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"yesterday"

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  • llama_nom
    ... yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar Hi Oscar, If you delete the message you re replying to, when that isn t relevant to your own, it saves on space (and
    Message 1 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
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      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
      > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
      yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


      Hi Oscar,

      If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
      relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
      quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
      a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
      a glance what your message is about.

      As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
      cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
      meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

      'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
      'fairnin jera' = "last year"

      I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
      but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
      know.

      Llama Nom
    • OSCAR HERRERA
      doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the
      Message 2 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
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        doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to everyone.....oscar

        llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
        > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
        yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


        Hi Oscar,

        If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
        relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
        quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
        a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
        a glance what your message is about.

        As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
        cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
        meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

        'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
        'fairnin jera' = "last year"

        I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
        but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
        know.

        Llama Nom





        You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
        Yahoo! Groups Links









        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • llama_nom
        ... thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only
        Message 3 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
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          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
          > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
          thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
          fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
          means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
          queries to everyone.....oscar


          > fauradag

          Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
          *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
          day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
          yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
          that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


          > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

          I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
          meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
          something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
          the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
          Gothic 'afardags'.

          I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
          refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
          language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
          Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
          *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
          or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
          reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
          say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
          COGNATES."

          If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
          other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

          http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
          http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
          http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
          tml
          http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

          Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
          prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
          when used as a preposition,
          e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
          suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
          in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
          behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
          up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
          it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
          that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
          do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
          (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
          is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



          > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
          the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
          everyone.....oscar


          Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
          myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
          everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
          reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
          as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

          Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
          to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
          course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
          line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
          clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
          the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
          website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
          you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
          message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
          the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
          on your keyboard.

          You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
          address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
          website (sign in) and click on "post".

          To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
          somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
          want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
          the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
          you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
          block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
          that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
          press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
          really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
          say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
          explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
          my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
          doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

          Llama Nom
        • OSCAR HERRERA
          your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar ... thought it
          Message 4 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
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            your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar

            llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
            > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
            thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
            fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
            means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
            queries to everyone.....oscar


            > fauradag

            Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
            *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
            day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
            yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
            that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


            > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

            I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
            meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
            something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
            the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
            Gothic 'afardags'.

            I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
            refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
            language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
            Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
            *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
            or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
            reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
            say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
            COGNATES."

            If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
            other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

            http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
            http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
            http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
            tml
            http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

            Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
            prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
            when used as a preposition,
            e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
            suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
            in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
            behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
            up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
            it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
            that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
            do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
            (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
            is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



            > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
            the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
            everyone.....oscar


            Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
            myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
            everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
            reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
            as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

            Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
            to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
            course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
            line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
            clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
            the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
            website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
            you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
            message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
            the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
            on your keyboard.

            You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
            address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
            website (sign in) and click on "post".

            To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
            somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
            want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
            the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
            you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
            block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
            that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
            press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
            really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
            say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
            explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
            my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
            doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

            Llama Nom





            You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
            Yahoo! Groups Links









            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • llama_nom
            Þatei was ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau: http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html ) Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra
            Message 5 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
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              Þatei was

              ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau:
              http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html )

              Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra mis,
              iþ nu fanþ ik þatei wisiþ þis;
              O, traua ik du þammei was.

              Suns mis warþ; ni im manna saei faurþis was;
              hahiþ ufar mis hva riqizis;
              O þatei warþ, qam suns at mis.

              Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
              Mis ni gataih.
              Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

              Friaþwa, fairna was mis swa azets dags;
              þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
              O, traua ik du þammei was.

              Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
              Mis ni gataih.
              Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

              Friaþwa, fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags;
              þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
              O, traua ik du þammei was.


              Notes, liberties, etc.

              þatei wisiþ þis. Desperate partitive genitive for sake of rhyme.
              Supposed to mean "that there is staying [something] of that / this",
              i.e. that a certain amount of trouble is "here to stay". Apologies
              to songwriters and 4th century bishops everywhere.

