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Re: [gothic-l] "yesterday"

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  • OSCAR HERRERA
    doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the
    Message 1 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
      doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to everyone.....oscar

      llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
      > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
      yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


      Hi Oscar,

      If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
      relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
      quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
      a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
      a glance what your message is about.

      As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
      cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
      meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

      'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
      'fairnin jera' = "last year"

      I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
      but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
      know.

      Llama Nom





      You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
      Yahoo! Groups Links









      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • llama_nom
      ... thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only
      Message 2 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
        > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
        thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
        fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
        means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
        queries to everyone.....oscar


        > fauradag

        Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
        *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
        day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
        yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
        that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


        > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

        I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
        meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
        something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
        the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
        Gothic 'afardags'.

        I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
        refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
        language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
        Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
        *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
        or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
        reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
        say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
        COGNATES."

        If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
        other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

        http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
        http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
        http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
        tml
        http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

        Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
        prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
        when used as a preposition,
        e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
        suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
        in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
        behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
        up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
        it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
        that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
        do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
        (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
        is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



        > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
        the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
        everyone.....oscar


        Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
        myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
        everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
        reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
        as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

        Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
        to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
        course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
        line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
        clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
        the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
        website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
        you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
        message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
        the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
        on your keyboard.

        You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
        address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
        website (sign in) and click on "post".

        To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
        somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
        want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
        the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
        you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
        block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
        that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
        press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
        really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
        say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
        explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
        my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
        doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

        Llama Nom
      • OSCAR HERRERA
        your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar ... thought it
        Message 3 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
          your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar

          llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
          > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
          thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
          fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
          means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
          queries to everyone.....oscar


          > fauradag

          Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
          *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
          day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
          yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
          that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


          > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

          I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
          meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
          something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
          the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
          Gothic 'afardags'.

          I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
          refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
          language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
          Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
          *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
          or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
          reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
          say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
          COGNATES."

          If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
          other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

          http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
          http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
          http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
          tml
          http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

          Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
          prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
          when used as a preposition,
          e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
          suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
          in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
          behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
          up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
          it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
          that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
          do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
          (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
          is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



          > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
          the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
          everyone.....oscar


          Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
          myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
          everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
          reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
          as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

          Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
          to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
          course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
          line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
          clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
          the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
          website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
          you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
          message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
          the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
          on your keyboard.

          You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
          address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
          website (sign in) and click on "post".

          To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
          somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
          want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
          the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
          you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
          block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
          that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
          press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
          really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
          say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
          explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
          my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
          doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

          Llama Nom





          You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
          Yahoo! Groups Links









          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • llama_nom
          Þatei was ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau: http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html ) Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra
          Message 4 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
            Þatei was

            ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau:
            http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html )

            Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra mis,
            iþ nu fanþ ik þatei wisiþ þis;
            O, traua ik du þammei was.

            Suns mis warþ; ni im manna saei faurþis was;
            hahiþ ufar mis hva riqizis;
            O þatei warþ, qam suns at mis.

            Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
            Mis ni gataih.
            Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

            Friaþwa, fairna was mis swa azets dags;
            þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
            O, traua ik du þammei was.

            Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
            Mis ni gataih.
            Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

            Friaþwa, fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags;
            þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
            O, traua ik du þammei was.


            Notes, liberties, etc.

            þatei wisiþ þis. Desperate partitive genitive for sake of rhyme.
            Supposed to mean "that there is staying [something] of that / this",
            i.e. that a certain amount of trouble is "here to stay". Apologies
            to songwriters and 4th century bishops everywhere.

            ...fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags. Intended to mean: "yesterday
            was such an easy day for me." `Friaþwa', just setting the context
            and not syntactically related. Ignoring the metre, the closest I
            got was: "Fairnin daga friaþwa swaleiks azets mis was laiks."
          • JoLynne
            Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes of that area.
            Message 5 of 30 , Feb 25, 2008
              Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested
              in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes
              of that area. Mostly I am here to listen and learn.
            • Madhukar Vichare
              Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope this is ok to post here. I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my
              Message 6 of 30 , Jun 2, 2008
                Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope
                this is ok to post here.

