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On; SILVER , GOLD , and ENERGY

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  • mysterygravity
    Preamble to Silver, Gold, and Energy You may wonder what an Unified Theory may have to do with Gold, Silver, and Energy. Likewise, how can this pertain to
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 26, 2007
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                               "Preamble to Silver, Gold, and Energy"

       You may wonder what an Unified Theory may have to do with Gold, Silver, and Energy. Likewise, how can this pertain to creating Space Craft systems and subsystems? In many ways!!! I have been working on exactly how to present some of my recent discoveries, (as I mentioned in an earlier post), and yet keeping some vital information secret at the same time. Also as was discussed when we recreated this group, security on-line is borderline at best, and whenever I send private emails discussing important secret research, I usually add a CONFIDENTIAL heading to the email, as this does seem to have some legal value if there is ever question in court as to original concepts and possible interception thereof.

         At any rate I have made a breakthrough in some subsystem research as to energy efficiency within a system, and due to energy shortages I felt I had to share some of my research, ( not vital secrets ) so that others might be able to actually put to use some of the techniques which I have been working with, right now, to help economize your vehicles and other energy using devices. Also some parts of what I will disclose will have implications that may aid others doing research in this area, and hopefully give them ideas to pursue on their own.

         In the earlier version of the group we considered constructing a test vehicle and new systems and subsystems, which I have added as a post in this new version of the group, and will add a link to in the reference section at the end. Also in the earlier group we discussed many considerations of various angles pertaining to an Unified Theory. Part of the problem concerning recent research into an Unified Theory is that the research is getting further and further from reality. Tremendous arguments have arisen over small mathematical differences that regardless of who is right, will by their very nature never be provable or be of any use in making any prediction whatsoever.Peter Woit has written a book entitled; "Not even Wrong" that mentions some such useless exercises in futility. But I have realized that this failure has been carried even further by Universities, Physics Theorists, diverse Specialists, Technicians, and the person on the street that uses the technologies. An Amateur Radio enthusiast or a computer technician that needs to apply formula considers the working reality, much different from the world that most in Physics perceive.I may not be able to fix this diversification of viewpoint, that leaves an even greater Un-Unified View of Reality in Science. But in this document, I am going to try to give related viewpoints with an emphasis on potential practical application of new techniques that will save energy, and even create energy, while at the same time offering more advanced signposts to those involved in pure theory and research. Materials are vital; from Boron, Silicon, Phosphorous, Gold, Silver, Copper, Quartz, Tourmaline and many others, all these are the future of energy efficiency, and production.

           While I have not had the funds to build the larger test vehicle, I have started construction on a much smaller preliminary electrical (land) vehicle to test some new breakthrough concepts in utilization of electrical energy to it's greatest efficiency possible. One breakthrough I will not discuss, but many I will. One important point however is that if this land based vehicle which will have a limited amount of batteries and a limited amount of solar cells does work; then the immediate conversion of small economy cars to strictly solar/electric cars can begin. This could be done in several manners, one could be factory conversion plants, and the other would be car enthusiasts building their own, with plans and technical advising available, as more and more models would be PROPERLY converted. These vehicles would never need any Gas or other fuel. Just solar/electric.And with the ratio of weight and torque of electric motors, they should be faster than anything that runs on gas.But that is getting a bit ahead of proof, for now I will stick with current technology and it's potential.

                       "Silver, Gold, and Energy"

           I will post this document, with the intent to address everyone interested in the subject without regard to prior knowledge in this area. Hence there should be something of interest for all. From those just curious, to tinkerers, to mechanics, to technicians, to scientists, and to theoreticians. Also of grave concern is safety always in any undertaking. Even if someone just decided to invest in Silver or Gold after reading this; there is danger of robbery! If one decided to change a light bulb from standard (100W) to a LED Bulb (6W), there is danger of electrical shock if you don't switch off the power first. Don't do anything beyond what you have the knowledge to safely handle!

           The manner of addressing such a broad scope of information to such a broad scope of intended audience will be in itself a task.I would suggest that if anyone starts getting bogged down in what is to them useless data, then move on to parts that do interest you. This document released in this manner relies on the reader to intuit, and think, and teach yourself what you want to know. I will not, and can not, tell all the answers you want. I will only point my finger and say; "look at That, What does that mean ?" I do hope though that some will come away with a sense of a diversified and yet unified realization of reality, and perhaps a degree of responsibility in regards to your relationship with reality, and that great idea which I hope you will have.

          Part of the secret then of learning anything here, will be up to you. I will include a very large list of sources and resources at the end of this. In General each heading in the resource area will start with the easiest to comprehend references and work it's way to more advanced documents, and then it will switch to commercial products that are available related to subject. I in no way endorse any company, they are only included as a guide to some of the available materials that are out there, but would advise anyone to shop around if actually seeking some item, as quality and cost can vary. Also, note this little secret, hidden here in this paragraph; there will be some "out of place" items in the resource area. There are several reasons for this, one is because a certain linking of knowledge is being attempted. Another is because an item is of special importance and hence must be discovered by those that will know what they see. Cryptic ? I have also noticed a growing trend on-line; for on-line publishing houses to offer for sale more and more documents pertaining to science and scientific research.Some on-line sites are offering scientific papers that have absolutely no copyright and are even from prior centuries. Many of such documents are available for free from other areas of the net, but the document sellers are paying for higher rankings and hence some people are paying for documents that they could have for free, and should. I attempted to resource only to free data, however some sites may have additional links in paid advertisements that constantly change. Note that we have some resources in the group's links area, one such for documents is through Gutenberg.

