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Wulfila, Alareiks, Aþanagilds

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  • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
    Háils How are Gothic names in -ila actually declined? Like mana ? For instance: Wulfila, gen. Wulfilins, dat. Wulfilin, acc. Wulfilan? Alareiks and
    Message 1 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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      Háils

      How are Gothic names in -ila actually declined? Like "mana"? For
      instance: Wulfila, gen. Wulfilins, dat. Wulfilin, acc. Wulfilan?

      Alareiks and Aþanagilds: (n-stem) Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
      Alareik, acc. Alareik (why "Friþareikeis" in the Gothic calendar? This
      would belong to the ja-stem);

      Aþanagild, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagild, acc. Aþanagild?

      Regards
    • llama_nom
      ... I think this is a reasonable assumption, although the only example attested is Merila (nominative). ... The question here is whether -reik- in names was
      Message 2 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
        <manielombard@...> wrote:
        >
        > Háils
        >
        > How are Gothic names in -ila actually declined? Like "manna"? For
        > instance: Wulfila, gen. Wulfilins, dat. Wulfilin, acc. Wulfilan?

        I think this is a reasonable assumption, although the only example
        attested is Merila (nominative).

        > Alareiks and Aþanagilds: (n-stem) Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
        > Alareik, acc. Alareik (why "Friþareikeis" in the Gothic calendar? This
        > would belong to the ja-stem);

        The question here is whether -reik- in names was interpreted as
        equivalent to the noun 'reiks' "ruler" (consonant stem partly
        assimilated to the a-stem declension), or to a hypothetical ja-stem
        adjective *reikeis (or *reiks, i-stem?) "powerful". The first option
        seems most likely, given cognates in other Germanic languages. The
        scribe wrote Friþareikeikeis -- which presumably involves at least one
        mistake! My guess is that this stands for 'correct' Wulfilan Gothic
        'Friþureikis' (genitive). The use of 'ei' could be due to the
        preceding 'ei' in the root, or it could be a variant spelling for 'i'
        (there is some confusion in the manuscripts between 'i', 'ei' and 'e',
        although the 'ei' : 'e' confusion is more common), or it could be to
        do with a loss of distinction between vowels in unstressed syllables
        (cf. the connecting vowel -a- in the first element of the name).

        > Aþanagild, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagild, acc. Aþanagild?

        It seems to be treated as a second declension noun in Latin, so maybe
        a Gothic a-stem? Are there any names with this second element in the
        other Germanic languages?

        LN
      • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
        Thanks, LN! What do you mean by consonant stem partly assimilated to the a-stem declension ? How would this affect Alareiks? Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
        Message 3 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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          Thanks, LN!

          What do you mean by "consonant stem partly assimilated to the a-stem
          declension"?

          How would this affect Alareiks? Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
          Alareik (or Alareika?), acc. Alareik

          Aþanagild: Aþanagild, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc.
          Aþanagild?

          Would you also treat Þaúrismoþs and names ending in -"mers" as a-
          stems?

          Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ?

          M. Schönfeld in "Wörterbuch der altgermanischen Personen- und
          Völkernamen" has:

          Alagildus: -gild, das in vielen Namen erscheint - Beispiele bei
          Förstemann 639flg. - stellt sich zu altnordisch "gildr" 'der etwas
          wert
          ist, tüchtig' und dem Zeitwort got. "gildan" usw. 'gelten'. Die
          westgermanische Form ist eigentlich -geld(us).

          Aligildus

          Austeregildus: (fränkische Königin)

          Ermenegildus: (Westgotenkönig)

          Fandigildus: (wahrscheinlich ein Ostgote)

          Gildila: (Ostgote), got. *Gildila, eine Koseform zu einem mit Gild-
          zusammengestzten Namen.

          Ingeldus, Ingildus (wahrscheinlich ein Burgunder) = gotisch *Iggilds.