                I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos, friends,
                interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set up your own
                here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?tmg=260177&vt=170949

                Look forward to seeing your profile!

                Madhukar

                ====================
                This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply instead of
                email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations from being
                sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can permanently block
                future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Fredrik
                It s always nice with presentations so we can know a little about each other but why not just write some words here? ... themselves, so I hope ... friends, ...
                Message 7 of 30 , Jun 3, 2008
                  It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about
                  each other but why not just write some words here?

                  --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Madhukar Vichare
                  <madhukar_vichare@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about
                  themselves, so I hope
                  > this is ok to post here.
                  >
                  > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,
                  friends,
                  > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set
                  up your own
                  > here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?
                  tmg=260177&vt=170949
                  >
                  > Look forward to seeing your profile!
                  >
                  > Madhukar
                  >
                  > ====================
                  > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply
                  instead of
                  > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations
                  from being
                  > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can
                  permanently block
                  > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                  > http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                • Madhukar Vichare
                  Finns (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                  Message 8 of 30 , Jun 5, 2008
                    Finns
                    (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree
                    sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                    thousands of years. Last month, students in west­ern Finland found a piece of Stone Age birch-bark tar, be­lieved
                    to have been used for chewing and to fix broken ar­rowheads or clay dishes, ar­chaeologists
                    said. "Most likely the lump was used as an antique kind of chewing
                    gum," said Sami Vil­jamaa, an archaeologist who led the dig near Oulu, (Aulanam - Lake) north of Helsinki (helihi -the sun; sina – a period of “No Moon” night
                    when the small part of Moon is visible at certain latitudes). "But its main pur­pose was to fix things."
                    Vilja­maa said the piece of Neolith­ic gum was found among arti­facts in a
                    Stone Age village at the Kierikki (Kairavaḥ - Moon-lit-Night) Stone Age Center. "It's somewhere between 5,500 and 6,000 years
                    old," he said. The ancient Finnish habit of chewing gum surged in the
                    1980s when scientists discov­ered that gum containing xyl­itol prevented tooth
                    decay.

                     

                    Egyptian
                    archaeolo­gists have found what they said could be the oldest hu­man footprint
                    in history in the country's western desert, the Arab country's antiquities'
                    chief said. "This could go back about two million years," said Zahi
                    Hawass, the sec­retary general of the Egypt­ian supreme council of an­tiquities.
                    "It could be the most im­portant discovery in Egypt," he said. Archaeologists found the footprint,
                    imprinted on mud and then hardened into rock, while exploring a pre­historic
                    site in Shiwa (Shiva in search of water for cooling down), a desert
                    oasis. Scientists are using car­bon tests on plants found in the rock to
                    determine its ex­act age, Hawass said. Khaled Saad, the direc­tor of prehistory
                    at the council, said that based on the age of the rock where the footprint was
                    found, it could date back even fur­ther than the renowned 3­million year-old
                    fossil Lucy, the partial skeleton of an ape-man, found in Ethiopia in 1974. Most archaeological in­terest in Egypt is focused on the time of the pharaohs. Previously,
                    the earliest human archaeological evi­dence from Egypt dated back around 200,000 years, Saad said.

                     

                    I
                    have highlighted my views of looking at the old concepts with new insights in
                    view of the new knowledge: The subject of INDOLOGY will be meaningful.              Madhukar Vichare.

                     

                    Anandamurti
                    JI wrote for the “Speaking Tree” (On Religion):

                     