                                     "Basics"

          In the Periodic Table of Elements every element has a variety of characteristics that are described. Some of these characteristics are vital to have knowledge of when working  in research concerning said elements. For instance Silver has the symbol of Ag, Gold has the symbol of Au, and Copper has the symbol of Cu. These symbols are used frequently in scientific papers and if for instance you wanted to know if silver is used in a process you would look for the letters Ag throughout the document. Often mixtures of elements are used in creating various objects and therefore other letters representing other elements are used in combination to describe the mixture.

           In conducting materials such as Silver,Gold, and Copper there is something called resistance that describes how much the flow of electricity is resisted from flowing through the material. To understand how resistance will effect a circuit or power transmission we often employ a simple formula called Ohms law. It is very easy to use and can be switched around to give us the answer of any unknown factor thereby.These are the symbols used and what they stand for; V= Voltage, I=Current, and R=Resistance. In short, Ohm's law is V=IXR, or;R=V/I, or;I=V/R.
      Here is a table of some common elements and the amount they resist the flow of electricity;

      Resistivity at 20 degrees Celsius (ohm•meter)
      Silver   1.59 x 10-8
      Copper   1.7 x 10-8
      Gold     2.4 x 10-8
      Aluminum 2.8 x 10-8
      Tungsten 5.6 x 10-8
      Iron     10 x 10-8
      Platinum 11 x 10-8
      Lead     22 x 10-8
      Nichrome 150 x 10-8
      Carbon   3.5 x 105

         As you can see; Silver is a great conductor of electricity, and Copper is not too bad, Gold is fair as well, and Gold makes for an excellent corrosion inhibitor. Iron is a lousy conductor. Also effecting resistance aside from the material is the thickness and length of the conductor. For example if we think of a copper wire that conducts electricity in an analogy of a pipe carrying water, then if the pipe is too thin and there is too much water, then pressure will build up in the pipe and it will resist the flow of water. So it is with electricity, if the wire is too thin then it too will resist the flow of electricity, and if the electrical flow is too high then the wire will start to heat up due to it's resistance, and any time there is heat in an electrical wire, you can bet there is a loss of ENERGY through release of heat! A wider wire will therefore carry more electricity with less loss of energy due to excess resistance and heat loss. Also a better conductor is a possible choice in many circumstances where it can be afforded. In DC applications, distance or length of wire is vital in the resistance factors. This is very important, every foot or meter, causes more and more resistance in a circuit or wire carrying electricity.This is when the conductor element becomes essential in applications, a clue. AC current is not as effected by short distances as DC is, but over the miles it can begin to add up.

        In atomic consideration of resistance we have what is known as a positive ionic lattice within the conductor or metal. Electrons are allowed (in theory) to flow freely amongst the outer shells of the atoms in conductors, however thermal motions of ions can cause a scattering of the electrons and hence resistance can result. The wider the the cross section, the better "odds" of electrons missing such scattering, but added length increases odds, also added numbers of electrons increase the odds. At least this is one way of looking at what is happening, but theories abound. Another potential problem with free flow of electrons can be from impure conductors that have a less than desired lattice arrangement, however there is experimentation of actually increasing conductance through the introduction of altered ionic lattice in substances. For right now, a highly pure metal is the best answer in most applications to resistance due to the scattering by the thermal motion of ions.There will be much more about resistance at the end of this document in the Sources/Resources area.

                               "Systems and Subsystems"

         As for some of my own research into resistance as far as creating more energy efficient systems and subsystems for space craft I found that much of what can be done has uses right now on Earth. And after considerable research into various systems, I discovered that some of what I am discovering has already been known, but used very rarely. One of the areas that I have concentrated a lot of my research on is the material; SILVER ! As was noted earlier, any system that employs a better conductor has less heat, less resistance, and better efficiency. Less heat means fewer cooling systems are needed, which in turn also require less energy as well.These considerations are very critical in DC applications, as well as Integrated Circuits, Chips, Transistors, virtually any miniaturized electronics, in particular areas where heating is an enemy, and cooling fans are needed to keep the system from damaging itself. But energy efficiency is so vital in space craft that the replacement of say a copper wire with a silver wire is very well justifiable. As mentioned above, energy requirements can be reduced by cutting excess heat due to a cascade effect of energy requirements due to resistance>heat>cooling.

        I have conducted several experiments with various metal wires to determine conductivity and resistance.Some of this work has been conducted by others in the past, but my work had various emphasis... Note that most of these experiments were done with DC current as it is the type of current that is most effected over short distances by resistance. Note that I also tried testing silver of various purities, and .999 silver is the best for conducting electrical current. Also true of the copper used, purity was the best to be employed. Much depends on the thickness of the wire employed, but anything over 10 feet or 3 meters will begin to see significant reduction and loss of energy, but SILVER of high purity, does beat Copper of high purity. Also the longer the distance the greater the difference between the two.If in a vain attempt to deliver a DC voltage high enough over an extended distance using wire only intended for low voltage short distance (thin wire) then the heat (wasted energy) produced by copper wire is greater than that of silver wire. I am reporting average results as even such variables as outside temperature can alter findings. I have also conducted research into a wire produced with a Copper core, with a Silver coating, and then a light Gold plating to reduce corrosion. Electricity tends to follow the path of least resistance and hence if the silver is thick enough on this multiple metal wire then the benefits of the low resistance of silver can be achieved, while having the cheaper copper wire at it's core in case a higher level of current is occasionally needed in a system, although any current above the amount used by the silver will encounter the greater resistance of copper. Gold is used on the exterior only as a very thin plating to reduce any potential corrosion, as corrosion can cause great resistance in connections, and over extended periods of time can even eat away a conductor completely. Gold is not as good as Silver or Copper as a conductor, however it is wrongly reported in many places as being better. As you can see above in the list, Gold is less conductive and has greater resistance. Since Gold is more expensive, many must assume that it is better, but it is not. However Gold is still a good conductor, even better than Aluminum, and Gold has such great noncorrosive properties that it is indispensable for those qualities. Gold can be plated thinly over vast areas of metals in electronics to protect against corrosion very cheaply. More expensive THICK Plating of Gold on connections that are constantly needed to be plugged in and out, or on switches that need to function over long periods of time is needed however to insure non corrosive energy efficiency in the long run. Quality is essential in energy systems that need to be designed for long term use and also saves in fewer repairs and replacements.