          Liwigildus: (Westgotenkönig)

          Tarbigildus: (Greutung)

          Widargildus: ahd. "Widargelt" 'der Wiedergelter, Rächer'

          Greetings
        • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
          Sorry, A�anagilds: A�anagilds, gen. A�anagildis, dat. A�anagilda, acc. A�anagild?
          Message 4 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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            Sorry, Aþanagilds: Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc.
            Aþanagild?
          • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
            Not Austeregildus: (fränkische Königin) but: Austregildis: (fränkische Königin)
            Message 5 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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              Not "Austeregildus: (fränkische Königin)" but:

              Austregildis: (fränkische Königin)
            • ualarauans
              ... Go. *Winigilds, *Airminagilds and *Liubigilds seem to be attested also in OHG (they must be in Schönfeld, ain t they?); Go. Iggilds (actually In-gilds)
              Message 6 of 17 , May 26, 2007
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                --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "llama_nom" <600cell@...> wrote:
                >
                > [...]
                > > Aþanagild, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagild, acc. Aþanagild?
                >
                > It seems to be treated as a second declension noun in Latin, so maybe
                > a Gothic a-stem? Are there any names with this second element in the
                > other Germanic languages?

                Go. *Winigilds, *Airminagilds and *Liubigilds seem to be attested also
                in OHG (they must be in Schönfeld, ain't they?); Go. Iggilds (actually
                In-gilds) may be = ON Ingjaldr, OE Ingeld (like in-ahs). This is an a-
                stem.

                Ualarauans
              • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                You re right there, Ualarauans Schönfeld has: Ermenegildus: (Westgotenkönig) Liwigildus: (Westgotenköing), (Schönfeld is of the opinion that correct form
                Message 7 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                  You're right there, Ualarauans

                  Schönfeld has:

                  Ermenegildus: (Westgotenkönig)

                  "Liwigildus: (Westgotenköing), (Schönfeld is of the opinion that
                  correct form should be -"liwi" and not -"liubi") Trotz "Leovildus"
                  in der Inschrift und trotz wgot. "Leovegildus" (Meyer-Lübke 1,38)
                  scheint "Liwi-gildus" die richtige Form zu sein, da sie in dem guten
                  Codex P III (Sm) überliefert ist, da ferner "Liwigildus" der Bruder
                  von "Liwa" ist und Namen von Verwandten so oft ein Glied gemein
                  haben, da endlich auch die germanische Etymologie darauf hinweist.
                  Kögel hat es wahrscheinlich gemacht, daß "Liwi"- zu germ. "Lewa"-
                  , "Liwi"-, "lio"-, "leo"-, ahd. "lewên", "liwit" 'gnädig sein',
                  an. "ljónar", afri. "liana" gehört; ferner gehören hierher, aber
                  erweitert durch ein n-Suffix, "Leone-gildus", "Leuninus", "Leonia".


                  Leicht verständlich ist es, daß man neben "Liuui"- "Leoui"- schrieb,
                  da man "Liuui"- als "Liuvi"- las und gewohnt war, neben "iu"
                  auch "eu", "eo" zu schreiben (vgl. unter "Theudebaldus").
                  In "Leovildus" ist das "g" synkopiert.

                  Nicht zu "Liwi"- gehört "Libe-fridus", nebst den dort genanten
                  Namen; hier erscheint das "b" zu häufig, als daß ger. "w"
                  wahrscheinlich wäre."

                  Winigilds I can't find in his book though.


                  Manie
                • llama_nom
                  ... I just meant that it was originally a consonant stem, but has come to agree with the a-stems in some inflections: gen.sg. reikis; dat.pl. reikam. ... I
                  Message 8 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                    --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                    <manielombard@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Thanks, LN!
                    >
                    > What do you mean by "consonant stem partly assimilated to the a-stem
                    > declension"?

                    I just meant that it was originally a consonant stem, but has come to
                    agree with the a-stems in some inflections: gen.sg. reikis; dat.pl.
                    reikam.

                    > How would this affect Alareiks? Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat.
                    > Alareik (or Alareika?), acc. Alareik

                    I would guess that it would be declined like the word 'reiks', thus
                    dat. 'reik'.