                    Taraka
                    (Tarkaha
                    or Taaraka) Brahma wants to eman­cipate living beings, but only those who want
                    liberation get liberation. When you long for liberation, the search leads you
                    to the Sadguru. Every one of us has a fixed role to play. You are a character
                    in a divine drama. The composer of this drama is Taaraka Brahma. An episode in
                    the Maha­bharata is instructive in this regard: After battle, the battle­ground
                    at Kurukṣetra became a cremation ground. At the end of the war
                    some people came there from the Kauravas' side. Among them were women and a few
                    elderly men. Gandhaari, mother of the Kauravas, was also there. Kuntī, mother of the Pandavas, and Krushna, Pandavas'
                    friend, were present as well, along with the visually challenged Dhrutarashtra.
                    Everyone was weeping. Gandhaari had lost hundred sons in the war. Krushna
                    approached Gandhaari and said: "Mother, why are you weeping? Death is a
                    naturallay. One who is born will die. So why cry?" Gandhaari replied:
                    "Yes Krushna, you have come here to console me, but I ask you, behind this
                    great event whose mind was at work? Who was the author of this great plan? Was
                    it not you?" Krushna replied: "Those who have committed injustice and
                    sinned have been punished. What can I do about that?" Gandhaari said to Krushna:
                    "Everything you have said up un­til now is quite correct. From the worldly
                    point of view, everything that has happened until now is as it should be,
                    because every action must have its reaction. But my point is: You yourself are
                    Taaraka Brahma; your duty is to liberate living beings. You can give libera­tion
                    to whomsoever you please.

                     

                    'As
                    Taaraka Brahma you can create and destroy as you wish. In this drama of yours
                    you have created characters who are honest, ideological people. If one does
                    virtuous deeds then one gets liberation. To teach the people you create these
                    kinds of characters. And you also create sinful charac­ters to show how much a
                    person degenerates because of sinful behavior. In this drama, you could have
                    had my hundred sons play roles of righteousness and the Pandavas play roles of
                    unright­eousness, if you had so wished. In that case my hundred sons would have
                    gotten salvation. Now, after having made me cry, you come to console me!" Taaraka
                    Brahma for­mulates his plan in order to create situations that lend themselves
                    to illustrating values, to create awareness. For instance, if one engages in
                    honest work then one moves towards eternal truth, and if one performs dishonest
                    work then one moves towards untruth. Thereafter comes the other part of the
                    story.

                     

                    Gandhaari
                    said: "Kṛṣṇa, give me permission to curse you". Krushna
                    replied: "Okay, curse me. I give you permission". Gandhaari cursed
                    him: "Just as my entire lineage has been destroyed before my very eyes,
                    may your Yaadava lineage be destroyed before your very eyes as well".
                    "Let it be so", Krushna replied. Remember always that we are only
                    actors in a universal drama. This is not our real identity. Some­one may play
                    the role of a king, but he might not even have two hand­fuls of rice in his
                    house. Someone plays the role of a poor man, but in real life he may be very
                    rich. We ought to remember that we are only playing specific roles in a cosmic
                    drama. Act according to the role given. This is a person's duty. This is a
                    wrong note to end the moral of the “Cosmic Drama” – Man must keep on bettering
                    his lot; learning new things, and keeping himself fit to fight against the
                    odds. He must use his intelligence and apply his mind. Krushna is not
                    coming to salvage your soul; man has to come up to the expectation of the Super
                    Personality of Godhead- it is symbolic, you have to become Krushna.

                     

                    Uyuni
                    is in Bolivia: On the edge of the world's biggest salt desert,
                    villagers optimistical­ly scrawl "salt for sale" signs on their mud
                    brick homes. In backyards, mountains of the stuff are heaped like year-­round
                    snow drifts. But mining salt is no longer the only way to survive in this cold,
                    arid corner of south­western Bolivia. The Salar de Uyuni is becoming a must-see for
                    adventurous visitors to South
                    America, changing at least
                    some fortunes in the poor village of Colchani. "There's nothing here apart from salt... Tourists used to arrive
                    and they wouldn't buy anything, so we thought, 'How can we improve
                    things?" said Fermin Villca, who now sells ashtrays and llama fig­urines
                    carved from salt stone. Stretched between distant Andean peaks like a shimmer­ing
                    white carpet, the Salar de Uyuni is home to pink flamin­gos, 1,000-year-old
                    cacti, rare hummingbirds and hotels built entirely from blocks of salt. Earlier
                    this year, leading travel publisher Rough Guides listed the Salar as one of its
                    top 25 wonders of the world, along side far better-known attrac­tions such as
                    the Taj Mahal, Grand Canyon and Great
                    Wall of China.

