religion_.

            "The Hymn of the Pearl" is embedded in the Acts of Thomas. It can be found
            in several sources, including Bentley Layton's _The Gnostic Scriptures_ and
            Willis Barnstone's _The Other Bible_. I've always felt it was highly
            relevant to understanding the "Thomas tradition".

            Mike Grondin
            Mt. Clemens, MI
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