              ...fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags. Intended to mean: "yesterday
              was such an easy day for me." `Friaþwa', just setting the context
              and not syntactically related. Ignoring the metre, the closest I
              got was: "Fairnin daga friaþwa swaleiks azets mis was laiks."
            • JoLynne
              Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes of that area.
              Message 6 of 30 , Feb 25, 2008
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                Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested
                in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes
                of that area. Mostly I am here to listen and learn.
              • Madhukar Vichare
                Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope this is ok to post here. I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my
                Message 7 of 30 , Jun 2, 2008
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                  Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope
                  this is ok to post here.

                  I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos, friends,
                  interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set up your own
                  here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?tmg=260177&vt=170949

                  Look forward to seeing your profile!

                  Madhukar

                  ====================
                  This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply instead of
                  email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations from being
                  sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can permanently block
                  future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                  http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Fredrik
                  It s always nice with presentations so we can know a little about each other but why not just write some words here? ... themselves, so I hope ... friends, ...
                  Message 8 of 30 , Jun 3, 2008
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                    It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about
                    each other but why not just write some words here?

                    --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Madhukar Vichare
                    <madhukar_vichare@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about
                    themselves, so I hope
                    > this is ok to post here.
                    >
                    > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,
                    friends,
                    > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set
                    up your own
                    > here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?
                    tmg=260177&vt=170949
                    >
                    > Look forward to seeing your profile!
                    >
                    > Madhukar
                    >
                    > ====================
                    > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply
                    instead of
                    > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations
                    from being
                    > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can
                    permanently block
                    > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                    > http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    >
                  • Madhukar Vichare
                    Finns (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                    Message 9 of 30 , Jun 5, 2008
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                      Finns
                      (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree
                      sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                      thousands of years. Last month, students in west­ern Finland found a piece of Stone Age birch-bark tar, be­lieved
                      to have been used for chewing and to fix broken ar­rowheads or clay dishes, ar­chaeologists
                      said. "Most likely the lump was used as an antique kind of chewing
                      gum," said Sami Vil­jamaa, an archaeologist who led the dig near Oulu, (Aulanam - Lake) north of Helsinki (helihi -the sun; sina – a period of “No Moon” night
                      when the small part of Moon is visible at certain latitudes). "But its main pur­pose was to fix things."
                      Vilja­maa said the piece of Neolith­ic gum was found among arti­facts in a
                      Stone Age village at the Kierikki (Kairavaḥ - Moon-lit-Night) Stone Age Center. "It's somewhere between 5,500 and 6,000 years
                      old," he said. The ancient Finnish habit of chewing gum surged in the
                      1980s when scientists discov­ered that gum containing xyl­itol prevented tooth
                      decay.

                       

                      Egyptian
                      archaeolo­gists have found what they said could be the oldest hu­man footprint
                      in history in the country's western desert, the Arab country's antiquities'
                      chief said. "This could go back about two million years," said Zahi
                      Hawass, the sec­retary general of the Egypt­ian supreme council of an­tiquities.
                      "It could be the most im­portant discovery in Egypt," he said. Archaeologists found the footprint,
                      imprinted on mud and then hardened into rock, while exploring a pre­historic
                      site in Shiwa (Shiva in search of water for cooling down), a desert
                      oasis. Scientists are using car­bon tests on plants found in the rock to
                      determine its ex­act age, Hawass said. Khaled Saad, the direc­tor of prehistory
                      at the council, said that based on the age of the rock where the footprint was
                      found, it could date back even fur­ther than the renowned 3­million year-old
                      fossil Lucy, the partial skeleton of an ape-man, found in Ethiopia in 1974. Most archaeological in­terest in Egypt is focused on the time of the pharaohs. Previously,
                      the earliest human archaeological evi­dence from Egypt dated back around 200,000 years, Saad said.

                       

                      I
                      have highlighted my views of looking at the old concepts with new insights in
                      view of the new knowledge: The subject of INDOLOGY will be meaningful.              Madhukar Vichare.

