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Poety to translate?

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  • Michael Adams
    If anyone is game, I have some small simple poems that might be easy to translate into Gothic? Mike [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    Message 1 of 17 , Mar 17, 2006
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      If anyone is game, I have some small simple poems that might be easy to translate into Gothic?

      Mike


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • OSCAR HERRERA
      what are they....oscar Michael Adams wrote: If anyone is game, I have some small simple poems that might be easy to translate into Gothic?
      Message 2 of 17 , Mar 18, 2006
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        what are they....oscar

        Michael Adams <abrigon@...> wrote: If anyone is game, I have some small simple poems that might be easy to translate into Gothic?

        Mike


        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





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      • Michael Adams
        I am learning to ask first, so I do not waste peoples bandwidth to much.. Here goes: (two or more) BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind
        Message 3 of 17 , Mar 19, 2006
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          I am learning to ask first, so I do not waste peoples bandwidth
          to much..

          Here goes: (two or more)

          BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
          ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
          you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
          currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
          hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
          held but never let free.

          THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
          one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
          for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
          sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
          and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
          I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
          shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
          sweet, and to know this, I quest.

          VASHTI OF THE FLAME RED TRESSES: Oh my dearest lady mine, for
          your passing has emptied my heart, but the memories of you will
          be with me forever. The joy we felt in our youth, the times we
          spent in our middle years. The things we did here, there and
          all. Friends we made, times we spent, even when angry we did it
          in love. How the feeling I do feel at your passing, for you my
          lady of hair so red was me, and I you, a half has gone away and
          left me with feelings of what now, not to replace but the
          feeling of what now? Who can I turn to when I need love,
          carrying, a gentle hand a soft caress, to be told I was wrong
          and the love to show me gently. To be there for me, and I for
          you. Bye my dear lady of flaming hair that lighted up the
          darkness of my life, for before you there was darkness and now
          what? Farewell my dear until that day with Gods/fates grace I
          can join you once again, to walk hand in hand, arm in arm,
          carress to carress, feel to feel and knowing we will be together
          always..

          Mike Adams
        • OSCAR HERRERA
          my version for butterflies are free---- ah wulthein malo, swaswe tho windo ju reidan,fahana ju kunn ju ist,auk in sah allata ik tawei slaha ist ju jah haldan
          Message 4 of 17 , Mar 19, 2006
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            my version for butterflies are free---- ah wulthein malo, swaswe tho windo ju reidan,fahana ju kunn ju ist,auk in sah allata ik tawei slaha ist ju jah haldan ju frahunthans, malaim sind fries, ufkunn tho runs fram wind,du fliug fairrapro,ni ewa du wisa hildun af diwaim handaim,faur innana tho haldjandan tho ubil waurthano ist, faur wha sind drauman hildun,auk ni ewa aflets fries...oscar

            Michael Adams <abrigon@...> wrote: I am learning to ask first, so I do not waste peoples bandwidth
            to much..

            Here goes: (two or more)

            BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
            ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
            you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
            currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
            hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
            held but never let free.

            THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
            one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
            for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
            sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
            and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
            I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
            shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
            sweet, and to know this, I quest.

            VASHTI OF THE FLAME RED TRESSES: Oh my dearest lady mine, for
            your passing has emptied my heart, but the memories of you will
            be with me forever. The joy we felt in our youth, the times we
            spent in our middle years. The things we did here, there and
            all. Friends we made, times we spent, even when angry we did it
            in love. How the feeling I do feel at your passing, for you my
            lady of hair so red was me, and I you, a half has gone away and
            left me with feelings of what now, not to replace but the
            feeling of what now? Who can I turn to when I need love,
            carrying, a gentle hand a soft caress, to be told I was wrong
            and the love to show me gently. To be there for me, and I for
            you. Bye my dear lady of flaming hair that lighted up the
            darkness of my life, for before you there was darkness and now
            what? Farewell my dear until that day with Gods/fates grace I
            can join you once again, to walk hand in hand, arm in arm,
            carress to carress, feel to feel and knowing we will be together
            always..

            Mike Adams






            You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
            Yahoo! Groups Links









            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • thiudans
            Koebler: Schmetterling: germ. *fifaldæ-, *fifaldæn, *fifaldræ-, *fifaldræn, germ., sw. F. (n): nhd. Falter, Schmetterling what appears as æ in this
            Message 5 of 17 , Mar 20, 2006
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              Koebler: "Schmetterling: germ. *fifaldæ-, *fifaldæn, *fifaldræ-,
              *fifaldræn, germ., sw. F. (n): nhd. Falter, Schmetterling "

              what appears as "æ" in this quotation above is supposed to be long o
              (=ô).
              A gothic version might be "fifaldo" or "fifaldro"

              There are some grammatical errors. To begin, you would be 'thu', not
              ju. Also, the verbs should coordinate with the subject.

              Incidentally, it might be a good idea for those asking for
              translations to attempt one first. The attempt as well as the ensuing
              corrections and discussions would be very helpful for improving their
              own understanding of the language.

              Cheers,
              Thiudans



              --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@...> wrote:
              >
              > my version for butterflies are free---- ah wulthein malo, swaswe tho
              windo ju reidan,fahana ju kunn ju ist,auk in sah allata ik tawei slaha
              ist ju jah haldan ju frahunthans, malaim sind fries, ufkunn tho runs
              fram wind,du fliug fairrapro,ni ewa du wisa hildun af diwaim
              handaim,faur innana tho haldjandan tho ubil waurthano ist, faur wha
              sind drauman hildun,auk ni ewa aflets fries...oscar
              >
              > Michael Adams <abrigon@...> wrote: I am learning to ask first, so I
              do not waste peoples bandwidth
              > to much..
              >
              > Here goes: (two or more)
              >
              > BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
              > ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
              > you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
              > currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
              > hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
              > held but never let free.
            • Guenther Ramm
              Hails, *Garazdans! Would you mind another translation attempt? Not always a word-for-word one, of cause, but instead I tried to “reconstruct” here and
              Message 6 of 17 , Mar 20, 2006
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                Hails, *Garazdans!
                Would you mind another translation attempt? Not always a word-for-word one, of cause, but instead I tried to “reconstruct” here and there some of alliterative rhyme. All those clumsy “neologisms” are mine (just slapdash invented and without any claim to get into the waurdahuzd).
                By the way, I would be very thankful for every hint about what Gothic “butterfly” or rather “Grail” be like.

                BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                held but never let free.


                O *blomafliugo waliso, thuei windaleiko ufaro airthai nu rinnis
                Ibai sa fahands thuk frathjan duginnith
                Hva maht ist haldis nibai hafta thuk fastan
                Frijos sind *fliugons, thozei fairrathro brahtedun
                Windos thai waiandans fram waihstam this midjungardis
                Ni du fragiban thos gumane handum
                Wai thamma wiljandin winda gatamjan
                Draum faurdammjan in daubithos hairtins

                Looking forward a scornful sneer of connoisseurs

                Ualarauans

                Michael Adams <abrigon@...> wrote: I am learning to ask first, so I do not waste peoples bandwidth
                to much..

                Here goes: (two or more)

                BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                held but never let free.

                THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
                one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
                for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
                sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
                and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
                I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
                shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
                sweet, and to know this, I quest.

