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Re: Wulfila, Alareiks, Aþanagilds

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  • llama_nom
    ... I think this is a reasonable assumption, although the only example attested is Merila (nominative). ... The question here is whether -reik- in names was
    Message 1 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
      <manielombard@...> wrote:
      >
      > Háils
      >
      > How are Gothic names in -ila actually declined? Like "manna"? For
      > instance: Wulfila, gen. Wulfilins, dat. Wulfilin, acc. Wulfilan?

      I think this is a reasonable assumption, although the only example
      attested is Merila (nominative).

      > Alareiks and Aþanagilds: (n-stem) Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
      > Alareik, acc. Alareik (why "Friþareikeis" in the Gothic calendar? This
      > would belong to the ja-stem);

      The question here is whether -reik- in names was interpreted as
      equivalent to the noun 'reiks' "ruler" (consonant stem partly
      assimilated to the a-stem declension), or to a hypothetical ja-stem
      adjective *reikeis (or *reiks, i-stem?) "powerful". The first option
      seems most likely, given cognates in other Germanic languages. The
      scribe wrote Friþareikeikeis -- which presumably involves at least one
      mistake! My guess is that this stands for 'correct' Wulfilan Gothic
      'Friþureikis' (genitive). The use of 'ei' could be due to the
      preceding 'ei' in the root, or it could be a variant spelling for 'i'
      (there is some confusion in the manuscripts between 'i', 'ei' and 'e',
      although the 'ei' : 'e' confusion is more common), or it could be to
      do with a loss of distinction between vowels in unstressed syllables
      (cf. the connecting vowel -a- in the first element of the name).

      > Aþanagild, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagild, acc. Aþanagild?

      It seems to be treated as a second declension noun in Latin, so maybe
      a Gothic a-stem? Are there any names with this second element in the
      other Germanic languages?

      LN
    • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
      Thanks, LN! What do you mean by consonant stem partly assimilated to the a-stem declension ? How would this affect Alareiks? Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
      Message 2 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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        Thanks, LN!

        What do you mean by "consonant stem partly assimilated to the a-stem
        declension"?

        How would this affect Alareiks? Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
        Alareik (or Alareika?), acc. Alareik

        Aþanagild: Aþanagild, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc.
        Aþanagild?

        Would you also treat Þaúrismoþs and names ending in -"mers" as a-
        stems?

        Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ?

        M. Schönfeld in "Wörterbuch der altgermanischen Personen- und
        Völkernamen" has:

        Alagildus: -gild, das in vielen Namen erscheint - Beispiele bei
        Förstemann 639flg. - stellt sich zu altnordisch "gildr" 'der etwas
        wert
        ist, tüchtig' und dem Zeitwort got. "gildan" usw. 'gelten'. Die
        westgermanische Form ist eigentlich -geld(us).

        Aligildus

        Austeregildus: (fränkische Königin)

        Ermenegildus: (Westgotenkönig)

        Fandigildus: (wahrscheinlich ein Ostgote)

        Gildila: (Ostgote), got. *Gildila, eine Koseform zu einem mit Gild-
        zusammengestzten Namen.

        Ingeldus, Ingildus (wahrscheinlich ein Burgunder) = gotisch *Iggilds.

        Liwigildus: (Westgotenkönig)

        Tarbigildus: (Greutung)

        Widargildus: ahd. "Widargelt" 'der Wiedergelter, Rächer'

        Greetings
      • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
        Sorry, A�anagilds: A�anagilds, gen. A�anagildis, dat. A�anagilda, acc. A�anagild?
        Message 3 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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          Sorry, Aþanagilds: Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc.
          Aþanagild?
        • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
          Not Austeregildus: (fränkische Königin) but: Austregildis: (fränkische Königin)
          Message 4 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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            Not "Austeregildus: (fränkische Königin)" but:

            Austregildis: (fränkische Königin)
          • ualarauans
            ... Go. *Winigilds, *Airminagilds and *Liubigilds seem to be attested also in OHG (they must be in Schönfeld, ain t they?); Go. Iggilds (actually In-gilds)
            Message 5 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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              --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "llama_nom" <600cell@...> wrote:
              >
              > [...]
              > > Aþanagild, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagild, acc. Aþanagild?
              >
              > It seems to be treated as a second declension noun in Latin, so maybe
              > a Gothic a-stem? Are there any names with this second element in the
              > other Germanic languages?