         After conducting considerable research in the Silver Vs. Copper DC conducive efficiency experiments I rediscovered that NASA had also used and still does use some copper core silver plated wire. Although exact specs are hard to come by, the ones I did find had the silver thickness to be very much thinner, and were indeed plated. The process that would be required to make the wire I describe would require a different method to make a much heavier Silver mantle to the Copper core, as electroplating that amount of silver would not be cost effective.However the final thin gold plating could be electroplated, and a standard non-conductive vinyl coating would follow. One tragic event, related in a way to Nasa's use of Silver plated wire was in the Apollo 1 Disaster. It gave the exact fire cause the nickname of SILVERFIRE ! There were some of these silver plated wires in an area whereby they were exposed to constant abrasion and the insulation was removed through the constant rubbing. At the same time they had a coolant leak in the same area. Well,the electrolysis of ethylene glycol solution in contact with the silver wire coating caused an exothermic reaction and the ethylene glycol ignited and of course with pure Oxygen and plenty of other flammable items caused an inferno in seconds. Grissom, White, and Chaffee were all killed. A terrible shame that could have been prevented by ordinary care and adherence to electronic safety rules. Of course in any Oxygen rich area any spark is undesirable, and after further review I believe the exact exothermic reaction would have been aided by the formation of a silver oxide (tarnish) which would possibly indicate some sulphur contamination from some source. At any rate the condition must have been allowed to continue for some time, and bare wires of any kind, and liquids, in an oxygen rich area, can't be allowed. My concept of having a thin gold plating would help under normal conditions to prevent such reactions and/or oxides, or corrosion. But under rubbing that could remove the insulation from the wire, then the gold would be rubbed away in short time as well.Therefore the conditions that proceeded the event must be prevented, and methods have been enacted by NASA to prevent such events. For more on this, see the resource area under Silverfire.

                                   "Materials Values"

         Perhaps this would be as good as any place to mention the prices of metals, however they are constantly changing and therefore must be checked before any actual major purchase. Also sometimes such items as copper wire are available at hardware stores at lower prices after price increases until the store needs to restock, so shopping around can really help in some areas. However if prices are in a very rapid increase, then an old adage may apply; "He who hesitates is lost". There will be many sources in the resource area, but for now I will give some of the prices of a few metals as they are at the time as I am writing;

      Current metals prices;
      Silver Spot just over $13.30 oz.
      Gold spot just over $650.00 oz.
      Copper Spot just over $2.65 lb.

          Also note there is a secondary market involving used metals, some experience is helpful in this area. Even Flea markets, Swap meets, and yard/garage sales are potential sources for various metals. But know what you are looking for, not all wire is created equal. Also beware of any wire that shows signs of corrosion, sometimes in moist environments corrosion can start at the open ends of wire and work it's way under the insulation for considerable distance. Also never buy wire that looks like it has suffered extreme high temperatures or has been shorted out, as this can cause high resistance in the wire or fire danger. Don't buy used Aluminum wire for any electrical purpose. If Aluminum wire is cheap enough you may buy it to resell at a scrap yard for a profit, but make sure you understand what the scrap dealer expects. I never advise use of Aluminum wire for any electrical use. Aluminum can actually burn and if it was in a spacecraft for instance, it could actually short out and start itself burning under the right conditions.If you are looking for Silver then note, .999 fine Silver is best for electrical uses. If you are considering making your own silver wire for experimentation, know that old Silver coins are not .999 fine Silver and purity varies from country to country. They need to be refined for electrical experimentation. Most pre-1964 US coins for example are only .900 fine, or 90% Silver. They are however excellent as investments. Also Sterling Silver Jewelry or flatware is not .999, but rather is .925 , refining again would be needed before research. There are many .999 fine Silver bars and some special .999 fine Silver proof coins. And there are some fakes! Old Gold coins are also not usually .999, but a .900 fine coin may be employed for certain plating purposes depending on the environment expected to be experienced. For best research purposes stick with .999 again however. That is virtually the same as what is called 24 Karat. Hence jewelry of any other Karat such as 12 Karat is only half gold, and half something else. There is virtually no 24 Karat jewelry to be found,it would be too soft for practical wearing. Again however, gold jewelry can be a good investment, especially when hedging against an increase in metals cost when you are anticipating a need to purchase metals for technical purposes in the future. Current metals prices are available through the resource area at end of this paper.
        
                                 
      "Quartz"

         Natural Quartz and Cultured Quartz have many values in electronics due to their special physical properties. In early radio history quartz was used as the "detector" in some of the first radios called crystal sets. In essence the piece of quartz in conjunction with a "cat whisker" allowed a one way flow of electrons (later called a diode) which made it possible to receive radio transmissions. These crystal sets used no source of electricity, just an antenna (long piece of wire) and a coil to determine wavelength (frequency), a crystal to act as a diode and a ground rod to complete a differential for the electrons to flow to (-).