                VASHTI OF THE FLAME RED TRESSES: Oh my dearest lady mine, for
                your passing has emptied my heart, but the memories of you will
                be with me forever. The joy we felt in our youth, the times we
                spent in our middle years. The things we did here, there and
                all. Friends we made, times we spent, even when angry we did it
                in love. How the feeling I do feel at your passing, for you my
                lady of hair so red was me, and I you, a half has gone away and
                left me with feelings of what now, not to replace but the
                feeling of what now? Who can I turn to when I need love,
                carrying, a gentle hand a soft caress, to be told I was wrong
                and the love to show me gently. To be there for me, and I for
                you. Bye my dear lady of flaming hair that lighted up the
                darkness of my life, for before you there was darkness and now
                what? Farewell my dear until that day with Gods/fates grace I
                can join you once again, to walk hand in hand, arm in arm,
                carress to carress, feel to feel and knowing we will be together
                always..

                Mike Adams






                You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to <gothic-l-unsubscribe@egroups.com>.



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              • thiudans
                ... Hails! Nice translation & alliteration! No grammar comments now. I like flower-fly, nice invention. The first line has many syllables so I will offer a
                Message 7 of 17 , Mar 22, 2006
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                  --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Guenther Ramm <ualarauans@...> wrote:

                  Hails!

                  Nice translation & alliteration!
                  No grammar comments now.
                  I like flower-fly, nice invention.
                  The first line has many syllables so I will offer a shorter one for
                  possibility of longer notes:

                  > O *blomafliugo waliso, thuei windaleiko ufaro airthai nu rinnis

                  O *fifaldo waliso, (hwaiwa) theinamma winda-staigon galeiko

                  "how like that wind-road (you ride)". I thought riding is implicit in
                  "road" perhaps.

                  If Grail shall be a borrowing = Gradéls-. Else, the attested word
                  Stikls will do fine.



                  cheers,
                  The Moderator






                  > Hails, *Garazdans!
                  > Would you mind another translation attempt? Not always a
                  word-for-word one, of cause, but instead I tried to "reconstruct" here
                  and there some of alliterative rhyme. All those clumsy "neologisms"
                  are mine (just slapdash invented and without any claim to get into the
                  waurdahuzd).
                  > By the way, I would be very thankful for every hint about what
                  Gothic "butterfly" or rather "Grail" be like.
                  >
                  > BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                  > ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                  > you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                  > currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                  > hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                  > held but never let free.
                  >
                  >
                  > O *blomafliugo waliso, thuei windaleiko ufaro airthai nu rinnis
                  > Ibai sa fahands thuk frathjan duginnith
                  > Hva maht ist haldis nibai hafta thuk fastan
                  > Frijos sind *fliugons, thozei fairrathro brahtedun
                  > Windos thai waiandans fram waihstam this midjungardis
                  > Ni du fragiban thos gumane handum
                  > Wai thamma wiljandin winda gatamjan
                  > Draum faurdammjan in daubithos hairtins
                  >
                  > Looking forward a scornful sneer of connoisseurs
                  >
                  > Ualarauans
                  >
                  > Michael Adams <abrigon@...> wrote: I am learning to ask first, so I
                  do not waste peoples bandwidth
                  > to much..
                  >
                  > Here goes: (two or more)
                  >
                  > BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                  > ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                  > you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                  > currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                  > hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                  > held but never let free.
                  >
                  > THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
                  > one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
                  > for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
                  > sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
                  > and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
                  > I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
                  > shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
                  > sweet, and to know this, I quest.
                  >
                  > VASHTI OF THE FLAME RED TRESSES: Oh my dearest lady mine, for
                  > your passing has emptied my heart, but the memories of you will
                  > be with me forever. The joy we felt in our youth, the times we
                  > spent in our middle years. The things we did here, there and
                  > all. Friends we made, times we spent, even when angry we did it
                  > in love. How the feeling I do feel at your passing, for you my
                  > lady of hair so red was me, and I you, a half has gone away and
                  > left me with feelings of what now, not to replace but the
                  > feeling of what now? Who can I turn to when I need love,
                  > carrying, a gentle hand a soft caress, to be told I was wrong
                  > and the love to show me gently. To be there for me, and I for
                  > you. Bye my dear lady of flaming hair that lighted up the
                  > darkness of my life, for before you there was darkness and now
                  > what? Farewell my dear until that day with Gods/fates grace I
                  > can join you once again, to walk hand in hand, arm in arm,
                  > carress to carress, feel to feel and knowing we will be together
                  > always..
                  >
                  > Mike Adams
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank
                  email to <gothic-l-unsubscribe@egroups.com>.
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > SPONSORED LINKS
                  > Dvd region free All regions dvd player
                  >
                  > ---------------------------------
                  > YAHOO! GROUPS LINKS
                  >
                  >
                  > Visit your group "gothic-l" on the web.
                  >
                  > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                  > gothic-l-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                  >
                  > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of
                  Service.
                  >
                  >
                  > ---------------------------------
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Send instant messages to your online friends
                  http://uk.messenger.yahoo.com
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                • Guenther Ramm
                  Golja Thuk, Thiudan! Thanks for your reply. *Fifald(r)o is great! Talking about this, is the first syllable a reduplication? If so, the spelling should be
                  Message 8 of 17 , Mar 23, 2006
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                    Golja Thuk, Thiudan!

                    Thanks for your reply. *Fifald(r)o is great! Talking about this, is the first syllable a reduplication? If so, the spelling should be *faifaldro (with ai [e]) perhaps. But as far as I know (and that’s not a long distance) there are no nouns with a (vivid) reduplication attested in Gothic, are they? And how is it (if it is) connected with the stem represented in Gothic falthan (cf. nhd. Falter : falten – maybe a later association?). The verb at least IS a reduplicative one (Past tense: faifalth).
                    About the “Grail” it might be of some interest to speculate.
                    If we postulate a loanword from MLatin, then forms like *gradels, *gradaleis or whatever more would do. But if trying to “find” a Gothic pendant the foremost question that arises is what the Grail actually was (is) – a cup, a stone, a gem etc. Here we are threatened to get lost in a rather off-topic discussion that traces down to the Middle Age, moreover this vagueness seems to be an integral part of the legend.
                    Let us proceed from the offered text © Michael Adams where it is a cup. Then stikls is the first that comes to the mind. Checking up its attestations in Ulfilan codices we come across both sacral and profane usages (cf. John 18:11 “stikl thanei gaf mis atta, niu drigkau thana?” and esp. Cor. I. 10:16 ff. “stikls thiuthiqissais thanei gaweiham, niu gamainduths blothis fraujins ist?” versus Mk. 7:4 “daupeinins stikle jah aurkje jah katile jah ligre” et sim.). I guess, to refer more precisely to the denotate we could try and “find” some composita with -stikls as the second element, e. g.:
                    *weihastikls “the holy cup”,
                    *xristustikls “Christ’s cup”, or even
                    *blothastikls “blood cup” though the latter sounds somewhat “vampiric”, doesn’t it? Cf. however Cor. I. 11:25 “sa stikls so niujo triggwa ist in meinamma blotha“ > *triggwastikls?
                    Could we then draw hence some parallels to Pre-Christian items attested in other Germanic areas, e. g. ON. (Eyrbyggja saga) hlautbolli “cup of sacrificial blood used in rituals” etc. and thus make our reconstruction more “historically verifiable”?