              Go. *Winigilds, *Airminagilds and *Liubigilds seem to be attested also
              in OHG (they must be in Schönfeld, ain't they?); Go. Iggilds (actually
              In-gilds) may be = ON Ingjaldr, OE Ingeld (like in-ahs). This is an a-
              stem.

              Ualarauans
            • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
              You re right there, Ualarauans Schönfeld has: Ermenegildus: (Westgotenkönig) Liwigildus: (Westgotenköing), (Schönfeld is of the opinion that correct form
              Message 6 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                You're right there, Ualarauans

                Schönfeld has:

                Ermenegildus: (Westgotenkönig)

                "Liwigildus: (Westgotenköing), (Schönfeld is of the opinion that
                correct form should be -"liwi" and not -"liubi") Trotz "Leovildus"
                in der Inschrift und trotz wgot. "Leovegildus" (Meyer-Lübke 1,38)
                scheint "Liwi-gildus" die richtige Form zu sein, da sie in dem guten
                Codex P III (Sm) überliefert ist, da ferner "Liwigildus" der Bruder
                von "Liwa" ist und Namen von Verwandten so oft ein Glied gemein
                haben, da endlich auch die germanische Etymologie darauf hinweist.
                Kögel hat es wahrscheinlich gemacht, daß "Liwi"- zu germ. "Lewa"-
                , "Liwi"-, "lio"-, "leo"-, ahd. "lewên", "liwit" 'gnädig sein',
                an. "ljónar", afri. "liana" gehört; ferner gehören hierher, aber
                erweitert durch ein n-Suffix, "Leone-gildus", "Leuninus", "Leonia".


                Leicht verständlich ist es, daß man neben "Liuui"- "Leoui"- schrieb,
                da man "Liuui"- als "Liuvi"- las und gewohnt war, neben "iu"
                auch "eu", "eo" zu schreiben (vgl. unter "Theudebaldus").
                In "Leovildus" ist das "g" synkopiert.

                Nicht zu "Liwi"- gehört "Libe-fridus", nebst den dort genanten
                Namen; hier erscheint das "b" zu häufig, als daß ger. "w"
                wahrscheinlich wäre."

                Winigilds I can't find in his book though.


                Manie
              • llama_nom
                ... I just meant that it was originally a consonant stem, but has come to agree with the a-stems in some inflections: gen.sg. reikis; dat.pl. reikam. ... I
                Message 7 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                  --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                  <manielombard@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > Thanks, LN!
                  >
                  > What do you mean by "consonant stem partly assimilated to the a-stem
                  > declension"?

                  I just meant that it was originally a consonant stem, but has come to
                  agree with the a-stems in some inflections: gen.sg. reikis; dat.pl.
                  reikam.

                  > How would this affect Alareiks? Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
                  > Alareik (or Alareika?), acc. Alareik

                  I would guess that it would be declined like the word 'reiks', thus
                  dat. 'reik'.

                  > Aþanagild: Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc.
                  > Aþanagild?

                  I think so, although, regarding the proposed etymology, if the root
                  vowel was originally 'e', then ON 'gildr' implies a following 'i' or
                  'j' in Proto-Norse, otherwise it would have been ON 'gjaldr' (cf.
                  'gjald' "tribute", 'gjalda' "repay"), but presumably the root is the
                  same, whatever the original sense of the naming element.

                  > Would you also treat Þaúrismoþs and names ending in -"mers" as a-
                  > stems?
                  > Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ?

                  For -moþs, we have the evidence of the adjective (a-stem) and the
                  personal name recorded in the dative as Alamoda. So I think you're
                  right there. As for -mers-, the adjective was apparently a ja/jo-stem
                  in Gothic: þishvah þatei wailameri, neut.nom.sg. (Php 4:8); cf. OE
                  mæ´re. (But the Thorsberg scabbard end-clasp inscription has an
                  i-stem 'wajemariz'.) But Latin spellings of these Gothic names tend
                  to have -mer, -mar, -mirus, don't they? And was there one with
                  -meres? The usual forms anyway suggest that, as a naming element, it
                  wasn't a ja/jo-stem (compare Augis, Hisarnis) but either an a-stem or
                  an i-stem. In OE, in spite of the ja/jo adjective 'mæ´re', names have
                  a reduced 'mer', treated as an a-stem. Gothic i-stem names don't
                  usually have any trace of the stem vowel represented in Latin
                  spellings: Audoinus, Cunigastus, Daroin, Nanduin -- unless it's
                  present in Anagastes and Ardaburius (?*Hardubaur).