         Quartz is indeed a fascinating mineral, and can help in generating electricity in many ways. Just as a diode it can convert alternating current to DC, allowing only flow in one direction. It is also PIEZOELECTRIC, which just means that under pressure a quartz crystal will form a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other. This principle is already being used to generate small amounts of electricity in various forms, more on Piezoelectricity later. In fact if you hold two quartz crystals in your hands and rub the rough ends together in the dark you can see the crystals light up from the contact. It would work the same way if you rubbed the points together but you run the risk of chipping the tips of the crystals and flakes of quartz are as sharp as Glass. In fact Quartz is Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) a form of Silicates, and silica is used to make glass and is used in fiber optics amongst other things. Silicon is second only to Oxygen in being the most common element in the earth crust. Combining the two elements produce silicates. Owing to quartz electrical properties and silicon being the second most common material in the Earth's crust, there can be little doubt why Silicon was chosen as the main material to make solar cells, also known as Silicon Cells.(Dirt Cheap)

         Quartz also has a very special property known as being PYROELECTRIC, which means (PYRO=Fire) + (Electric), or in other words; heat can cause electrical charges within the crystal. Again another potential for generating electricity.
       
         With the electrical characteristics of QUARTZ and other physical potentials including a hardness that can scratch glass, and clarity as desired, and composites designed as needed, this is a very special potential, that for now I can only say, look at this beauty ! There are other natural minerals that deserve attention as well when it comes to energy.Rubies are scientifically famous for use in laser applications, and light has many uses as is as an energy source all it's own, see our earlier "Time to build a ship" concepts. For now I will continue with electrical effects and move right on to Tourmaline.

                                     "Tourmaline Crystals"

           All kinds of tourmaline have piezoelectrical effects just like quartz, but I have seen some very high rates of energy discharges from tourmaline, and PYROelectric effects are just as powerful. Thin pieces of this crystal have been used in cleaning ash from smoking pipes as the electrostatic effects will pick up ashes during the process. Also this crystal can be made to vibrate if electricity is applied... Another oddity with tourmaline is the exhibition of a pleochroic effect, in other words it "looks" as if it has a heavier color concentration down the long axis vs from side axis, this is regardless of actual size. Also, this crystal comes in tremendous color variations, virtually anything imaginable, and some you may not have imagined until you see it in these exotic stones. Also of all crystals, this one comes in some of the greatest variety of chemical makeup. Silicates and boron and aluminum are some of the common elements of tourmaline, however other elements abound in various mixtures in varieties of the crystals. Also characteristics can be somewhat different from one stone to the next. Some of these combinations deserve very great attention and research ! There is a black form of tourmaline called schorl that is fairly common and not too very expensive, and yet still exhibits some very interesting energy effects. On the other hand some forms in certain shades of green can be very expensive. And a certain shade of pink can be more expensive than diamonds.Also when it came to crystals that were used for centuries by royalty for "special" properties, many thought to be rubies or emeralds, turned out to be tourmaline. These "special" effects were known world wide in various cultures, and the stones went under many names, but with modern technology; so many stones from history, have turned out to be tourmaline! Worth a second look .

                                          "Piezoelectric"

      Piezoelectricity is a phenomena resulting from a coupling between the electric and mechanical properties of a material. When physical force or pressure is applied to a piezoelectric material, an electric charge will form. Likewise, when an electrical charge is applied to the material a physical change will happen.PYROelectricity is the ability of certain mineral crystals to generate electrical charge when heated  (also search "Stick-Slip Piezoelectric Actuators" for motion creation via Piezoelectric effect, hence an indication of some potential in motion or propulsive effects may exist).

                     "Current Methods to Save Energy"

          There are many methods to cut energy consumption now on the market, some of these will have uses in space as well. Insulation is an important topic and will be touched on a little later as it relates to radiation protection in space craft as well.

           LED's are a somewhat recent breakthrough, that do help to save a great deal of Energy in certain applications. LED's or "Light Emitting Diodes" are Diodes and like the diodes mentioned above in the quartz section, they allow electrical current to flow only in one direction. They are constructed of a variety of elements, with main elements being doped with other elements in order to obtain various colors. LED's can be very sensitive to reverse polarity, so do not put the batteries in backwards ! They generate light using extremely low amounts of power and create almost no heat.VERY Efficient ! I have turned on a LED flashlight and left it on for several weeks straight and it still was producing enough light to read by. A similar standard flashlight was lucky to be working after 2-3 hours. Please note that more energy was used creating the batteries than the flashlight ever put out as light. This is part of the bigger picture in energy use on Earth, a more unified concept on Global energy consumption considers a bigger picture than just the end product which you use. However what LED flashlights mean to you is that while an LED flashlight may cost twice as much as the older flashlight, it will save you cash after an older flashlight would have needed it's second set of batteries.And you can drop an LED flashlight and the bulb will still work, (unless you drop it from a 50 story building). And those batteries will still be working after you would have needed perhaps 50 changes of batteries in the older light. So if you need a reliable source of light that will work for sure when you need it, the LED's not only can save you a lot of energy and money, but they can also save your life.