                     

                    A
                    gargantuan explosion ripped apart a star perhaps 150 times more mas­sive than
                    our Sun in a rela­tively nearby galaxy in the most powerful and brightest
                    supernova ever observed, as­tronomers said. And there is one such star in our
                    own Milky Way galaxy that appears to be on the brink of dying in just
                    such a super­nova. The exploding star's dra­matic death may have come in a rare
                    type of supernova reserved for "freakishly mas­sive" stars that
                    astronomers had speculated about but nev­er previously witnessed. The
                    supernova, designat­ed as SN 2006gy, occurred 240 million light years
                    away in a galaxy called NGC 1260, and was studied using observa­tions from NASA's
                    orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as earthbound optical telescopes.. The
                    explosion occurred long ago but was detected last year after its light traveled
                    many trillions of kilometers before it could be observed from Earth. "That
                    sounds far away but it's actually quite nearby on the vast scale of the uni­verse,"
                    astronomer Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led the research, said. A supernova marks a star's
                    death in a spectacular explosion. Scientists say these events playa crucial role
                    in creating heavy ele­ments through nuclear fu­sion and synthesis and then
                    expelling them into space, seeding the cosmos with metals.

                     

                    The
                    travel of Manu and the great Fish, a symbolic story of the Puraana, the event
                    that occurred 10,000 BCE (ca): An
                    event like the one involving Noah's ark is depicted in- almost every ­ ancient
                    civilization or religion: Naunet in Egyptian; Manu in Hindu; Nuwa in Chinese;
                    Ziusudra in Sumerian; Atra-Hasis, Utnapishtim and Xisuthrus in Babylonian;
                    Deucalion in Greek; and Toptlipetlocali in Toltec. Noah is also mentioned often
                    in the Qumran, referred to as the prophet ‘Nuh’. All the names are
                    the corruption of original Sanskrit words used in Vedic rituals by the Āryans.

                     

                    For
                    many scientists, the evi­dence that moral reasoning is a result of physical
                    traits that evolve along with everything else is just more evidence against
                    the exis­tence of the soul, or of a God to imbue humans with souls. For
                    many believers, particularly in the US, the findings show the er­ror, even wickedness, of
                    viewing the world in strictly material terms. And they provide for the­ologians
                    a growing impetus to rec­oncile the existence of the soul with the growing
                    evidence that humans are not, physically or even mentally, in a class by
                    themselves. The idea that human minds are the product of evolution is
                    "unassailable fact," the journal Nature said this month in an ed­itorial
                    on new findings on the physical basis of moral thought. A headline on the
                    editorial drove the point home: "With all defer­ence to the sensibilities
                    of reli­gious people, the idea that man was created in the image of God can
                    surely be put aside." Or as V S Ramachandran, a brain scientist at the University of California, San Diego, said in an interview, there may be soul in the sense
                    of "the universal spir­it of the cosmos," but the soul as it is
                    usually spoken of, "an im­material spirit that occupies in­dividual brains
                    and that only evolved in humans - all that is complete nonsense." Belief
                    in that kind of soul "is basically super­stition," he said.

                     

                    Greenland
                    was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the latest of which disappeared around the year 200
                    AD. The island seems to have been uninhabited for some eight centuries till
                    Icelandic settlers led by Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they
                    arrived in 982 AD. They thrived here for 450 years, after which they
                    mysteriously vanished.

                     ­

                    The
                    term tetra-pod, from the Greek 'tetrapoda,' (Sanskrit-“totra-vetram”- weapon of
                    Viṣṇu- + pada means feet) refers to vertebrate animals
                    having four feet, legs or leg-like appendages. Amphibians, lizards and mammals
                    are all tetra-pods. The term auto-pod, however, is used to refer to animals
                    whose limbs are subdivided into hands and feet, example: Humans.

                     