                    > Aþanagild: Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc.
                    > Aþanagild?

                    I think so, although, regarding the proposed etymology, if the root
                    vowel was originally 'e', then ON 'gildr' implies a following 'i' or
                    'j' in Proto-Norse, otherwise it would have been ON 'gjaldr' (cf.
                    'gjald' "tribute", 'gjalda' "repay"), but presumably the root is the
                    same, whatever the original sense of the naming element.

                    > Would you also treat Þaúrismoþs and names ending in -"mers" as a-
                    > stems?
                    > Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ?

                    For -moþs, we have the evidence of the adjective (a-stem) and the
                    personal name recorded in the dative as Alamoda. So I think you're
                    right there. As for -mers-, the adjective was apparently a ja/jo-stem
                    in Gothic: þishvah þatei wailameri, neut.nom.sg. (Php 4:8); cf. OE
                    mæ´re. (But the Thorsberg scabbard end-clasp inscription has an
                    i-stem 'wajemariz'.) But Latin spellings of these Gothic names tend
                    to have -mer, -mar, -mirus, don't they? And was there one with
                    -meres? The usual forms anyway suggest that, as a naming element, it
                    wasn't a ja/jo-stem (compare Augis, Hisarnis) but either an a-stem or
                    an i-stem. In OE, in spite of the ja/jo adjective 'mæ´re', names have
                    a reduced 'mer', treated as an a-stem. Gothic i-stem names don't
                    usually have any trace of the stem vowel represented in Latin
                    spellings: Audoinus, Cunigastus, Daroin, Nanduin -- unless it's
                    present in Anagastes and Ardaburius (?*Hardubaur).

                    > Tarbigildus: (Greutung)

                    I wonder if the 1st element in this is related to the 1st element in
                    Terwingi (with late Latin confusion of medial 'b' and 'v').

                    > Widargildus: ahd. "Widargelt" 'der Wiedergelter, Rächer'

                    The Old English poem Widsith names one Wiþergield among the Gothic heroes.

                    LN
                  • llama_nom
                    ... Or could this be a contraction of Proto-Norse *Ingwa-geldaz? LN
                    Message 9 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "ualarauans" <ualarauans@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Go. Iggilds (actually
                      > In-gilds) may be = ON Ingjaldr, OE Ingeld (like in-ahs). This is an a-
                      > stem.

                      Or could this be a contraction of Proto-Norse *Ingwa-geldaz?

                      LN
                    • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                      Dear LN, do I get you right here? 1) Alareiks declined like frijonds, i. e.: Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat. Alareik, acc. Alareik but 2) Aþanagilds,
                      Message 10 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                        Dear LN, do I get you right here?


                        1) Alareiks declined like frijonds, i. e.:

                        Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat. Alareik, acc. Alareik


                        but


                        2) Aþanagilds, Þaúrismoþs and Þiudamers declined like dags, i. e.:

                        Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc. Aþanagild

                        Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ

                        Þiudamers, gen. Þiudameris, dat. Þiudamera, acc. Þiudamer


                        Schönfeld wrote:

                        "Tarbigildus (Greek: Targíbildos, Tribígildos, Argíbildos; Latin:
                        Tarbigilus, Trabigilus, Thrabigilus, Tragbilus,...) Während das
                        zweite Glied das bekannte -"gildus" ist (das bisweilen zu -"gilus"
                        entstellt ist), ist das erste Glied schwerer zu deuten. Die
                        Überlieferung weist wohl eher auf "Tarbi"- (zu "Tarbus" ?) als
                        auf "Trivi"- (das kaum zu "Tervingi" gehören könnte) hin.
                        In "Targíbildos" und "Trigíldos" liegt Verschreibung vor."