                  > Tarbigildus: (Greutung)

                  I wonder if the 1st element in this is related to the 1st element in
                  Terwingi (with late Latin confusion of medial 'b' and 'v').

                  > Widargildus: ahd. "Widargelt" 'der Wiedergelter, Rächer'

                  The Old English poem Widsith names one Wiþergield among the Gothic heroes.

                  LN
                • llama_nom
                  ... Or could this be a contraction of Proto-Norse *Ingwa-geldaz? LN
                  Message 8 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                    --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "ualarauans" <ualarauans@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Go. Iggilds (actually
                    > In-gilds) may be = ON Ingjaldr, OE Ingeld (like in-ahs). This is an a-
                    > stem.

                    Or could this be a contraction of Proto-Norse *Ingwa-geldaz?

                    LN
                  • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                    Dear LN, do I get you right here? 1) Alareiks declined like frijonds, i. e.: Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat. Alareik, acc. Alareik but 2) Aþanagilds,
                    Message 9 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                      Dear LN, do I get you right here?


                      1) Alareiks declined like frijonds, i. e.:

                      Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat. Alareik, acc. Alareik


                      but


                      2) Aþanagilds, Þaúrismoþs and Þiudamers declined like dags, i. e.:

                      Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc. Aþanagild

                      Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ

                      Þiudamers, gen. Þiudameris, dat. Þiudamera, acc. Þiudamer


                      Schönfeld wrote:

                      "Tarbigildus (Greek: Targíbildos, Tribígildos, Argíbildos; Latin:
                      Tarbigilus, Trabigilus, Thrabigilus, Tragbilus,...) Während das
                      zweite Glied das bekannte -"gildus" ist (das bisweilen zu -"gilus"
                      entstellt ist), ist das erste Glied schwerer zu deuten. Die
                      Überlieferung weist wohl eher auf "Tarbi"- (zu "Tarbus" ?) als
                      auf "Trivi"- (das kaum zu "Tervingi" gehören könnte) hin.
                      In "Targíbildos" und "Trigíldos" liegt Verschreibung vor."

                      "Tarbus: (Barbare) Akk. Sg. Tárbon. Germanisch, oder griechisch: zu
                      tárbos 'Schrecken'"


                      "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                      als "Thervingi" geschrieben, gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                      got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                      trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo" (aus
                      *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                      Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                      Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                      Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte Form "Virting"-
                      aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                    • llama_nom
                      ... Yes, that would be my provisional guess, unless anyone has evidence to the contrary. ... So, if these last two are exceptional variants, presumably there s
                      Message 10 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                        <manielombard@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > Dear LN, do I get you right here?
                        >
                        >
                        > 1) Alareiks declined like frijonds, i. e.:
                        >
                        > Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat. Alareik, acc. Alareik
                        >
                        >
                        > but
                        >
                        >
                        > 2) Aþanagilds, Þaúrismoþs and Þiudamers declined like dags, i. e.:
                        >
                        > Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc. Aþanagild
                        >
                        > Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ
                        >
                        > Þiudamers, gen. Þiudameris, dat. Þiudamera, acc. Þiudamer
                        >


                        Yes, that would be my provisional guess, unless anyone has evidence to
                        the contrary.


                        > Schönfeld wrote:
                        >
                        > "Tarbigildus (Greek: Targíbildos, Tribígildos, Argíbildos; Latin:
                        > Tarbigilus, Trabigilus, Thrabigilus, Tragbilus,...) Während das
                        > zweite Glied das bekannte -"gildus" ist (das bisweilen zu -"gilus"
                        > entstellt ist), ist das erste Glied schwerer zu deuten. Die
                        > Überlieferung weist wohl eher auf "Tarbi"- (zu "Tarbus" ?) als
                        > auf "Trivi"- (das kaum zu "Tervingi" gehören könnte) hin.
                        > In "Targíbildos" und "Trigíldos" liegt Verschreibung vor."


                        So, if these last two are exceptional variants, presumably there's no
                        connection then with *targo "small shield, buckler, targe", or the
                        'trigildus' "threefold compensation" mentioned in the Burgundian Laws
                        (cf. the 'novigildus' "ninefold compensation" named there also)...