                    The
                    researchers therefore believe that the capability of building limbs with
                    fingers and toes existed for a long period of time, but it took a set of
                    environmental triggers to make use of that capability. "Animals in the
                    Late Devonian period (385 to 359 million years ago) acquired limbs with fingers
                    using this primitive design, largely because their ecosystem - the small
                    streams that they lived in - was new," Shubin said "It had the tools,
                    but it needed the opportuni­ty as well." In yet another study on what
                    killed off the beasts of the Ice Age, researchers said that an extraterrestrial
                    object with a three-mile girth might have ex­ploded over southern Canada nearly
                    13,000 years ago, wiping out an ancient Stone Age culture as well as mega-fauna
                    like mastodons and mammoths. The blast could be to blame for a ma­jor cold
                    spell called the Younger Dryas that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene
                    Epoch, a period of time spanning from about 1.8 million years ago to 11,500
                    years ago. Research, presented at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union
                    (AGU) in Acapulco, Mexico this week, could shed light on major questions about
                    the mega-fauna extinction, the disappear­ance of the Clovis people, and an
                    abrupt climate change, Live-science reported. "Based on the distribution
                    of mate­rial, it looks like this impact probably occurred in southern Canada near the Great Lakes, over
                    what at that time would have been a major glacier, the Laurentide ice
                    sheet," said one of the presen­ters, Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley
                    National Laboratory. They couldn't find a distinct crater, suggesting the comet
                    burst in the air rather than slamming into Earth. Even an airburst should leave
                    its mark, so the scientists think the Laurentide Ice Sheet absorbed much of the
                    impact.

                     

                    A
                    huge flood hundreds of thou­sands of years ago cut Britain off from the rest of Europe and turned it into an
                    island, according to a new study that of­fers clues to how England was settled.
                    Using high-resolution sonar waves, researchers mapped the floor of the Eng­lish Channel and turned up images of an enormous valley tens of
                    kilometers wide and up to 50 meters deep carved into chalk bedrock. The images
                    were similar to an area in the state of Washington where a mega-flood some 15,000 years ago also created
                    a landscape of distinctive land formations - indicating that the same thing
                    happened in Britain, the re­searchers said. Scientists said the study
                    provides the best evidence yet in the de­bate seeking to explain how the English Channel formed and cut Britain off from the rest of Europe.
                    "It showed us for the first time the ex­istence of this huge valley in the
                    centre of the English Channel," said Sanjeev Gupta, a researcher at Imperial
                    College London.

                     

                    Mexican
                    archaeologists using ground-penetrating radar have detected underground
                    chambers they believe contain the remains of Emperor Ahuizotl, who ruled
                    the Aztecs when Columbus landed in the Americas. Ahuizotl (ah-WEE-zoh-tuhl), an empire-builder who
                    extended the Aztecs' reach as far as Guatemala, in South
                    America, was the last
                    emperor to complete his rule before the Spanish Conquest. Accounts written by
                    Spanish priests suggest the said area was used by the Aztecs to cremate and
                    bury their rulers. But no tomb of an Aztec ruler has ever been found. Now,
                    archaeologists said that they have located what appears to be a
                    Six-foot-by-six-foot entryway into a tomb about 15 feet below ground, off Mexico City's Zocalo plaza. The passage is filled with water,
                    rocks and mud, forcing work­ers to dig delicately. Later this year, they hope
                    to enter the inner chambers - a damp, low-ceilinged space - and discover the
                    ashes of Ahuizotl, who was likely cremated on a funeral pyre in 1502. Because
                    no Aztec royal tomb has ever been found, the archaeologists are literally
                    digging into the unknown. Radar indicates the tomb has up to four chambers, and
                    scientists think they will find a host of elaborate offerings to the gods on
                    the floor. "He must have been buried in solemn ceremony with rich
                    offerings, like vases and ornaments," said Luis Alberto Martos, director
                    of archaeological studies at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History.

                     

                    All
                    signs found so far point to Ahuizotl. The site lies direct­ly below a huge,
                    recently discovered stone monolith carved with a representation of Tlaltecuhtli
                    (tlahl-tay-KOO-tlee), the Aztec god of the earth. Depicted as a woman with huge
                    claws, the fearsome Tlaltecuhtli was believed to devour the dead and then give
                    them new life. In the claw of her right foot, the god holds a rabbit and 10
                    dots, indicating the date "10 Rabbit" - 1502, the year of Ahuizotl's
                    death. "Our hypothesis is precisely that this is probably the tomb of
                    Ahuizotl," said Leonardo Lopez Lujan, the lead government archaeologist on
                    the project. "Imagine it - this wasn't just any high-ranking man. The
                    Aztecs were the most powerful society of their time," Martos said.
                    "That's why Ahuizotl's tomb down there is so important."        