                        "Tarbus: (Barbare) Akk. Sg. Tárbon. Germanisch, oder griechisch: zu
                        tárbos 'Schrecken'"


                        "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                        als "Thervingi" geschrieben, gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                        got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                        trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo" (aus
                        *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                        Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                        Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                        Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte Form "Virting"-
                        aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                      • llama_nom
                        ... Yes, that would be my provisional guess, unless anyone has evidence to the contrary. ... So, if these last two are exceptional variants, presumably there s
                        Message 11 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                          <manielombard@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > Dear LN, do I get you right here?
                          >
                          >
                          > 1) Alareiks declined like frijonds, i. e.:
                          >
                          > Alareiks, gen. Alareikis, dat. Alareik, acc. Alareik
                          >
                          >
                          > but
                          >
                          >
                          > 2) Aþanagilds, Þaúrismoþs and Þiudamers declined like dags, i. e.:
                          >
                          > Aþanagilds, gen. Aþanagildis, dat. Aþanagilda, acc. Aþanagild
                          >
                          > Þaúrismoþs, gen. Þaúrismodis, dat. Þaúrismoda, acc. Þaúrismoþ
                          >
                          > Þiudamers, gen. Þiudameris, dat. Þiudamera, acc. Þiudamer
                          >


                          Yes, that would be my provisional guess, unless anyone has evidence to
                          the contrary.


                          > Schönfeld wrote:
                          >
                          > "Tarbigildus (Greek: Targíbildos, Tribígildos, Argíbildos; Latin:
                          > Tarbigilus, Trabigilus, Thrabigilus, Tragbilus,...) Während das
                          > zweite Glied das bekannte -"gildus" ist (das bisweilen zu -"gilus"
                          > entstellt ist), ist das erste Glied schwerer zu deuten. Die
                          > Überlieferung weist wohl eher auf "Tarbi"- (zu "Tarbus" ?) als
                          > auf "Trivi"- (das kaum zu "Tervingi" gehören könnte) hin.
                          > In "Targíbildos" und "Trigíldos" liegt Verschreibung vor."


                          So, if these last two are exceptional variants, presumably there's no
                          connection then with *targo "small shield, buckler, targe", or the
                          'trigildus' "threefold compensation" mentioned in the Burgundian Laws
                          (cf. the 'novigildus' "ninefold compensation" named there also)...


                          > "Tarbus: (Barbare) Akk. Sg. Tárbon. Germanisch, oder griechisch: zu
                          > tárbos 'Schrecken'"
                          >
                          >
                          > "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                          > als "Thervingi" geschrieben,

                          Maybe, although I've read that there was some tendency among not so
                          well educated people to add an etymologically spurious 'h' in such
                          words, even of native Latin origin [
                          http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/7528 ], on the model of Greek
                          loanwords. I can imagine that a such hypercorrect spellings would be
                          especially liable to creep in barbarian names (neither Latin nor
                          Greek) due to unfamiliarity with these languages and a lack of
                          established writing conventions.

                          > gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                          > got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                          > trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo" (aus
                          > *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                          > Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                          > Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                          > Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte Form "Virting"-
                          > aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                          >

                          Thanks, I hadn't heard of this form Virting till now. Is there any
                          possibility that it could be due to confusion in late Latin between
                          the once distinct /e/ and /i/? (On the other hand, Crimean Gothic for
                          one seems to have been a dialect in which Proto-Germanic /e/ and /i/
                          weren't confused as they were in the ancestor of Biblical Gothic, so
                          there may well have been a lot more variety in this respect than is
                          apparent from the few surviving Gothic manuscripts.) Related words in
                          Germanic: OE teoru, teru, n., tier(e)we, f., -teoru, -tare, -tara,
                          m.? "tar, resin; earwax", and ON tyri "resinous fir-tree".