                       

                      Anandamurti
                      JI wrote for the “Speaking Tree” (On Religion):

                       

                      Taraka
                      (Tarkaha
                      or Taaraka) Brahma wants to eman­cipate living beings, but only those who want
                      liberation get liberation. When you long for liberation, the search leads you
                      to the Sadguru. Every one of us has a fixed role to play. You are a character
                      in a divine drama. The composer of this drama is Taaraka Brahma. An episode in
                      the Maha­bharata is instructive in this regard: After battle, the battle­ground
                      at Kurukṣetra became a cremation ground. At the end of the war
                      some people came there from the Kauravas' side. Among them were women and a few
                      elderly men. Gandhaari, mother of the Kauravas, was also there. Kuntī, mother of the Pandavas, and Krushna, Pandavas'
                      friend, were present as well, along with the visually challenged Dhrutarashtra.
                      Everyone was weeping. Gandhaari had lost hundred sons in the war. Krushna
                      approached Gandhaari and said: "Mother, why are you weeping? Death is a
                      naturallay. One who is born will die. So why cry?" Gandhaari replied:
                      "Yes Krushna, you have come here to console me, but I ask you, behind this
                      great event whose mind was at work? Who was the author of this great plan? Was
                      it not you?" Krushna replied: "Those who have committed injustice and
                      sinned have been punished. What can I do about that?" Gandhaari said to Krushna:
                      "Everything you have said up un­til now is quite correct. From the worldly
                      point of view, everything that has happened until now is as it should be,
                      because every action must have its reaction. But my point is: You yourself are
                      Taaraka Brahma; your duty is to liberate living beings. You can give libera­tion
                      to whomsoever you please.

                       

                      'As
                      Taaraka Brahma you can create and destroy as you wish. In this drama of yours
                      you have created characters who are honest, ideological people. If one does
                      virtuous deeds then one gets liberation. To teach the people you create these
                      kinds of characters. And you also create sinful charac­ters to show how much a
                      person degenerates because of sinful behavior. In this drama, you could have
                      had my hundred sons play roles of righteousness and the Pandavas play roles of
                      unright­eousness, if you had so wished. In that case my hundred sons would have
                      gotten salvation. Now, after having made me cry, you come to console me!" Taaraka
                      Brahma for­mulates his plan in order to create situations that lend themselves
                      to illustrating values, to create awareness. For instance, if one engages in
                      honest work then one moves towards eternal truth, and if one performs dishonest
                      work then one moves towards untruth. Thereafter comes the other part of the
                      story.

                       

                      Gandhaari
                      said: "Kṛṣṇa, give me permission to curse you". Krushna
                      replied: "Okay, curse me. I give you permission". Gandhaari cursed
                      him: "Just as my entire lineage has been destroyed before my very eyes,
                      may your Yaadava lineage be destroyed before your very eyes as well".
                      "Let it be so", Krushna replied. Remember always that we are only
                      actors in a universal drama. This is not our real identity. Some­one may play
                      the role of a king, but he might not even have two hand­fuls of rice in his
                      house. Someone plays the role of a poor man, but in real life he may be very
                      rich. We ought to remember that we are only playing specific roles in a cosmic
                      drama. Act according to the role given. This is a person's duty. This is a
                      wrong note to end the moral of the “Cosmic Drama” – Man must keep on bettering
                      his lot; learning new things, and keeping himself fit to fight against the
                      odds. He must use his intelligence and apply his mind. Krushna is not
                      coming to salvage your soul; man has to come up to the expectation of the Super
                      Personality of Godhead- it is symbolic, you have to become Krushna.

                       

                      Uyuni
                      is in Bolivia: On the edge of the world's biggest salt desert,
                      villagers optimistical­ly scrawl "salt for sale" signs on their mud
                      brick homes. In backyards, mountains of the stuff are heaped like year-­round
                      snow drifts. But mining salt is no longer the only way to survive in this cold,
                      arid corner of south­western Bolivia. The Salar de Uyuni is becoming a must-see for
                      adventurous visitors to South
                      America, changing at least
                      some fortunes in the poor village of Colchani. "There's nothing here apart from salt... Tourists used to arrive
                      and they wouldn't buy anything, so we thought, 'How can we improve
                      things?" said Fermin Villca, who now sells ashtrays and llama fig­urines
                      carved from salt stone. Stretched between distant Andean peaks like a shimmer­ing
                      white carpet, the Salar de Uyuni is home to pink flamin­gos, 1,000-year-old
                      cacti, rare hummingbirds and hotels built entirely from blocks of salt. Earlier
                      this year, leading travel publisher Rough Guides listed the Salar as one of its
                      top 25 wonders of the world, along side far better-known attrac­tions such as
                      the Taj Mahal, Grand Canyon and Great
                      Wall of China.