           They also are making LED light bulbs for use in your house that can screw in just like your older bulbs. They can save a lot on your electric bill, but are expensive. Also, most LED white light bulbs use phosphorus doping and despite advertising claims, I have experienced in some of my own testing of (Always on) LED home bulbs that the intensity of the light output can begin to degrade after the time period that you would expect two ordinary bulbs to burn out.The LEDs still work, just a little dimmer. Perhaps other name brands would have different results, but energy savings, without causing heat, still make sense in a situation where energy is vital. I expect LED quality to increase as time goes on. Note that there are now some specials that can be found that can reduce initial cost to the point where financial savings over conventional light bulbs become almost instantaneous. One such special I found was at a local K-Mart store that sells some camping equipment. In their camping lantern section they had a LED camping lantern on sale. It featured twenty LED bulbs, and two settings, high and low - 20 or 10 LED's lit at once.It could run off batteries or house current. Extremely efficient on batteries, but due to the little transformer (the black box like thing that plugs into your household 120 ac sockets) it upped the power need to 7w. Most of the time when a transformer is used to convert electricity from one form to another; Energy is lost due to heat. Still 7 Watts is much less than a light bulb, of equal illumination and if the power ever goes out, the batteries inside can still make the light work. Sale price on this item was only $10.00. Made me a happy camper at home.

            Another form of light source is fluorescent lighting, which is better on energy than regular incandescent bulbs, but not as efficient as LEDs. Also there are Compact Fluorescent bulbs that can screw into normal light bulb sockets, which save over incandescents. I have been testing these for quite a while, and one such screw in; when it reached it's life expectancy not only grew dim, but began causing a very odd odor. When it began flickering I went over to it and discovered that the entire light fixture and bulb and base of bulb were red hot, and hence were potential fire dangers. I would appreciate it if anyone else has ever had a similar experience to let me know. That has only happened once to me, but it may be a good thing to be aware of, especially if you leave one burning when you are away from home.In general these bulbs when they are nearing the end of use begin to grow dark where the tubes go into the base, and start to dim. Also they get slower and slower rising to full brightness. When these events occur it could be a good idea to change the bulb and dispose of the old one.

            By far the highest energy users in your house are objects that create heat. A Hot water heater is amongst one of the worst, and if your household can get by with a little inconvenience, then reduction in size of your water heater will save you a bundle, also available are "instant hots" that create hot water only as needed. Next is heating your house, a lower thermostat with an efficient heat pump, and electric blankets at night cut costs here. Then there is the refrigerator, again an energy efficient model of smaller size will cut costs and energy use. So many old huge refrigerators sit around with food so old that it will never be used, when a smaller unit would suffice with just the essentials. Buying a ton of some kind of meat for a $5 savings will not save a cent if it costs $10 a month to keep it cold. Most older refrigerators use much more than $10 dollars a month by the way. Also in this category again are the little black transformers that plug into your household outlets. These things power all kinds of devices, but if the device is not being used, these transformers still use energy and create heat. A good subject for search regarding devices that use energy even when not in use is a search on Google for "Energy Vampires".Last but not least is your computer. A big boxlike monster computer with a huge boxlike computer monitor really sucks , energy wise. Think about it, a laptop with similar functions and speed can operate off of its own little battery, and they are fast becoming very economical alternatives, and can be ordered with what you want on them. They save so much energy in comparison ! Also, again with the bigger picture in mind, the energy needed to produce them is less. Start thinking about any item you buy, as how much energy was needed to produce this ! Hence, pick a name brand that has a good record of long lasting quality. Don't buy a junk computer!

           Many of the energy saving methods I just mentioned are mainly for use on Earth, but also general principles apply in space as well. Some devices such as LCD (flat displays) are effected by cosmic rays and must be shielded against interference.

           OK, now on to VEHICLES and saving electrical energy in a vehicle. And I'm not just talking electric cars, I am talking (shudder) vehicles that use petroleum fuels. Petroleum based vehicles still rely on electricity to run. What if I told you, that most vehicles on the road could be made more energy efficient, and at the same time can save wear and tear on the electrical system, and even make the battery last longer. Whats more, there is nothing to buy from any "Gas-saver" scams, and most home mechanics that are capable of doing common maintenance on their vehicles can do it themselves.But must caution, if you are not able to do the work safely and don't understand your vehicle's electrical system, then don't try to do something that could ruin your car's electrical system and cost you a big bill at an automotive repair shop.

            I Would like to ask that anyone that would consider doing some of the improvements I will suggest, first get a good "before" average mileage with which to compare the "after" resulting mileage, also take notes on general electrical systems behavior, from taillight brightness, headlights, engine knocks and pings, even radio or other sound-system quality and volume, and so forth. Actually, most of what I'm about to suggest could be inferred from some of the various items I have already mentioned in earlier parts of this document ! Thus some of the practical unification of concepts begins to take shape.

            What I am taking about is quite visible in the table above about resistance.For now we will ignore the great potential of silver in an all electric system and only look at the factors concerning COPPER and Iron! In this instance I am speaking of negative ground vehicles. There are variations amongst multiple car systems and newer systems can vary from older ones, so this concept requires the vehicle owner having a good knowledge about the system which their vehicle has, and what is possible to help and not hurt the vehicle.

           Most vehicles have a negative ground system that in essence makes the entire steel body of the vehicle a negative ground for the electrical system. This is fine for safety. But Iron/Steel is a lousy conductor of electricity and has great resistance to electricity flow, also the type of electricity is DC (Direct Current). DC is the type of electricity that is most effected by resistance. Hence in making the completed circuit back to the negative post of the battery, the current must face great resistance and all electrical systems become effected thereby. Of great wear and tear is the excessive use of the Alternator and the Battery. Note that the more the alternator needs to produce increased voltage; the more torque is applied to the engine though the belts that turn the alternator.This added torque thereby reduces fuel efficiency.