                          LN
                        • ualarauans
                          Hi Manie, ... guten ... schrieb, ... Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an
                          Message 12 of 17 , May 27, 2007
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                            Hi Manie,

                            --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                            <manielombard@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > [...]
                            > "Liwigildus: (Westgotenköing), (Schönfeld is of the opinion that
                            > correct form should be -"liwi" and not -"liubi") Trotz "Leovildus"
                            > in der Inschrift und trotz wgot. "Leovegildus" (Meyer-Lübke 1,38)
                            > scheint "Liwi-gildus" die richtige Form zu sein, da sie in dem
                            guten
                            > Codex P III (Sm) überliefert ist, da ferner "Liwigildus" der Bruder
                            > von "Liwa" ist und Namen von Verwandten so oft ein Glied gemein
                            > haben, da endlich auch die germanische Etymologie darauf hinweist.
                            > Kögel hat es wahrscheinlich gemacht, daß "Liwi"- zu germ. "Lewa"-
                            > , "Liwi"-, "lio"-, "leo"-, ahd. "lewên", "liwit" 'gnädig sein',
                            > an. "ljónar", afri. "liana" gehört; ferner gehören hierher, aber
                            > erweitert durch ein n-Suffix, "Leone-gildus", "Leuninus", "Leonia".
                            >
                            > Leicht verständlich ist es, daß man neben "Liuui"- "Leoui"-
                            schrieb,
                            > da man "Liuui"- als "Liuvi"- las und gewohnt war, neben "iu"
                            > auch "eu", "eo" zu schreiben (vgl. unter "Theudebaldus").
                            > In "Leovildus" ist das "g" synkopiert.
                            >
                            > Nicht zu "Liwi"- gehört "Libe-fridus", nebst den dort genanten
                            > Namen; hier erscheint das "b" zu häufig, als daß ger. "w"
                            > wahrscheinlich wäre."

                            Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could
                            as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an "lion" (cf.
                            OCSl. loan liv-u "idem"). Not that lions were very popular among
                            Goths. They could have seen the beasts in Roman amphitheaters being
                            engaged themselves as gladiators or as members of diplomatic staff
                            maybe.

                            Ualarauans
                          • Fredrik
                            ... Is it a latin/roman thing to make aí to a before r, or could it be a later gothic change? In this case it seems to have been so, and I think there are
                            Message 13 of 17 , May 28, 2007
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                              > > Tarbigildus: (Greutung)
                              >
                              > I wonder if the 1st element in this is related to the 1st element in
                              > Terwingi (with late Latin confusion of medial 'b' and 'v').
                              >

                              Is it a latin/roman thing to make aí to a before r, or could it be a
                              later gothic change?
                              In this case it seems to have been so, and I think there are some more
                              examples of it.
                            • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                              ... Hi Ualarauans Or rather just a hypocorism for names beginning with Liwi -. Regards Manie
                              Message 14 of 17 , May 28, 2007
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                                > Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could
                                > as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an "lion" (cf.
                                > OCSl. loan liv-u "idem"). Not that lions were very popular among
                                > Goths. They could have seen the beasts in Roman amphitheaters being
                                > engaged themselves as gladiators or as members of diplomatic staff
                                > maybe.

                                Hi Ualarauans

                                Or rather just a hypocorism for names beginning with "Liwi"-.

                                Regards

                                Manie
                              • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                                According to Carlo Alberto Mastrelli, Grammatica Gotica , 1967: Tervingi: È un derivato in -inga- di un tema germ. *teru- resina, catrame (cfr. a. isl.
                                Message 15 of 17 , May 29, 2007
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                                  According to Carlo Alberto Mastrelli, "Grammatica Gotica", 1967:

                                  Tervingi: È un derivato in -inga- di un tema germ. *teru- 'resina,
                                  catrame' (cfr. a. isl. "tjara", ags. "teoru, tierwa", a. fris. "tera",
                                  m. oland. "tar" m. b. t. "tere", a. ted. assiano e
                                  sigherlandese "Zehr").

                                  ....Il nome dei Tervingi potrebbe essersi constituito nelle regioni
                                  carpatiche dove il 'pio cimbro', dal quale si estraggono 'resina'
                                  e 'catrame' (germ. *teru-), è endemico.