                    Now let me offer you my attempt to translate the whole verse (I’m afraid I again digressed too far from the original)

                    THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
                    one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
                    for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
                    sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
                    and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
                    I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
                    shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
                    sweet, and to know this, I quest.

                    STIKLIS SOKNS
                    Ungastoths hvarbo [ik] bi hveilain ni saurgands
                    Sinteino sokjands stilk thana weihan
                    *Laiwin galeiks saei laisteith tho stairnon
                    Merjandein *mariwig faura maurginis uhtwon
                    – Swiknana stikl ni bisauleith manna
                    Afguths jah unwairths, arwjo skal sokjan –
                    Framis nu farja bi fulginai mundrein
                    Und thana andi, than aggiljus haitand mik
                    Skaunjaim stibnom. Stikl than andnima
                    Dragk thata *diurjo drigka us thamma
                    Junda tho aiweinon aigi sa wairtha
                    Libains galauba – laun this sokjandins


                    Some remarks

                    *laiwin is Dat. Sg. from *laiwa M. -an “boat”, “small ship” – a hypothetical Finnish borrowing (Fin. laiva, Est. laev “idem”) into Gothic when crossing the Baltic Sea. In fact it’s highly improbable that Goths being evidently a sea-shore nation experienced in seafaring already before the migration started would adopt marine terminology from elsewhere. Here it’s just for the sake of rhyme.
                    To compare the seeker with a ship that follows its way through the dark of the night guided by the Pole Star (here “so stairno”) would seem to fit the supposed “language consciousness” of Viking Goths better than the “Knight on a Quest” motive which is rather medieval. All the above-said can easily be nonsense since I know too little about the subject.

                    *mariwigs “sea-way” (for mari- as the first element cf. mari-saiws).
                    “merjan wig” for “to show the way” sounds somewhat alien. A variant is “Mundondein mans sis faura maurginis uhtwon”, i.e. “that (sc. the Star) looks down upon humans before the day is breaking” (problems with word-order, I see).

                    *diureis adj. -ja “precious” (= ME dear)

                    Excuse my limited vocabulary, up to the nearest time all I disposed of was a brief glossary in W. Braune’s Gotische Grammatik (13. Auflage. – Halle/Saale: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1952). Now looking into Streitberg’s (best thanks to Project Wulfila) I tell to myself “And you thought you know the language!”

                    Craving for your opinions and comments
                    Ualarauans

                    P. S. By the way, I heard there were authors that assumed a closer bond between actual Visigoths and the Grail legends. Since I did not read the books I can not judge if this idea is scientifically grounded or is it just a fancy of historical fiction writers.


                    thiudans <thiudans@...> wrote: --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Guenther Ramm <ualarauans@...> wrote:

                    Hails!

                    Nice translation & alliteration!
                    No grammar comments now.
                    I like flower-fly, nice invention.
                    The first line has many syllables so I will offer a shorter one for
                    possibility of longer notes:

                    > O *blomafliugo waliso, thuei windaleiko ufaro airthai nu rinnis

                    O *fifaldo waliso, (hwaiwa) theinamma winda-staigon galeiko

                    "how like that wind-road (you ride)". I thought riding is implicit in
                    "road" perhaps.

                    If Grail shall be a borrowing = Gradéls-. Else, the attested word
                    Stikls will do fine.



                    cheers,
                    The Moderator






                    > Hails, *Garazdans!
                    > Would you mind another translation attempt? Not always a
                    word-for-word one, of cause, but instead I tried to "reconstruct" here
                    and there some of alliterative rhyme. All those clumsy "neologisms"
                    are mine (just slapdash invented and without any claim to get into the
                    waurdahuzd).
                    > By the way, I would be very thankful for every hint about what
                    Gothic "butterfly" or rather "Grail" be like.
                    >
                    > BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                    > ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                    > you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                    > currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                    > hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                    > held but never let free.
                    >
                    >
                    > O *blomafliugo waliso, thuei windaleiko ufaro airthai nu rinnis
                    > Ibai sa fahands thuk frathjan duginnith
                    > Hva maht ist haldis nibai hafta thuk fastan
                    > Frijos sind *fliugons, thozei fairrathro brahtedun
                    > Windos thai waiandans fram waihstam this midjungardis
                    > Ni du fragiban thos gumane handum
                    > Wai thamma wiljandin winda gatamjan
                    > Draum faurdammjan in daubithos hairtins
                    >
                    > Looking forward a scornful sneer of connoisseurs
                    >
                    > Ualarauans
                    >
                    > Michael Adams <abrigon@...> wrote: I am learning to ask first, so I
                    do not waste peoples bandwidth
                    > to much..
                    >
                    > Here goes: (two or more)
                    >
                    > BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                    > ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                    > you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                    > currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                    > hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                    > held but never let free.
                    >
                    > THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
                    > one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
                    > for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
                    > sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
                    > and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
                    > I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
                    > shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
                    > sweet, and to know this, I quest.
                    >
                    > VASHTI OF THE FLAME RED TRESSES: Oh my dearest lady mine, for
                    > your passing has emptied my heart, but the memories of you will
                    > be with me forever. The joy we felt in our youth, the times we
                    > spent in our middle years. The things we did here, there and
                    > all. Friends we made, times we spent, even when angry we did it
                    > in love. How the feeling I do feel at your passing, for you my
                    > lady of hair so red was me, and I you, a half has gone away and
                    > left me with feelings of what now, not to replace but the
                    > feeling of what now? Who can I turn to when I need love,
                    > carrying, a gentle hand a soft caress, to be told I was wrong
                    > and the love to show me gently. To be there for me, and I for
                    > you. Bye my dear lady of flaming hair that lighted up the
                    > darkness of my life, for before you there was darkness and now
                    > what? Farewell my dear until that day with Gods/fates grace I
                    > can join you once again, to walk hand in hand, arm in arm,
                    > carress to carress, feel to feel and knowing we will be together
                    > always..
                    >
                    > Mike Adams
                    >
                    >
                    >
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                  • thiudans
                    Hái Guenther, Great job on the Grail! German indeed has a word Falter, which shows lack of reduplicated syllable in the noun (if that s what it is here). Here
                    Message 9 of 17 , Mar 23, 2006
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                      Hái Guenther,

                      Great job on the Grail!

                      German indeed has a word Falter, which shows lack of reduplicated
                      syllable in the noun (if that's what it is here). Here is a somewhat
                      interesting discussion of the word on a conlang archive which draws
                      many comparisons highlighting the repetitive tendencies for this word
                      in various human languages:
                      http://www.mail-archive.com/conlang@yahoogroups.com/msg00517.html

                      Incidentally, I found in Orel's work that he suggests the original
                      form was "fenfe-faldjan", i.e. "Fivefolder" which strikes me as rather
                      more difficult to connect semantically.

                      I cannot speculate on what the Gothic form may have been for this old
                      Germanic vocabular asset which succumbed to replacement quite early
                      on. Still I must not forget to remind us of the fact that, whatever
                      its true etymology, Wulfila wrote the word for fly, flight, capable of
                      flight, etc. with a thl- initial cluster, therefore in the poem, if we
                      take the insect as related to the root, perhaps it should be
                      *THl(i)ugo (< Gmc. *fl[e]ugon or *thl- "Fly or Moth"; or, Go. *THlugi
                      < ? *flugjan "flying insect" [Orel])? It is unfortunate we cannot know
                      precisely how this variation occured. Orel corrects to fl-, Koebler
                      seems to suggest both possibilities (except for THlahsjan ?).