           I have been astounded by the wrong concepts that many believe about alternators. So much so that I conducted a number of independent researches and polls and studies. In fact I was surprised at how confidential some of the data about alternators is by the manufacturer distributor's headquarters, although much of the manufacturing is being done in various nations. That is something to consider. However at the local level of automotive supply and repairs there was more open discussion available. One thing that I was surprised of and should warn you, was that of those automotive parts supply people that really knew what they were talking about, there was a warning against using an old test on alternators on new cars. The test that used to be conducted was to disconnect the battery while the engine was running, and if it died then the alternator was not working. Now with more sensitive electronic systems involved on some new cars, if you conduct that test, you can cause damage to more systems, and so it is no longer recognized as a safe test. Never was real good for the diodes in the alternators anyhow. But I was surprised with the number of mechanics that could not get some simple alternator questions right. One sample question was "If you plug in an electric car heater to your cigarette lighter accessory power socket, will the the alternator cause more torque in the long run on your engine?" 75% of mechanics had the right answer. (Yes) But that left 25% with the wrong answer. These are the people that are doing tune ups on people's cars. That worries me because a really well done tune up can effect your mileage as much as anything I'm going to mention, but you are not going to get a really good tune up if the mechanics don't understand what they're doing! When the same question was asked of Auto parts stores then the percentage went up to 90% right and only 10% wrong. You can run your own quick test by calling some parts stores in your area, and see what they answer. They may vary on opinion as to how much an electric heater may effect your mileage as that is dependent on various factors, but most will get the general answer correct. However if you start calling several auto repair shops, it won't be too long till you will hear an argument ensue in the back-ground as differing opinions are voiced. lol. Hang up, they will never solve the issue.

          At any rate the best way to improve the conductivity of the ground system in your vehicle is to add heavy enough copper wire to the chassis of your vehicle to give electricity short cuts to your negative pole of your battery. Electricity will always follow the path of least resistance, so you do not need to connect directly to components. Do not remove any hot (+) wires anywhere. If your battery has double connections then you have the opportunity to connect a secondary heavy ground wire directly to the negative pole of your battery. You must be careful that you do not run a wire anywhere that it will be in the way of a moving part, remembering such things as moving controls, fans, belts, steering assembly, drive train, and so on. A fairly good plan for a copper wire grounding accessory is to pick a heavy enough copper wire and run it along the base of the bottom of your vehicle and grounding it every 2 or 3 feet with an existing bolt in the frame by stripping away the insulation and wrapping around the bolt. After the connection is made and the bolt is tightened down tight, it is a good idea to spray paint over any exposed wire near the connection and bolt to prevent corrosion. Primer paint may be used too unless for some reason it is a very hot area and then a high temperature paint will be needed, although high temperature areas should be avoided if possible. Experienced mechanics may wish to drill holes in specific areas for optimum locations and use new bolts.But make sure you know what you are doing, accidentally drilling into a gas tank can be a big mistake. Also not brilliant to put holes in bottom of transmission pans or oil pans. And as before, don't get your ground wires anywhere near the drive train, part of which is also known as the drive shaft. However by taking a heavy enough copper wire around the exterior of your vehicle's bottom side and connecting it to various grounding points you will be supplying the electricity with short cuts back to the battery, with much less resistance. Small side wires can run from your main ground "perimeter" up to base set screws near the ground in for such high energy consumption areas as your taillights in the rear. Also , if you have a travel trailer that you tow often, then a small auxiliary battery can be added to the trunk or near the rear of your vehicle.Battery should be in an secured auxiliary plastic box with Ventilation provided through a small plastic tube to the outside for battery gases. There are numerous ways to add an auxiliary battery, and some automatic switches that can be used in conjunction, when your vehicle is not running will protect your main battery from abuse by the added trailer system, which may likely have it's own battery system as well. Always have a ground wire running from your ground system to the ground system of the trailer, as the ball and hitch are all made of iron and made a very poor connection with high resistance. Add all the distance from the front of your vehicle where the battery is, back to the front of your trailer, maybe twenty feet, and then perhaps another twenty feet back to where the tail lights are on the back of the trailer. In vehicles without a copper wire grounding system installed, that would mean that the return electrical ground path through a poor resistance element of iron would be forty feet. That's 4 times the distance where voltage drops are serious in a good conductor like copper, and after your alternator and battery have struggled to supply voltage over such a long distance, well you are likely to lose one if not both. More energy lost due to constructing more batteries and alternators...So install a good copper ground system and prolong parts and save energy too. Auxiliary batteries are essential every 20 feet of DC voltage flow, to act as a storage and stabilizing influence on long term DC current flow, and preventing overheating of wires and failure of components.