                                  > "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                                  > als "Thervingi" geschrieben, gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                                  > got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                                  > trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo" (aus
                                  > *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                                  > Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                                  > Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                                  > Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte Form "Virting"-
                                  > aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                                  >
                                • llama_nom
                                  Lion was the name of the hero s horse in Waltharius. Ipseque de stabulis victorem duxit equorum, Ob virtutem quem vocitaverat ille Leonem.
                                  Message 16 of 17 , May 29, 2007
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                                    "Lion" was the name of the hero's horse in Waltharius.

                                    Ipseque de stabulis victorem duxit equorum,
                                    Ob virtutem quem vocitaverat ille Leonem.


                                    --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard"
                                    <manielombard@...> wrote:
                                    >
                                    > > Yes, I saw this idea and I thought if we accept *Liwigilds we could
                                    > > as well derive its first element from Go. *liwa M.-an "lion" (cf.
                                    > > OCSl. loan liv-u "idem"). Not that lions were very popular among
                                    > > Goths. They could have seen the beasts in Roman amphitheaters being
                                    > > engaged themselves as gladiators or as members of diplomatic staff
                                    > > maybe.
                                    >
                                    > Hi Ualarauans
                                    >
                                    > Or rather just a hypocorism for names beginning with "Liwi"-.
                                    >
                                    > Regards
                                    >
                                    > Manie
                                    >
                                  • Abdoer-Ragmaan Lombard
                                    Adolf Bach, Deutsche Namenkunde, Heidelberg 1978, p. 202-203: Lat. Tervinhgi , ein Name der Westgoten, setzt got. *Tairwiggôs voraus und ist mit Rücksicht
                                    Message 17 of 17 , May 30, 2007
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                                      Adolf Bach, Deutsche Namenkunde, Heidelberg 1978, p. 202-203:

                                      Lat. "Tervinhgi", ein Name der Westgoten, setzt got. *Tairwiggôs
                                      voraus und ist mit Rücksicht auf dem Namen "Greutungi", wie die
                                      Ostgoten hießen, vielleicht zu germ. *terwa- 'Baum, Holz'
                                      (engl. "tree") zu stellen. Die "Tervingi" waren danach
                                      die 'Waldleute', im Gegensatz zu den "Greutungi", den 'Bewohnern
                                      eines sandigen Ufers'; letzterer Name (vorauszusetzen ist got.
                                      *Griutunggôs) gehört zu germ. *greuta 'Zerriebenes, Zerbröckeltes,
                                      Gries, Sand, Stein').


                                      >
                                      > According to Carlo Alberto Mastrelli, "Grammatica Gotica", 1967:
                                      >
                                      > Tervingi: È un derivato in -inga- di un tema germ. *teru- 'resina,
                                      > catrame' (cfr. a. isl. "tjara", ags. "teoru, tierwa", a.
                                      fris. "tera",
                                      > m. oland. "tar" m. b. t. "tere", a. ted. assiano e
                                      > sigherlandese "Zehr").
                                      >
                                      > ....Il nome dei Tervingi potrebbe essersi constituito nelle
                                      regioni
                                      > carpatiche dove il 'pio cimbro', dal quale si estraggono 'resina'
                                      > e 'catrame' (germ. *teru-), è endemico.
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > > "Tervingi: von Ammian wohl unter griechischem Einfluß
                                      > > als "Thervingi" geschrieben, gehört, ebenso wie "Ala-terviae" zu
                                      > > got. "triu", an. "tré", ags. "tréo(w)", afri. "trê", as. "treo,
                                      > > trio" 'Baum'; die Vollstufe finden wir auch in abulg. "drevo"
                                      (aus
                                      > > *der-u-o-), lit. "dervà", die o-Stufe in gr. "dóry" 'Holz,
                                      > > Speer';...Die Westgoten bekamen zur Zeit, da sie das waldreiche
                                      > > Dazien bewohnten, den Beinamen "Tervingi" 'Waldbewohner'...
                                      > > Merkwürdig ist die bei den Scriptores überlieferte
                                      Form "Virting"-
                                      > > aus *"Tirwingi"- statt "Tervingi", got. *"Taírwingos."
                                      > >
                                      >
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