                      -Moderator


                      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Guenther Ramm <ualarauans@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Golja Thuk, Thiudan!
                      >
                      > Thanks for your reply. *Fifald(r)o is great! Talking about this,
                      is the first syllable a reduplication? If so, the spelling should be
                      *faifaldro (with ai [e]) perhaps. But as far as I know (and that's not
                      a long distance) there are no nouns with a (vivid) reduplication
                      attested in Gothic, are they? And how is it (if it is) connected with
                      the stem represented in Gothic falthan (cf. nhd. Falter : falten –
                      maybe a later association?). The verb at least IS a reduplicative one
                      (Past tense: faifalth).
                      > About the "Grail" it might be of some interest to speculate.
                      > If we postulate a loanword from MLatin, then forms like *gradels,
                      *gradaleis or whatever more would do. But if trying to "find" a Gothic
                      pendant the foremost question that arises is what the Grail actually
                      was (is) – a cup, a stone, a gem etc. Here we are threatened to get
                      lost in a rather off-topic discussion that traces down to the Middle
                      Age, moreover this vagueness seems to be an integral part of the legend.
                      > Let us proceed from the offered text © Michael Adams where it is a
                      cup. Then stikls is the first that comes to the mind. Checking up its
                      attestations in Ulfilan codices we come across both sacral and profane
                      usages (cf. John 18:11 "stikl thanei gaf mis atta, niu drigkau thana?"
                      and esp. Cor. I. 10:16 ff. "stikls thiuthiqissais thanei gaweiham, niu
                      gamainduths blothis fraujins ist?" versus Mk. 7:4 "daupeinins stikle
                      jah aurkje jah katile jah ligre" et sim.). I guess, to refer more
                      precisely to the denotate we could try and "find" some composita with
                      -stikls as the second element, e. g.:
                      > *weihastikls "the holy cup",
                      > *xristustikls "Christ's cup", or even
                      > *blothastikls "blood cup" though the latter sounds somewhat
                      "vampiric", doesn't it? Cf. however Cor. I. 11:25 "sa stikls so niujo
                      triggwa ist in meinamma blotha" > *triggwastikls?
                      > Could we then draw hence some parallels to Pre-Christian items
                      attested in other Germanic areas, e. g. ON. (Eyrbyggja saga)
                      hlautbolli "cup of sacrificial blood used in rituals" etc. and thus
                      make our reconstruction more "historically verifiable"?
                      >
                      > Now let me offer you my attempt to translate the whole verse (I'm
                      afraid I again digressed too far from the original)
                      >
                      > THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
                      > one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
                      > for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
                      > sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
                      > and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
                      > I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
                      > shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
                      > sweet, and to know this, I quest.
                      >
                      > STIKLIS SOKNS
                      > Ungastoths hvarbo [ik] bi hveilain ni saurgands
                      > Sinteino sokjands stilk thana weihan
                      > *Laiwin galeiks saei laisteith tho stairnon
                      > Merjandein *mariwig faura maurginis uhtwon
                      > – Swiknana stikl ni bisauleith manna
                      > Afguths jah unwairths, arwjo skal sokjan –
                      > Framis nu farja bi fulginai mundrein
                      > Und thana andi, than aggiljus haitand mik
                      > Skaunjaim stibnom. Stikl than andnima
                      > Dragk thata *diurjo drigka us thamma
                      > Junda tho aiweinon aigi sa wairtha
                      > Libains galauba – laun this sokjandins
                      >
                      >
                      > Some remarks
                      >
                      > *laiwin is Dat. Sg. from *laiwa M. -an "boat", "small ship" – a
                      hypothetical Finnish borrowing (Fin. laiva, Est. laev "idem") into
                      Gothic when crossing the Baltic Sea. In fact it's highly improbable
                      that Goths being evidently a sea-shore nation experienced in seafaring
                      already before the migration started would adopt marine terminology
                      from elsewhere. Here it's just for the sake of rhyme.
                      > To compare the seeker with a ship that follows its way through the
                      dark of the night guided by the Pole Star (here "so stairno") would
                      seem to fit the supposed "language consciousness" of Viking Goths
                      better than the "Knight on a Quest" motive which is rather medieval.
                      All the above-said can easily be nonsense since I know too little
                      about the subject.
                      >
                      > *mariwigs "sea-way" (for mari- as the first element cf. mari-saiws).
                      > "merjan wig" for "to show the way" sounds somewhat alien. A
                      variant is "Mundondein mans sis faura maurginis uhtwon", i.e. "that
                      (sc. the Star) looks down upon humans before the day is breaking"
                      (problems with word-order, I see).
                      >
                      > *diureis adj. -ja "precious" (= ME dear)
                      >
                      > Excuse my limited vocabulary, up to the nearest time all I
                      disposed of was a brief glossary in W. Braune's Gotische Grammatik
                      (13. Auflage. – Halle/Saale: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1952). Now looking
                      into Streitberg's (best thanks to Project Wulfila) I tell to myself
                      "And you thought you know the language!"
                      >
                      > Craving for your opinions and comments
                      > Ualarauans
                      >
                      > P. S. By the way, I heard there were authors that assumed a closer
                      bond between actual Visigoths and the Grail legends. Since I did not
                      read the books I can not judge if this idea is scientifically grounded
                      or is it just a fancy of historical fiction writers.
                      >
                      >
                      > thiudans <thiudans@...> wrote: --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com,
                      Guenther Ramm <ualarauans@> wrote:
                      >
                      > Hails!
                      >
                      > Nice translation & alliteration!
                      > No grammar comments now.
                      > I like flower-fly, nice invention.
                      > The first line has many syllables so I will offer a shorter one for
                      > possibility of longer notes:
                      >
                      > > O *blomafliugo waliso, thuei windaleiko ufaro airthai nu rinnis
                      >
                      > O *fifaldo waliso, (hwaiwa) theinamma winda-staigon galeiko
                      >
                      > "how like that wind-road (you ride)". I thought riding is implicit in
                      > "road" perhaps.
                      >
                      > If Grail shall be a borrowing = Gradéls-. Else, the attested word
                      > Stikls will do fine.
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > cheers,
                      > The Moderator
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > > Hails, *Garazdans!
                      > > Would you mind another translation attempt? Not always a
                      > word-for-word one, of cause, but instead I tried to "reconstruct" here
                      > and there some of alliterative rhyme. All those clumsy "neologisms"
                      > are mine (just slapdash invented and without any claim to get into the
                      > waurdahuzd).
                      > > By the way, I would be very thankful for every hint about what
                      > Gothic "butterfly" or rather "Grail" be like.
                      > >
                      > > BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                      > > ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                      > > you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                      > > currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                      > > hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                      > > held but never let free.
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > O *blomafliugo waliso, thuei windaleiko ufaro airthai nu rinnis
                      > > Ibai sa fahands thuk frathjan duginnith
                      > > Hva maht ist haldis nibai hafta thuk fastan
                      > > Frijos sind *fliugons, thozei fairrathro brahtedun
                      > > Windos thai waiandans fram waihstam this midjungardis
                      > > Ni du fragiban thos gumane handum
                      > > Wai thamma wiljandin winda gatamjan
                      > > Draum faurdammjan in daubithos hairtins
                      > >
                      > > Looking forward a scornful sneer of connoisseurs
                      > >
                      > > Ualarauans
                      > >
                      > > Michael Adams <abrigon@> wrote: I am learning to ask first, so I
                      > do not waste peoples bandwidth
                      > > to much..
                      > >
                      > > Here goes: (two or more)
                      > >
                      > > BUTTERFLIES ARE FREE: Oh sweet butterfly, so like the wind you
                      > > ride, to catch you is to know you but in this all I do is still
                      > > you and hold you captive, butterflies are free, to know the
                      > > currents of wind, to fly afar, never to be held by mortal
                      > > hands. For in the holding is the tragedy, for what are dreams
                      > > held but never let free.
                      > >
                      > > THE GRAIL: I seem to ramble from place to place, never staying
                      > > one in any one place, ever searching, like a knight on quest,
                      > > for that grail oh so dear, so close but oh so far, almost in
                      > > sight, but never visible, I go on and on, until the end is here,
                      > > and it draws near, and I can hear the calls of angels sweet, and
                      > > I shall finally drink of that cup, so rich and rare a draught it
                      > > shall be, for in the end, the cup will hold life, and life is so
                      > > sweet, and to know this, I quest.
                      > >
                      > > VASHTI OF THE FLAME RED TRESSES: Oh my dearest lady mine, for
                      > > your passing has emptied my heart, but the memories of you will
                      > > be with me forever. The joy we felt in our youth, the times we
                      > > spent in our middle years. The things we did here, there and
                      > > all. Friends we made, times we spent, even when angry we did it
                      > > in love. How the feeling I do feel at your passing, for you my
                      > > lady of hair so red was me, and I you, a half has gone away and
                      > > left me with feelings of what now, not to replace but the
                      > > feeling of what now? Who can I turn to when I need love,
                      > > carrying, a gentle hand a soft caress, to be told I was wrong
                      > > and the love to show me gently. To be there for me, and I for
                      > > you. Bye my dear lady of flaming hair that lighted up the
                      > > darkness of my life, for before you there was darkness and now
                      > > what? Farewell my dear until that day with Gods/fates grace I
                      > > can join you once again, to walk hand in hand, arm in arm,
                      > > carress to carress, feel to feel and knowing we will be together
                      > > always..
                      > >
                      > > Mike Adams
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
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                      > email to <gothic-l-unsubscribe@egroups.com>.
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                    • John Stewart
                      Hails Thiudans! I haven t read Koebler, but this *THl- cluster has always seemed awkward to me. Does he suggest that it could be a scribal error? Where maybe
                      Message 10 of 17 , Mar 24, 2006
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                        Hails Thiudans!