                        > "Tarbus: (Barbare) Akk. Sg. Tárbon. Germanisch, oder griechisch: zu
                        > tárbos 'Schrecken'"
                        >
                        >
                        > "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                        > als "Thervingi" geschrieben,

                        Maybe, although I've read that there was some tendency among not so
                        well educated people to add an etymologically spurious 'h' in such
                        words, even of native Latin origin [
                        http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/7528 ], on the model of Greek
                        loanwords. I can imagine that a such hypercorrect spellings would be
                        especially liable to creep in barbarian names (neither Latin nor
                        Greek) due to unfamiliarity with these languages and a lack of
                        established writing conventions.

                        > gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                        > got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                        > trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo" (aus
                        > *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                        > Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                        > Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                        > Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte Form "Virting"-
                        > aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                        >

                        Thanks, I hadn't heard of this form Virting till now. Is there any
                        possibility that it could be due to confusion in late Latin between
                        the once distinct /e/ and /i/? (On the other hand, Crimean Gothic for
                        one seems to have been a dialect in which Proto-Germanic /e/ and /i/
                        weren't confused as they were in the ancestor of Biblical Gothic, so
                        there may well have been a lot more variety in this respect than is
                        apparent from the few surviving Gothic manuscripts.) Related words in
                        Germanic: OE teoru, teru, n., tier(e)we, f., -teoru, -tare, -tara,
                        m.? "tar, resin; earwax", and ON tyri "resinous fir-tree".

                        LN
                      • ualarauans
                        Hi Manie, ... guten ... schrieb, ... Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an
                        Message 11 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                          Hi Manie,

                          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                          <manielombard@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > [...]
                          > "Liwigildus: (Westgotenköing), (Schönfeld is of the opinion that
                          > correct form should be -"liwi" and not -"liubi") Trotz "Leovildus"
                          > in der Inschrift und trotz wgot. "Leovegildus" (Meyer-Lübke 1,38)
                          > scheint "Liwi-gildus" die richtige Form zu sein, da sie in dem
                          guten
                          > Codex P III (Sm) überliefert ist, da ferner "Liwigildus" der Bruder
                          > von "Liwa" ist und Namen von Verwandten so oft ein Glied gemein
                          > haben, da endlich auch die germanische Etymologie darauf hinweist.
                          > Kögel hat es wahrscheinlich gemacht, daß "Liwi"- zu germ. "Lewa"-
                          > , "Liwi"-, "lio"-, "leo"-, ahd. "lewên", "liwit" 'gnädig sein',
                          > an. "ljónar", afri. "liana" gehört; ferner gehören hierher, aber
                          > erweitert durch ein n-Suffix, "Leone-gildus", "Leuninus", "Leonia".
                          >
                          > Leicht verständlich ist es, daß man neben "Liuui"- "Leoui"-
                          schrieb,
                          > da man "Liuui"- als "Liuvi"- las und gewohnt war, neben "iu"
                          > auch "eu", "eo" zu schreiben (vgl. unter "Theudebaldus").
                          > In "Leovildus" ist das "g" synkopiert.
                          >
                          > Nicht zu "Liwi"- gehört "Libe-fridus", nebst den dort genanten
                          > Namen; hier erscheint das "b" zu häufig, als daß ger. "w"
                          > wahrscheinlich wäre."

                          Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could
                          as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an "lion" (cf.
                          OCSl. loan liv-u "idem"). Not that lions were very popular among
                          Goths. They could have seen the beasts in Roman amphitheaters being
                          engaged themselves as gladiators or as members of diplomatic staff
                          maybe.

                          Ualarauans
                        • Fredrik
                          ... Is it a latin/roman thing to make aí to a before r, or could it be a later gothic change? In this case it seems to have been so, and I think there are
                          Message 12 of 17 , May 28, 2007
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                            > > Tarbigildus: (Greutung)
                            >
                            > I wonder if the 1st element in this is related to the 1st element in
                            > Terwingi (with late Latin confusion of medial 'b' and 'v').
                            >

                            Is it a latin/roman thing to make aí to a before r, or could it be a
                            later gothic change?
                            In this case it seems to have been so, and I think there are some more
                            examples of it.
                          • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                            ... Hi Ualarauans Or rather just a hypocorism for names beginning with Liwi -. Regards Manie
                            Message 13 of 17 , May 28, 2007
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                              > Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could
                              > as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an "lion" (cf.
                              > OCSl. loan liv-u "idem"). Not that lions were very popular among
                              > Goths. They could have seen the beasts in Roman amphitheaters being
                              > engaged themselves as gladiators or as members of diplomatic staff
                              > maybe.