                       

                      A
                      gargantuan explosion ripped apart a star perhaps 150 times more mas­sive than
                      our Sun in a rela­tively nearby galaxy in the most powerful and brightest
                      supernova ever observed, as­tronomers said. And there is one such star in our
                      own Milky Way galaxy that appears to be on the brink of dying in just
                      such a super­nova. The exploding star's dra­matic death may have come in a rare
                      type of supernova reserved for "freakishly mas­sive" stars that
                      astronomers had speculated about but nev­er previously witnessed. The
                      supernova, designat­ed as SN 2006gy, occurred 240 million light years
                      away in a galaxy called NGC 1260, and was studied using observa­tions from NASA's
                      orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as earthbound optical telescopes.. The
                      explosion occurred long ago but was detected last year after its light traveled
                      many trillions of kilometers before it could be observed from Earth. "That
                      sounds far away but it's actually quite nearby on the vast scale of the uni­verse,"
                      astronomer Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led the research, said. A supernova marks a star's
                      death in a spectacular explosion. Scientists say these events playa crucial role
                      in creating heavy ele­ments through nuclear fu­sion and synthesis and then
                      expelling them into space, seeding the cosmos with metals.

                       

                      The
                      travel of Manu and the great Fish, a symbolic story of the Puraana, the event
                      that occurred 10,000 BCE (ca): An
                      event like the one involving Noah's ark is depicted in- almost every ­ ancient
                      civilization or religion: Naunet in Egyptian; Manu in Hindu; Nuwa in Chinese;
                      Ziusudra in Sumerian; Atra-Hasis, Utnapishtim and Xisuthrus in Babylonian;
                      Deucalion in Greek; and Toptlipetlocali in Toltec. Noah is also mentioned often
                      in the Qumran, referred to as the prophet ‘Nuh’. All the names are
                      the corruption of original Sanskrit words used in Vedic rituals by the Āryans.

                       

                      For
                      many scientists, the evi­dence that moral reasoning is a result of physical
                      traits that evolve along with everything else is just more evidence against
                      the exis­tence of the soul, or of a God to imbue humans with souls. For
                      many believers, particularly in the US, the findings show the er­ror, even wickedness, of
                      viewing the world in strictly material terms. And they provide for the­ologians
                      a growing impetus to rec­oncile the existence of the soul with the growing
                      evidence that humans are not, physically or even mentally, in a class by
                      themselves. The idea that human minds are the product of evolution is
                      "unassailable fact," the journal Nature said this month in an ed­itorial
                      on new findings on the physical basis of moral thought. A headline on the
                      editorial drove the point home: "With all defer­ence to the sensibilities
                      of reli­gious people, the idea that man was created in the image of God can
                      surely be put aside." Or as V S Ramachandran, a brain scientist at the University of California, San Diego, said in an interview, there may be soul in the sense
                      of "the universal spir­it of the cosmos," but the soul as it is
                      usually spoken of, "an im­material spirit that occupies in­dividual brains
                      and that only evolved in humans - all that is complete nonsense." Belief
                      in that kind of soul "is basically super­stition," he said.

                       

                      Greenland
                      was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the latest of which disappeared around the year 200
                      AD. The island seems to have been uninhabited for some eight centuries till
                      Icelandic settlers led by Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they
                      arrived in 982 AD. They thrived here for 450 years, after which they
                      mysteriously vanished.

                       ­

                      The
                      term tetra-pod, from the Greek 'tetrapoda,' (Sanskrit-“totra-vetram”- weapon of
                      Viṣṇu- + pada means feet) refers to vertebrate animals
                      having four feet, legs or leg-like appendages. Amphibians, lizards and mammals
                      are all tetra-pods. The term auto-pod, however, is used to refer to animals
                      whose limbs are subdivided into hands and feet, example: Humans.