                        I haven't read Koebler, but this *THl- cluster has always seemed awkward to
                        me. Does he suggest that it could be a scribal error? Where maybe Wulfila
                        wrote the Gothic <f> and when it was copied, someone misread it as <Þ> (TH-)?
                        (John S.)

                        > on. Still I must not forget to remind us of the fact that, whatever
                        > its true etymology, Wulfila wrote the word for fly, flight, capable of
                        > flight, etc. with a thl- initial cluster, therefore in the poem, if we
                        > take the insect as related to the root, perhaps it should be
                        > *THl(i)ugo (< Gmc. *fl[e]ugon or *thl- "Fly or Moth"; or, Go. *THlugi
                        > < ? *flugjan "flying insect" [Orel])? It is unfortunate we cannot know
                        > precisely how this variation occured. Orel corrects to fl-, Koebler
                        > seems to suggest both possibilities (except for THlahsjan ?).
                        >
                      • Fredrik
                        Hi! The word seems to be a reduplication of a word meaning flutter, from IE pol or pal. This is related to latin papilio but with the germanic suffix -ðr-
                        Message 11 of 17 , Mar 24, 2006
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                          Hi!

                          The word seems to be a reduplication of a word meaning flutter, from
                          IE pol or pal. This is related to latin papilio but with the germanic
                          suffix -ðr- from IE -tr-.
                          The german word Falter (from OHG fîfaltra) is of same origin and not
                          related to falten but with flattern.
                          Another thing I think could be important to notice is that OHG and OE
                          has long i. Cf. fîfaltra and fífealde. Also the old nordic languages
                          seems to have a long i. I dont know why and if this is a later
                          development. But if it was like this in pgmc gothic should have
                          *feifaldrô instead.

                          (facts based on runeberg.org)

                          /Fredrik

                          *Fifald(r)o is great! Talking about this, is the first syllable a
                          reduplication? If so, the spelling should be *faifaldro (with ai [e])
                          perhaps. But as far as I know (and that's not a long distance) there
                          are no nouns with a (vivid) reduplication attested in Gothic, are
                          they? And how is it (if it is) connected with the stem represented in
                          Gothic falthan (cf. nhd. Falter : falten – maybe a later
                          association?). The verb at least IS a reduplicative one (Past tense:
                          faifalth).
                        • Guenther Ramm
                          Hails! I don’t insist on the scribal error hypothesis, but the graphical likeness of the Gothic letter for [th] and the Greek letter for [f] could speak in
                          Message 12 of 17 , Mar 24, 2006
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                            Hails!
                            I don’t insist on the scribal error hypothesis, but the graphical likeness of the Gothic letter for [th] and the Greek letter for [f] could speak in its favor. We know that some earlier manuscripts have the S-letter close to the Greek one while the later manuscripts use the Latin S. Could there be a similar situation with the F? I mean some early variants of Gothic alphabet could have a Greek-like F and later when these were being rewritten by Ostrogothic scribes in Italy all the confusions were made. That this hypothetical proto-F would look almost like TH is no objection – compare the letters for U and P. Due to such a confusion of U and P by Jordanes we have Gapt instead of *Gaut in Getica 79.
                            Then the question is why this confusion affected only initial fl- ?

                            Ualarauans


                            John Stewart <john.stewart@...-heidelberg.de> wrote: Hails Thiudans!

                            I haven't read Koebler, but this *THl- cluster has always seemed awkward to
                            me. Does he suggest that it could be a scribal error? Where maybe Wulfila
                            wrote the Gothic and when it was copied, someone misread it as <Þ> (TH-)?
                            (John S.)

                            > on. Still I must not forget to remind us of the fact that, whatever
                            > its true etymology, Wulfila wrote the word for fly, flight, capable of
                            > flight, etc. with a thl- initial cluster, therefore in the poem, if we
                            > take the insect as related to the root, perhaps it should be
                            > *THl(i)ugo (< Gmc. *fl[e]ugon or *thl- "Fly or Moth"; or, Go. *THlugi
                            > < ? *flugjan "flying insect" [Orel])? It is unfortunate we cannot know
                            > precisely how this variation occured. Orel corrects to fl-, Koebler
                            > seems to suggest both possibilities (except for THlahsjan ?).
                            >




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                          • thiudans
                            Koebler s Gothic Dictionary can be seen here http://www.koeblergerhard.de/gotwbhin.html He supports the PIE *pel- etymology. I think it was Voyles who may have
                            Message 13 of 17 , Mar 24, 2006
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                              Koebler's Gothic Dictionary can be seen here

                              http://www.koeblergerhard.de/gotwbhin.html


                              He supports the PIE *pel- etymology. I think it was Voyles who may
                              have suggested PIE *tel- > Go. thliuhan. I believe he does not place
                              much weight on PIE in determining PGmc. forms.