                              Hi Ualarauans

                              Or rather just a hypocorism for names beginning with "Liwi"-.

                              Regards

                              Manie
                            • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                              According to Carlo Alberto Mastrelli, Grammatica Gotica , 1967: Tervingi: È un derivato in -inga- di un tema germ. *teru- resina, catrame (cfr. a. isl.
                              Message 14 of 17 , May 29, 2007
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                                According to Carlo Alberto Mastrelli, "Grammatica Gotica", 1967:

                                Tervingi: È un derivato in -inga- di un tema germ. *teru- 'resina,
                                catrame' (cfr. a. isl. "tjara", ags. "teoru, tierwa", a. fris. "tera",
                                m. oland. "tar" m. b. t. "tere", a. ted. assiano e
                                sigherlandese "Zehr").

                                ....Il nome dei Tervingi potrebbe essersi constituito nelle regioni
                                carpatiche dove il 'pio cimbro', dal quale si estraggono 'resina'
                                e 'catrame' (germ. *teru-), è endemico.



                                > "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                                > als "Thervingi" geschrieben, gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                                > got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                                > trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo" (aus
                                > *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                                > Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                                > Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                                > Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte Form "Virting"-
                                > aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                                >
                              • llama_nom
                                Lion was the name of the hero s horse in Waltharius. Ipseque de stabulis victorem duxit equorum, Ob virtutem quem vocitaverat ille Leonem.
                                Message 15 of 17 , May 29, 2007
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                                  "Lion" was the name of the hero's horse in Waltharius.

                                  Ipseque de stabulis victorem duxit equorum,
                                  Ob virtutem quem vocitaverat ille Leonem.


                                  --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                                  <manielombard@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > > Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could
                                  > > as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an "lion" (cf.
                                  > > OCSl. loan liv-u "idem"). Not that lions were very popular among
                                  > > Goths. They could have seen the beasts in Roman amphitheaters being
                                  > > engaged themselves as gladiators or as members of diplomatic staff
                                  > > maybe.
                                  >
                                  > Hi Ualarauans
                                  >
                                  > Or rather just a hypocorism for names beginning with "Liwi"-.
                                  >
                                  > Regards
                                  >
                                  > Manie
                                  >
                                • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                                  Adolf Bach, Deutsche Namenkunde, Heidelberg 1978, p. 202-203: Lat. Tervinhgi , ein Name der Westgoten, setzt got. *Tairwiggôs voraus und ist mit Rücksicht
                                  Message 16 of 17 , May 30, 2007
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                                    Adolf Bach, Deutsche Namenkunde, Heidelberg 1978, p. 202-203:

                                    Lat. "Tervinhgi", ein Name der Westgoten, setzt got. *Tairwiggôs
                                    voraus und ist mit Rücksicht auf dem Namen "Greutungi", wie die
                                    Ostgoten hießen, vielleicht zu germ. *terwa- 'Baum, Holz'
                                    (engl. "tree") zu stellen. Die "Tervingi" waren danach
                                    die 'Waldleute', im Gegensatz zu den "Greutungi", den 'Bewohnern
                                    eines sandigen Ufers'; letzterer Name (vorauszusetzen ist got.
                                    *Griutunggôs) gehört zu germ. *greuta 'Zerriebenes, Zerbröckeltes,
                                    Gries, Sand, Stein').


                                    >
                                    > According to Carlo Alberto Mastrelli, "Grammatica Gotica", 1967:
                                    >
                                    > Tervingi: È un derivato in -inga- di un tema germ. *teru- 'resina,
                                    > catrame' (cfr. a. isl. "tjara", ags. "teoru, tierwa", a.
                                    fris. "tera",
                                    > m. oland. "tar" m. b. t. "tere", a. ted. assiano e
                                    > sigherlandese "Zehr").
                                    >
                                    > ....Il nome dei Tervingi potrebbe essersi constituito nelle
                                    regioni
                                    > carpatiche dove il 'pio cimbro', dal quale si estraggono 'resina'
                                    > e 'catrame' (germ. *teru-), è endemico.
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > > "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                                    > > als "Thervingi" geschrieben, gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                                    > > got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                                    > > trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo"
                                    (aus
                                    > > *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                                    > > Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                                    > > Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                                    > > Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte
                                    Form "Virting"-
                                    > > aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                                    > >
                                    >
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