                     

                    The
                    Aztecs is a term used for the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico that thrived before the advent of Christopher
                    Columbus in the Americas. Aztec
                    culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions. For
                    Europeans, the most striking element of the Aztec culture was the practice of
                    human sacrifice which was conducted throughout Mesoamerica prior to the Spanish conquest Greenland was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the
                    latest of which disappeared around the year 200 AD. The island seems to have
                    been uninhabited for some eight centuries till Icelandic settlers led by
                    Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they arrived in 982 AD. They thrived
                    here for 450 years, after which they mysteriously vanished. Archeologists have
                    discovered what they think are ruins of an Aztec pyramid razed by vengeful
                    Spanish conquerors in what is now one of Mexico City's most crime-ridden districts. Construction workers
                    un­earthed ancient walls in the busy Iztapalapa neighbor­hood in June, and
                    government archeologists said on Wednes­day that they believe they may be part
                    of the main pyramid of the Aztec city, destroyed by conquistador Hernan Cortes
                    in the 16th century.

                     

                    In
                    the Gothic Bible, 'þiudans' is used of a king who goes to war:



                    aiþþau hvas þiudans gaggands stigqan wiþra anþarana þiudan (vipra praana-yukta pinda) du wiganna, niu
                    gasitands faurþis þankeiþ, siaiu mahteigs miþ taihun þusundjom gamotjan þamma
                    miþ twaim tigum þusundjo gaggandin ana sik?



                    Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first,
                    and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh
                    against him with twenty thousand?

                    Luke 14:31.



                    'frauja' (Praanaaha) "lord"
                    is also used with no Greek model for the noun in a military context (II Tim
                    2:4). I'm not sure whether 'reiks' is used anywhere in an explicitly military
                    context.



                    I am not a linguist but as far as I know they were reiks also when leading a
                    war expedition. Their sacral king, however, was never allowed to leave his own
                    territory when the people was permanently settled, but had to order a reiks (Rushis
                    –wandering Sages) to take command. During the wandering, according to Getica at
                    least, the þiuðans was sacral king and he used 'kings of the army' to lead
                    parts of the united army (like e.g. Cniva as Wolfram suggests) but I do not
                    know their title in Gothic.

                     

                    The clue to the root of the
                    hypothetical Gothic form though is in Old Norse 'ugla' and especially (Old) Swedish 'uggla'. These show a sound change common to North and East Germanic
                    whereby 'ww' > 'ggw', as described by Wright. In Old Norse, the medial vowel
                    of the suffix has been lost, which is normal, but presumably it would have been
                    present in Gothic (compare 'mawilo'
                    "little girl" San – mahilaa meaning a woman), and the 'w' has
                    been dropped, as always between two consonants. So, I'd reconstruct Gothic
                    *'uggwilo': weak noun, feminine on-stem, i.e. declined like 'mawilo', 'tuggo',
                    etc. One last clue is the Catalan word 'òliba', (San. – Ulooka) which it's been suggested may be derived from the
                    Gothic word for owl

                    2.
                    örn "eagle" (San. – utkrosha)





                    Elof
                    Hellquist's Svensk etymologisk ordbok. 6 is especially interesting; both roots
                    are attested in Gothic. This would make a very handy addition to our
                    reconstructed "modern" vocabulary. There

                    is a Gothic derivative from the same root as 2 recorded, namely 'ara' "eagle",
                    cognate with Old Norse 'ari', but since ON had 'örn' (San. – “ara” one going with speed) there's no reason Gothic couldn't
                    have had both words too.

                     

                    Ah,
                    no need for embarrassment! I was just thinking of it as an exercise in phonetic
                    reconstruction. In other words, what would a Gothic cognate of (word descended
                    from the same Proto-Germanic

                    ancestor as) Modern English 'wood' look like? But you're right 'triu' does mean
                    "a tree" (San. – “taru” means
                    tree also wood,) or "a stick". I guess that illustrates another issue
                    in reconstruction: where a word already exists in the same semantic field, how
                    might that have related to the meaning of a hypothetical, reconstructed Gothic
                    cognate? Does that make sense?



                    In this case, it seems that the better attested early Germanic languages did
                    have a few partly overlapping words in this semantic field, e.g. Old Norse has a word 'viðr' which is
                    cognate with 'wood', as well as a word 'tré' congate with English 'tree'.
                    So there's nothing improbably about supposing Gothic had cognates for both,
                    even though only one, 'triu', is recorded.