                              - In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Guenther Ramm <ualarauans@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > Hails!
                              > I don�t insist on the scribal error hypothesis, but the graphical
                              likeness of the Gothic letter for [th] and the Greek letter for [f]
                              could speak in its favor. We know that some earlier manuscripts have
                              the S-letter close to the Greek one while the later manuscripts use
                              the Latin S. Could there be a similar situation with the F? I mean
                              some early variants of Gothic alphabet could have a Greek-like F and
                              later when these were being rewritten by Ostrogothic scribes in Italy
                              all the confusions were made. That this hypothetical proto-F would
                              look almost like TH is no objection � compare the letters for U and P.
                              Due to such a confusion of U and P by Jordanes we have Gapt instead of
                              *Gaut in Getica 79.
                              > Then the question is why this confusion affected only initial fl- ?
                              >
                              > Ualarauans
                              >
                              >
                              > John Stewart <john.stewart@...> wrote: Hails Thiudans!
                              >
                              > I haven't read Koebler, but this *THl- cluster has always seemed
                              awkward to
                              > me. Does he suggest that it could be a scribal error? Where maybe
                              Wulfila
                              > wrote the Gothic and when it was copied, someone misread it as <�>
                              (TH-)?
                              > (John S.)
                              >
                              > > on. Still I must not forget to remind us of the fact that, whatever
                              > > its true etymology, Wulfila wrote the word for fly, flight, capable of
                              > > flight, etc. with a thl- initial cluster, therefore in the poem, if we
                              > > take the insect as related to the root, perhaps it should be
                              > > *THl(i)ugo (< Gmc. *fl[e]ugon or *thl- "Fly or Moth"; or, Go. *THlugi
                              > > < ? *flugjan "flying insect" [Orel])? It is unfortunate we cannot know
                              > > precisely how this variation occured. Orel corrects to fl-, Koebler
                              > > seems to suggest both possibilities (except for THlahsjan ?).
                              > >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
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                            • David Kiltz
                              ... It seems rather typically Wulfilan to me. Cf. such forms as _thlauhs_ flight belonging to the same root as thliuhan. Also, e.g. _ga- thlaihan_ vs OE/OHG
                              Message 14 of 17 , Mar 26, 2006
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                                On 24.03.2006, at 09:13, John Stewart wrote:

                                > I haven't read Koebler, but this *THl- cluster has always seemed
                                > awkward to
                                > me

                                It seems rather typically Wulfilan to me. Cf. such forms as _thlauhs_
                                'flight' belonging to the same root as thliuhan. Also, e.g. _ga-
                                thlaihan_ vs OE/OHG _flehan_, _flehon_ ...thlaqus 'tender, supple' is
                                another example if it belongs with PGM *_flakuz_ 'flat, NHG flach'.

                                So, PGM *_fl-_ > _thl-_ is pretty common in Wulfilan Gothic.

                                -David
                              • llama_nom
                                D Alquen on the Gothic letter f: One s suspicion is roused in this case. A runic letter ousting a Greek runs counter to expectation. Latin F has been
                                Message 15 of 17 , Apr 8, 2006
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                                  D'Alquen on the Gothic letter f: "One's suspicion is roused in this
                                  case. A runic letter ousting a Greek runs counter to expectation.
                                  Latin F has been suggested as the model (e.g. Luft 1898, 61ff.) or
                                  runic under Latin influence (Mensel 1903, 463). The reason for the
                                  change must have been confusion with Go. þ [i.e. the phi-like sign
                                  used in the Codex Argenteus] and could have been introduced by
                                  Wulfila himself." (D'Alquen 1974, p. 47, para. 2.4.31).

                                  This view is criticised by Marchand on the grounds that the phi-like
                                  Codex Argenteus form of Go. þ may (or as he puts it "must") be
                                  itself an innovation on the original Gothic letter. Other forms
                                  that occur include a letter rather like the phi-like one, but with
                                  the left handle joined to the stem at both ends and the right handle
                                  just a stump; a symbol like an ampersand; and Marchand's preferred
                                  original, a kind of backwards c which slopes slightly to the right
                                  with a little loop in the top. This is the form used by Wiljariþ;
                                  it also appears in the Vienna-Salzburg Codex. He would derive it
                                  from a Greek form of theta current in the 4th century. The Go. f
                                  might still have been changed by post-Wulfilan scribes to avoid
                                  confusion with their þ. (Marchand 1973, p. 35, para. 2.32.f; p. 20,
                                  para. 1.14).

                                  The difference of Go. f from Greek phi has, according to Marchand,
                                  been used to argue that Go. f was labio-dental, in contrast to the
                                  Greek bilabial phi; but more often the explanation given is the
                                  desire to differentiate graphic forms. Marchand offers no
                                  preferrence on the bilabial / labio-dental question, but d'Alquen
                                  points to the name Dagalaiphus, as transcribed in Latin, as possibly
                                  indicating a bilabial pronunciation, since Lat. ph was used to
                                  transcribe bilabial Gk. phi.


                                  Gmc. initial /fl/ appears in Biblical Gothic in some words as þl, in
                                  others as fl (see Nordmeyer 1935 for etymologies). Four roots are
                                  attested for each spelling: flahtons (1Tim 2,9), flautjan (1Cor
                                  13,4), flauts (Gal 5,26), flodus (L 6,49), flokan (L 8,42). As
                                  against: þlahsjan (2Cor 10,9), gaþlahsnan (L 1,29), gaþlaihan (Mk
                                  10,16; 2Cor 2,7; 2Cor 5,20; 2Cor 7,6; Thess 2,11; 1Tim 5,1; 1Tim
                                  5,8; 1Tim 6,2; 2Tim 3,2; Tit 1,9); þlaqus (Mk 13,28); þlauhs (Mk
                                  13,18; þliuhan (Mk 10,23; L 3,7; J 10,5; 1Tim 6,11; 2Tim 2,22);
                                  afþliuhan (J 10,13); gaþliuhan (Mt 8,33; Mk 5,14; Mk 14,50; Mk
                                  14,52; Mk 16,8; L 8,34); unþaþliuhan (2Cor 11,33; Thess 5,3). No
                                  root is attested in the Bible with both versions, but this may be
                                  coincidence: compare the Rugian king's name Flaccitheus, as recorded
                                  in the Life of Saint Severinus (d. 482) by Eugippius (d. after 533),
                                  with Go. þlaqus `soft, ripe'.

                                  It's been proposed that the assimilative change fl > þl was
                                  conditioned by certain following velar consonants (Krause & Slocum
                                  2006), h, and in one instance q, though not k. Even if that's so,
                                  the rule isn't consistently applied: flahtom `plaits', dat.pl. The
                                  inconsistency over velars, even in this small sample, makes such a
                                  rule look very arbitrary; nevertheless it could represent a sound
                                  change in progress, or an imperfectly completed sound change
                                  according to the theory of lexical diffusion (Salmonds & Iverson
                                  1993--which I haven't read unfortunately, just seen cited). Another
                                  idea is that the fl spellings represent a different dialect to that
                                  of the translator(s), and that they were introduced into the text by
                                  later scribes (Nordmeyer 1935). Nordmeyer notes that the fl forms
                                  are confined to Luke and the Epistles, precisely the areas where we
                                  find most evidence of non-original features, such as confusion of
                                  ei : e. But then Nordmeyer's comment that POTAMOS is normally
                                  translated ahva and that flodus needed a gloss could also tie in the
                                  observation that certain types of sound change begin with familiar
                                  words and are slower to affect rarer words [
                                  http://www.unm.edu/~jbybee/Lexical%20Diffusion.htm ], and thus
                                  needn't necessarily imply a dialectal difference.