           Doing anything that you are not comfortable doing is not wise, and asking a friend who is knowledgeable in vehicular electronics to help would be wise. An alternative would be hiring a mechanic, but they might not all understand the principles involved either, unless they were ever part of a racing team. Here is something you should NEVER do; Replacing your spark plug wires with pure copper wires will likely destroy your entire electronic system. Your car's system is made to operate with high resistance spark plug wires. Any other kind of wires will likely destroy your electronics. Also if you happen to have a system that is old enough to withstand pure copper wire plug wires then your engine would send out such high powered electronic interference, that no one within a mile of your car running would be able to hear any stations on their AM radios. Yes this is done on certain forms of racing cars, and it does add power to the engine, but they need special electronic systems to handle such electrical power. It is not legal on street vehicles, so stick with regular spark plug wires of good quality ! Making sure your engine block is well grounded is essential however for maximum power. Much of the time the ground wire from your battery goes straight to the engine, that is good. The starter often has a ground wire as well as the alternator. However having a heat and oil resistant wire running around your engine to various easy grounding points is not a bad idea as it can add to easier ground return with less resistance to the battery. Ideally each spark plug would have a connection on the grounding part of the plug that would run to a ground , but due to heat and confined space, it is not practical. Also, one would not want to put any additional space between the plug and where it seats itself in the block, as even small changes in some engines can be critical in causing misfires or poor firing of the plug. Remember do not connect any wires directly to any electronic device, just to bolts, nuts, screws, and so on that are near the device, so there is a nearby shortcut for the electricity to take, back to the negative ground on the battery. It is wise to disconnect the vehicle battery while connecting an auxiliary copper grounding system to the vehicle as accidental touching of a ground wire to a hot wire or connection can cause a short that might damage some circuits or systems.

                                               "Solar"

         Solar Panels that are widely available now use mainly Silicon, this element is kept in two sections or layers, one is doped with phosphorous, and the other is doped with Boron. As you might have guessed when this combination is hit with sunlight, then it behaves as a Diode and allows a one way flow of electrons. As we know, silicon is one of the most common elements on Earth, and the slight amounts of boron and phosphorous used in doping are not costly. All electrical contacts for increased efficiency and lower resistance to electron flow within the panel should be silver, but are not always, even though the tiny wires used are very small. All in all, perhaps the most expensive element in a solar cell is the aluminum frame ! Here in Arizona I used to be able to purchase Solar panels in the $175.00 range, now an equivalent panel costs over $400.00. All along cheaper prices were promised. Of course many panels are made over seas and being somewhat fragile they require special care when shipping and fuel costs are increasing shipping on all products.

          Also there is great demand in Asia for Solar panels, so actually few are now being shipped to North America. Supply and demand then is a major factor in the shortages ! These low efficiency silicon panels should be available now for about $5o each. Instead, outrageous profits are being made. Also Silicon Panels or solar cells should be embraced as the NUMBER 1 answer to energy needs on Earth. Nano solar Cells are currently being designed, and may help to aid in the supply of solar panels.Even nano solar paint is under consideration. You may wonder why I say Solar panels should be the number one answer to energy problems on Earth...

          In Physics there is a law called the FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS; here it is in a simple form; "energy is neither created nor destroyed". Einstein embraced this law and further stated; "all mass and energy in the universe is constant".That law generally is used to describe the big picture, or even a closed system. But does not mean that an oven can not be heated or even a planet. The Earth is currently going through a process called Global Heating.There are many arguments as to causes and so on.Global warming is based on the average temperature of the Earth, and it's Oceans and atmosphere. Which is in fact increasing regardless of cause.Some blame an excess of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a natural gas that comes from many natural sources including animals (and Humans) as a byproduct of respiration . Also another  potential gas effecting Global warming is methane. Such gases are created naturally but carbon dioxide can also occur through the burning of fossil fuels or forest fires, volcanoes, and various other energy creating devices.Be assured that while greenhouse gasses can hold in heat, they are natural in many cases, and existed before mankind ever came along. Thank goodness, because without them, we would lose their positive effect that keeps the Earth from turning into a space cold dead rock through thermal bleeding of thermal heat into space. These greenhouse gases also aid in helping to block some levels of dangerous cosmic radiation from space.

          Much has been made about the chemical gases and various other factors, including incoming solar energy, even to the point where one suggestion has been made of adding a "solar umbrella" to attempt to block some of the solar energy reaching the Earths surface. This in general would be a bad idea for plants and algae, that decrease the levels of Carbon Dioxide and produce Oxygen. A little known fact is that Algae in the oceans of the Earth create close to 80% of the Oxygen in the atmosphere of the Earth. Pollution in the oceans and growing dead zones in the oceans are a terrible danger to the entire system.Did you know that a large airliner uses more oxygen in an hour than all the people on Earth use in that same hour? How many are flying?

          Over looked in the Global warming factor is the actual problem itself ! Heat ! Thermal Radiation ! Infrared Radiation ! In short here on Earth, we are not good stewards at maintaining a thermal equilibrium. We use mechanical systems that are inefficient and create excess heat that is wasted. The majority of a gasoline engine's energy is wasted as heat! Factories all over the globe use inefficient heat producing processes to create poor products that are designed to fail so more products will need to be produced using more heat waste pumped into the Earths system. The consumers do not insist on only quality products that don't need replaced every week or year. In history, products were made to last a century. We waste resources, and use energy to get them. Then we waste energy and create more excess heat using all devices that produce heat as a byproduct. So all our energy producing plants, manufacturing plants,homes , vehicles, and consumer products, generate a massive amount of heat. We need to look at managing the big picture on a worldwide scale. In order for the heat level to stabilize we need to balance incoming heat and outgoing heat, in a level that the planet can sustain with it's natural abilities. One part of balancing the heat equation is by using a considerable amount of the energy coming to Earth via  solar energy and then using that energy to power all our other needs. This extracts incoming heat and converts it to other uses. Balancing the heat equation is the principle involved. And yes at today's energy uses there is far more land area that has little vegetation, and / or rooftop areas on homes than is required to produce all current energy demands by humanity via solar cells, if we got very serious and actually produced the cells and brought them on line as soon as possible. Creating other devices that produce excess heat while creating energy are not the answer. We need electric energy not heat. In desert areas, extracting heat and producing energy would have a very positive effect, as far as overall thermal balancing is an objective.Waste Heat is waste, when creating energy.