                    The
                    gist is this: initial 'b' in English corresponds to Gothic 'b' (as in Go.
                    'broþar' : Modern English 'brother' Sanskrit
                    is “Bhaartru”)-- no catch there. I found a comparison chart but it didn't
                    tell me what to do with initial B, medial TH, or final -M, let alone the
                    morpheme -AM, so I'm a little lost right now.

                    other Indo-European languages (e.g. Latin 2nd declension nouns ending
                    in -um, Greek in -on, Sanskrit in -am).

                    The
                    3rd person singular

                    (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in –iþ for the verbs used in the story.
                    "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ' (from 'slepan' "to sleep" San. Root is “svap” - svapiti). The
                    last sentence is in subjunctive, but you can have a simpler translation.

                     

                    Some vocabulary you need: early morning – air uhtwon clothes – wasti  (Sanskrit
                    – Vastra) F.-jo (that is, feminine jo-stem) staff – hrugga F.-o to push –
                    stigqan to get awake – gawaknan to climb up – ussteigan to look like – wisan
                    galeiks (lit. "to be like") + noun in dative ("he's looking like
                    A." is 'ist galeiks A.'). Don't forget to put the A. ("owl" in
                    our case) in dative.

                     

                    That
                    is, "I take" is 'nima' (from
                    'niman' "to take" Sanskrit word “nirgam” means get off, get away from
                    – ni-sru). The 3rd person singular (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in
                    –iþ for the verbs used in the story. "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ'
                    (from 'slepan' "to sleep"). The last sentence is in subjunctive, but
                    you can have a simpler translation.





                    early
                    morning – air uhtwon; Sanskrit – ushas;






                    to
                    push – stigqan; Sanskrit – saahasin; to
                    climb up – ussteigan, San. – upari gama;

                    *kiggwan, OE cíowan, (San. –
                    ‘charvanam”) ON tyggva? 6. däggdjur "mammal"





                    So
                    you are through with your Aztec torment,
                    unlike me. Everyone saying that Gothic is difficult should be immediately
                    reminded of the existence of Nahuatl.
                    A couple remarks. Ilnâmiqui is "to remember", right? Niquilnâmiqui –  þis (or þata) [ik] ga-man? Iirc 'cân' can be
                    both directional and stative. I mean weren't it better to say 'þarei' with
                    'ainshun ni gaswiltiþ' and 'manna sigis nimiþ'? Is it the 'îchân tônatiuh', the
                    place? An interesting parallel between 'in yâômiqui' and einherjar...





                    Irish
                    Suibhne geilt living on trees and perhaps also the Nahuatl (Aztec) word for "demon" (= Go. skohsl) –
                    tlâcatecolôtl, lit. "man-owl", used in the Anales de Cuauhtitlan of
                    the gods whom human sacrifices were due to.





                     



                    --- On Tue, 3/6/08, Fredrik <gadrauhts@...> wrote:
                    From: Fredrik <gadrauhts@...>
                    Subject: [gothic-l] Re: Introduction
                    To: gothic-l@yahoogroups.com
                    Date: Tuesday, 3 June, 2008, 8:05 PM











                    It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about

                    each other but why not just write some words here?



                    --- In gothic-l@yahoogroup s.com, Madhukar Vichare

                    <madhukar_vichare@ ...> wrote:

                    >

                    > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about

                    themselves, so I hope

                    > this is ok to post here.

                    >

                    > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,

                    friends,

                    > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set

                    up your own

                    > here: http://www.grouply. com/register. php?

                    tmg=260177&amp; vt=170949

                    >

                    > Look forward to seeing your profile!

                    >

                    > Madhukar

                    >

                    > ============ ========

                    > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply

                    instead of

                    > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations

                    from being

                    > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can

                    permanently block

                    > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:

                    > http://blog. grouply.com/ protect#prevent_ invites .

                    >

                    >

                    >

                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                    >



























                    Bollywood, fun, friendship, sports and more. You name it, we have it on http://in.promos.yahoo.com/groups/bestofyahoo/

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