                                  Given d'Alquen's Ostrogothic recension theory (see my recent post
                                  summarising this), we can't be sure that the þl spellings are
                                  Wulfilan while the fl spellings are an Ostrogothic innovation. It
                                  could be that þl was an innovation that began in Ostrogothic but
                                  didn't reach all vocabulary items; or began in Ostrogothic, was
                                  never completed, and was then eroded partly or entirely by analogy
                                  with the remaining fl-forms. If the þl-forms are from the original
                                  translation, this would undermine the theory of an Ostrogothic
                                  rewrite. Does anyone know of any other sources of evidence? Any
                                  relevant East Germanic names recorded in Latin or Greek, besides
                                  Flaccitheus?

                                  PS. The same confusion as in Gapt for *Gauts may be seen in the
                                  spelling Thraustila for Thrafstila.

                                  Bibliography

                                  d'Alquen, Richard JE (1974) Gothic AI and AU, Mouton, The Hague.
                                  Marchand, James W (1973) The Sounds and Phonemes of Wulfila's
                                  Gothic, Mouton, The Hague.
                                  Nordmeyer, George (1935) `Gothic initial þl-', Language, Vol. 11,
                                  No. 3. (Sep., 1935), pp. 216-219 [ http://links.jstor.org/sici?
                                  sici=0097-8507%28193509%2911%3A3%3C216%3AGIP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T ].
                                  Salmonds & Iverson (1993) 'Gothic fl-, þl- variation as lexical
                                  diffusion', Diachronia 10, 87-96.





                                  --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "thiudans" <thiudans@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > Koebler's Gothic Dictionary can be seen here
                                  >
                                  > http://www.koeblergerhard.de/gotwbhin.html
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > He supports the PIE *pel- etymology. I think it was Voyles who may
                                  > have suggested PIE *tel- > Go. thliuhan. I believe he does not
                                  place
                                  > much weight on PIE in determining PGmc. forms.
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > - In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Guenther Ramm <ualarauans@> wrote:
                                  > >
                                  > > Hails!
                                  > > I don�t insist on the scribal error hypothesis, but the
                                  graphical
                                  > likeness of the Gothic letter for [th] and the Greek letter for [f]
                                  > could speak in its favor. We know that some earlier manuscripts
                                  have
                                  > the S-letter close to the Greek one while the later manuscripts use
                                  > the Latin S. Could there be a similar situation with the F? I mean
                                  > some early variants of Gothic alphabet could have a Greek-like F
                                  and
                                  > later when these were being rewritten by Ostrogothic scribes in
                                  Italy
                                  > all the confusions were made. That this hypothetical proto-F would
                                  > look almost like TH is no objection � compare the letters for U
                                  and P.
                                  > Due to such a confusion of U and P by Jordanes we have Gapt
                                  instead of
                                  > *Gaut in Getica 79.
                                  > > Then the question is why this confusion affected only initial
                                  fl- ?
                                  > >
                                  > > Ualarauans
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > > John Stewart <john.stewart@> wrote: Hails Thiudans!
                                  > >
                                  > > I haven't read Koebler, but this *THl- cluster has always seemed
                                  > awkward to
                                  > > me. Does he suggest that it could be a scribal error? Where maybe
                                  > Wulfila
                                  > > wrote the Gothic and when it was copied, someone misread it as
                                  <�>
                                  > (TH-)?
                                  > > (John S.)
                                  > >
                                  > > > on. Still I must not forget to remind us of the fact that,
                                  whatever
                                  > > > its true etymology, Wulfila wrote the word for fly, flight,
                                  capable of
                                  > > > flight, etc. with a thl- initial cluster, therefore in the
                                  poem, if we
                                  > > > take the insect as related to the root, perhaps it should be
                                  > > > *THl(i)ugo (< Gmc. *fl[e]ugon or *thl- "Fly or Moth"; or, Go.
                                  *THlugi
                                  > > > < ? *flugjan "flying insect" [Orel])? It is unfortunate we
                                  cannot know
                                  > > > precisely how this variation occured. Orel corrects to fl-,
                                  Koebler
                                  > > > seems to suggest both possibilities (except for THlahsjan ?).
                                • Guenther Ramm
                                  First, thanks a lot for drawing attention to D Alquen and his idea of the Gothic digraphs. For me, the view on those “earlier” borrowings (where Greek /e/
                                  Message 16 of 17 , Apr 11, 2006
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                                    First, thanks a lot for drawing attention to D'Alquen and his idea of the Gothic digraphs. For me, the view on those “earlier” borrowings (where Greek /e/ and /o/ are “gothicised” into /i/ resp. /u/) as reflexes of phonetic peculiarities of the Wulfilan dialect (if I understood it correctly) was especially enlightening. I guess it would also help to explain why the loanwords of the Greek second declension with -os in Nom. Sg. so regularly go after the Gothic u-stems. Btw, is of any effect for the topic that old opinion that a good deal of these “narrow” spellings could be results of a pseudo-etymological interpretation? - that, e.g. -i- in Makidonja was seen as a stem vowel (popularly “dismembered” in Maki-donja), -i- in aggilus as a part of the suffix -il- etc.? Cf. the seemingly deliberate rendering of Greek bEthleem as bethlahaim, where the first epsilon > a (quasi a stem vowel of the first element in the compositum), and the second > ai (a diphthong after the Germanic
                                    place-names on -haim). What this bethla- could mean then?
                                    To the supposed confusion of the letters *faihu and *thiuth. Reading Jordanes long ago I noticed the name Safrac (Get. 134, one of Ostrogothic “primates”), mentioned also as Saphrax by Ammianus Marcellinus and Zosimus. The name itself is most probably of Alano-Iranian descent (as so many Getica names ending on -ac are). I am almost sure that I was not the first to make the following supposition, but evidently I had missed the proper literature. In short, I supposed that all the above-mentioned authors, successively or independently of each other, somehow took this name from a written Gothic source (maybe the same source where Gapt-Gaut came from), where it stood as *Sathrak(s) < Iranian *Xshathraka- “a powerful one” from Avestan xshathra- = Sanskrit kshatra- “power”, “strength” etc. If anyone knows whether this or some other etymology of the name has already been proposed I would greatly appreciate the reference. If this one is true, then here is another case of the
                                    involuntary letter replacement caused by graphical likeness (of course if we accept that Gothic [f] could ever be written with a phi-like sign).
                                    What concerns our fl-/thl-, so as I understood there are etymologies assuming both PIE pl- and PIE tl- for one and the same root, aren’t there? Rather typical situation for etymologists :) Apart from the graphical question I like most the idea that thl- be a later and limited (both temporally and territorially) development, and
                                    > that the assimilative change fl > þl was
                                    > conditioned by certain following velar consonants (Krause & Slocum
                                    > 2006), h, and in one instance q, though not k.,
                                    even though
                                    > the rule isn't consistently applied: flahtom `plaits', dat.pl.