         The main point being that solar energy for creating energy is perhaps the most sound process available for use on Earth and in Space. In addition in space, solar panels can be employed to not only create energy but as an assist to block some levels of dangerous radiation incoming. A similar effect may be experienced when roofs are covered with solar panels on Earth in hot regions as the panels will help to block sunlight from hitting the roof and therefore will help keep the home cooler.There are numerous other concepts that are considered to be green solutions, including Bio-diesel, and devices that burn hydrogen as a fuel, and they do help in an interim period to an extent, but also generate excess heat instead of reducing heat.But lowered emissions are a plus. Thermal pollution is just not being considered as the primary cause of heat- IE; WARMING.Nuclear reactors are also major heat producers. However in deep space travel a nuclear power source may very well be needed as the ship gets further and further from the sun. We are learning much about heat balancing within a closed system in our long term space station experimentation, and it's time to employ some lessons from space, on Earth. The only time I would be in favor of a shield against solar activity would be in the case of a major eruption on the sun's surface and a major coronal mass ejection was headed directly for the Earth with such intensity that it would surely bring extremely dangerous radiation levels to the very surface of the Earth. Then the only option I can consider would be a prepared response in space that could release a major nanocarbon filament net like structure that if placed in rotation could automatically deploy through centrifugal force in the pathway of the oncoming radiation.The nanonet would likely be destroyed in the encounter. Of course depending on the oncoming mass ejection this may or may not be sufficient, and perhaps even stronger measures would be needed to save the Earth. As of now there is no protection system whatsoever in space, and many studies are pointing at the next solar maximum to perhaps be the largest in history, around the 2011-2012 time period.

          In short, when considering solar energy and the Earth, remember the first law of Thermodynamics. Also save metals, and recycle. Do not throw any metal away as the energy to mine and process metals is very high. If you have money to invest, I recommend, starting a solar cell manufacturing plant !!! Secondary investment is to make your home as energy efficient as possible, and to purchase or make an electric vehicle. Also a wise investment could be in the area of precious metals that can be employed in energy conservation.

                             "Radiation Protection"

          In any space craft there is always a danger of highly energized particles. Radiation danger can be very extremely dangerous, and there is a great need to produce some form of shield to protect the astronauts. I can not offer the absolute answer but will offer a line of suggestions to be investigated and researched. Number 1 has to be a much heavier construction of space vehicles. This goes against everything that spacecraft engineers have done in the past. But wanted to put it out there in front to help people review everything they know about spacecraft. Imagine spacecraft with 2 inch thick steel bulkheads throughout and a stainless steel skin and multiple skeletal frames with heavy titanium girders. OK, shock over?

          #2; there are some space outposts that would not need to be highly mobile. There has been some work done on pressurized inflated constructs. While some of these might have limited use, there is also a potential of expanded multiple layers of inflated shells, not unlike an onion, with layer after layer. Hence the distance between the layers would not need to be too great, and the pressure gradient between layers would also not need to be too great. Also each layer could have a variety of radiation dispersal materials integrated within. For instance if at a certain distance from where a proton or cosmic ray is altered by impact with an outer layer into say an xray you then have another layer of tiny quartz crystals, that can effect xrays, you can see how planned radiation degradation can have an effect. Also intermittent layers of helium can have an effect on radiation, as well as parts of the various radiation zones leading to the core station. Add to all this; potential solar panels on exterior areas, heavy use of nonflammable materials, and eventual use of possible electromagnetic fields as actual shields, not unlike those in Star Trek, and some potential concepts begin to take shape. Of course Gold is an excellent radiation shield and is nice as a coating on glass, nothing like a rose tinted view of the world.And certain crystals other than quartz have a variety of effects with different forms of radiation, some we have spoken of earlier here, and some are yet to be mentioned.

                                           "Fusion"

          I would be remiss, if I did not at least mention fusion when discussing energy, and gold, and  Silver. There have been some earlier posts concerning fusion here. There are a number of breakthroughs in the research side recently on both fusion and Cold fusion. The most exciting to me have been in Cold Fusion and certain factors involving amongst others; Silver, gold and other crystalline structures. I hope there will SOON be a disclosure which can be made public in this area. Cold Fusion would be especially helpful as an energy source on Earth, with it's low level of heat and radiation. Hot fusion would be more applicable in space where the heat can be bled off into space easily. I dare not say too much on this yet , but am chomping on a bit as I write.

          I will end here with my long lettered writing. Perhaps in responses to this post, it would be best due to the length of this post , that you submit a new thread start on the section that is of interest and therefore help in not filling everyone's mailboxes with such volume as this; in it's entirety .Much of the real secrets lay ahead in the sources area, where it will be up to you to find what you seek.There's a lot to see. Remember, however as I said at the start that I do not endorse any product or company, and suggest that you follow up where this leads with your own searches in the topic area that interests you. I hope you find your own pot of gold...


      Mystery

       

                                           - SOURCES -

       

            Please note that at this point in the original paper I had a long list of sources to help substantiate all data above that was independantly verified. However either the earlir post was too long or was somehow stuck in transit, so am posting the first section here and entering the Sources into our links area at;

      http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/gravitationalpropulsionstevenson/links/Silver___Gold___and__001169814318/

       This source area was very important and must be used in conjunction with the above post to begin to understand it, and it's implications, and related details, I will continue to add more of the sources until they are complete; as at this point there is only a partial list. I hope that somehow the original was not just stuck and then comes through, as I have no wish to publish the same document twice .

      Thankyou,   

      Mystery

       

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