                                    Ualarauans


                                    llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:
                                    Send instant messages to your online friends http://uk.messenger.yahoo.com

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                                  • llama_nom
                                    ... of the Gothic digraphs. For me, the view on those earlier borrowings (where Greek /e/ and /o/ are gothicised into /i/ resp. /u/) as reflexes of
                                    Message 17 of 17 , Apr 15, 2006
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                                      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Guenther Ramm <ualarauans@...>
                                      wrote:
                                      >
                                      > First, thanks a lot for drawing attention to D'Alquen and his idea
                                      of the Gothic digraphs. For me, the view on those "earlier"
                                      borrowings (where Greek /e/ and /o/ are "gothicised" into /i/
                                      resp. /u/) as reflexes of phonetic peculiarities of the Wulfilan
                                      dialect (if I understood it correctly) was especially enlightening.


                                      Yeah, it's a very interesting book. The more traditional view is
                                      that these anamalous spellings point to Pre-Gothic loans, i.e. from
                                      before the time of Wulfila's supposed bible translation. But
                                      d'Alquen's proposal that they're relics of the original Wulfilan
                                      spelling helps to explain some otherwise puzzling aspects of the
                                      writing system, especially why <ai> and <au> were used instead of
                                      simple letters based on epsilon and omicron. (Incidentally,
                                      regarding another part of his study, I wonder if anyone has made a
                                      similar assessment of Gothic names in Greek sources and loanwords
                                      into Slavonic.)


                                      > I guess it would also help to explain why the loanwords of the
                                      Greek second declension with -os in Nom. Sg. so regularly go after
                                      the Gothic u-stems.


                                      Yes, although the traditional explanations are maybe adequate; even
                                      with phonemic /O/, this declension might offer the closest match in
                                      sound with Greek -os nouns.


                                      > Btw, is of any effect for the topic that old opinion that a good
                                      deal of these "narrow" spellings could be results of a pseudo-
                                      etymological interpretation? - that, e.g. -i- in Makidonja was seen
                                      as a stem vowel (popularly "dismembered" in Maki-donja), -i- in
                                      aggilus as a part of the suffix -il- etc.? Cf. the seemingly
                                      deliberate rendering of Greek bEthleem as bethlahaim, where the
                                      first epsilon > a (quasi a stem vowel of the first element in the
                                      compositum), and the second > ai (a diphthong after the Germanic
                                      place-names on -haim). What this bethla- could mean then?


                                      I guess the <o> of Makidonja, if it represents [o:], could be due
                                      either to the Greek stress or a secondary stress in Gothic, if that
                                      syllable was pronounced like the second part of a native compound.
                                      Maybe due to a loss of distinction in unstressed vowels, or a
                                      raising of [a] > [E], but <e> is very common as a stem vowel in
                                      Latin transcriptions of Gothic names, cf. Suniefridus =
                                      Sunjaifriþas. I wonder what bearing that could have on the question
                                      of when an how [E] was phonemicised. D'Alquen saw loss and
                                      assimilation of postvocalic /h/ as an important stage in this
                                      process, but another factor could be the
                                      prepositions/prefixes 'faur', 'faura' and the prefix 'fair-'. If
                                      breaking only happened under stress (as seems likely), do these
                                      represent originally stressed or half stressed forms that have been
                                      extended by analogy to unstressed positions? Did analogy extend to
                                      pronunciation, or is it just orthographic?



                                      > To the supposed confusion of the letters *faihu and *thiuth.
                                      Reading Jordanes long ago I noticed the name Safrac (Get. 134, one
                                      of Ostrogothic "primates"), mentioned also as Saphrax by Ammianus
                                      Marcellinus and Zosimus. The name itself is most probably of Alano-
                                      Iranian descent (as so many Getica names ending on -ac are). I am
                                      almost sure that I was not the first to make the following
                                      supposition, but evidently I had missed the proper literature. In
                                      short, I supposed that all the above-mentioned authors, successively
                                      or independently of each other, somehow took this name from a
                                      written Gothic source (maybe the same source where Gapt-Gaut came
                                      from), where it stood as *Sathrak(s) < Iranian *Xshathraka- "a
                                      powerful one" from Avestan xshathra- = Sanskrit kshatra-
                                      "power", "strength" etc. If anyone knows whether this or some other
                                      etymology of the name has already been proposed I would greatly
                                      appreciate the reference. If this one is true, then here is another
                                      case of the


                                      Interesting. I haven't seen that idea before, but then I'm not all
                                      that widely read. Could the change have been motivated in this case
                                      by folk-etymology involving the Gothic name element Sab(a)-?



                                      > involuntary letter replacement caused by graphical likeness (of
                                      course if we accept that Gothic [f] could ever be written with a phi-
                                      like sign).
                                      > What concerns our fl-/thl-, so as I understood there are
                                      etymologies assuming both PIE pl- and PIE tl- for one and the same
                                      root, aren't there? Rather typical situation for etymologists :)
                                      Apart from the graphical question I like most the idea that thl- be
                                      a later and limited (both temporally and territorially) development,
                                      and
                                      > > that the assimilative change fl > þl was
                                      > > conditioned by certain following velar consonants (Krause &
                                      Slocum
                                      > > 2006), h, and in one instance q, though not k.,
                                      > even though
                                      > > the rule isn't consistently applied: flahtom `plaits', dat.pl.



                                      Nordmeyer certainly explained them all as from PIE *pl. Unless
                                      there are strong reasons for positing *tl, the general *pl
                                      explanation seems simplest. Now, a question for the statisticians
                                      among us: which is the bigger coincidence, that fl- spellings are
                                      confined to Luke and the Epistles (supposedly the areas with the
                                      least conservative orthography)--this was the distribution that
                                      Nordmeyer thought most significant--or that the two roots with a non-
                                      velar consonant (out of eight roots attested) should both be among
                                      the fl- spellings.

                                      VELAR: 4x þl-, 2x fl-
                                      DENTAL: 0x þl-, 2x fl-

                                      The Slocum / Krause hypothesis that requires a special rule for the
                                      single instance of 'k' seems to me inelegant and arbitrary,
                                      especially when we can see that 'h' might or might not trigger fl- >
                                      þl-. Simpler to suppose that it might or might not happen with any
                                      velar. But this begs the question of why. What qualities would a
                                      velar consonant have that could cause such a change (let alone what
                                      quality 'k' would have to make it have a different effect from 'q'
                                      and 'h')? It can hardly be assimilation or dissimilation.

                                      Could it be that an assimalative change fl- > þl- happened
                                      (sporadically? dialectally?) with any sort of consonant after the
                                      next vowel, except for a dental? That a dental should block the
                                      change could be explained as a case of dissmilation. Note the
                                      dental after the velar also in 'flahtom'. That would leave just the
                                      one anomaly of 'faiflokun', rather than the two problems
                                      of 'flahtom' and 'faiflokun'.

                                      Finally, does the fact that no one root is attested with both
                                      spellings suggest that maybe the sound change was not in progress at
                                      the time of the scribes, but already fixed (allowing the possibility
                                      of doublets), whether the difference is dialectal or otherwise? Or
                                      is this a coincidence (too)?

                                      LN
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