                       

                      The
                      researchers therefore believe that the capability of building limbs with
                      fingers and toes existed for a long period of time, but it took a set of
                      environmental triggers to make use of that capability. "Animals in the
                      Late Devonian period (385 to 359 million years ago) acquired limbs with fingers
                      using this primitive design, largely because their ecosystem - the small
                      streams that they lived in - was new," Shubin said "It had the tools,
                      but it needed the opportuni­ty as well." In yet another study on what
                      killed off the beasts of the Ice Age, researchers said that an extraterrestrial
                      object with a three-mile girth might have ex­ploded over southern Canada nearly
                      13,000 years ago, wiping out an ancient Stone Age culture as well as mega-fauna
                      like mastodons and mammoths. The blast could be to blame for a ma­jor cold
                      spell called the Younger Dryas that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene
                      Epoch, a period of time spanning from about 1.8 million years ago to 11,500
                      years ago. Research, presented at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union
                      (AGU) in Acapulco, Mexico this week, could shed light on major questions about
                      the mega-fauna extinction, the disappear­ance of the Clovis people, and an
                      abrupt climate change, Live-science reported. "Based on the distribution
                      of mate­rial, it looks like this impact probably occurred in southern Canada near the Great Lakes, over
                      what at that time would have been a major glacier, the Laurentide ice
                      sheet," said one of the presen­ters, Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley
                      National Laboratory. They couldn't find a distinct crater, suggesting the comet
                      burst in the air rather than slamming into Earth. Even an airburst should leave
                      its mark, so the scientists think the Laurentide Ice Sheet absorbed much of the
                      impact.

                       

                      A
                      huge flood hundreds of thou­sands of years ago cut Britain off from the rest of Europe and turned it into an
                      island, according to a new study that of­fers clues to how England was settled.
                      Using high-resolution sonar waves, researchers mapped the floor of the Eng­lish Channel and turned up images of an enormous valley tens of
                      kilometers wide and up to 50 meters deep carved into chalk bedrock. The images
                      were similar to an area in the state of Washington where a mega-flood some 15,000 years ago also created
                      a landscape of distinctive land formations - indicating that the same thing
                      happened in Britain, the re­searchers said. Scientists said the study
                      provides the best evidence yet in the de­bate seeking to explain how the English Channel formed and cut Britain off from the rest of Europe.
                      "It showed us for the first time the ex­istence of this huge valley in the
                      centre of the English Channel," said Sanjeev Gupta, a researcher at Imperial
                      College London.

                       

                      Mexican
                      archaeologists using ground-penetrating radar have detected underground
                      chambers they believe contain the remains of Emperor Ahuizotl, who ruled
                      the Aztecs when Columbus landed in the Americas. Ahuizotl (ah-WEE-zoh-tuhl), an empire-builder who
                      extended the Aztecs' reach as far as Guatemala, in South
                      America, was the last
                      emperor to complete his rule before the Spanish Conquest. Accounts written by
                      Spanish priests suggest the said area was used by the Aztecs to cremate and
                      bury their rulers. But no tomb of an Aztec ruler has ever been found. Now,
                      archaeologists said that they have located what appears to be a
                      Six-foot-by-six-foot entryway into a tomb about 15 feet below ground, off Mexico City's Zocalo plaza. The passage is filled with water,
                      rocks and mud, forcing work­ers to dig delicately. Later this year, they hope
                      to enter the inner chambers - a damp, low-ceilinged space - and discover the
                      ashes of Ahuizotl, who was likely cremated on a funeral pyre in 1502. Because
                      no Aztec royal tomb has ever been found, the archaeologists are literally
                      digging into the unknown. Radar indicates the tomb has up to four chambers, and
                      scientists think they will find a host of elaborate offerings to the gods on
                      the floor. "He must have been buried in solemn ceremony with rich
                      offerings, like vases and ornaments," said Luis Alberto Martos, director
                      of archaeological studies at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History.

                       

                      All
                      signs found so far point to Ahuizotl. The site lies direct­ly below a huge,
                      recently discovered stone monolith carved with a representation of Tlaltecuhtli
                      (tlahl-tay-KOO-tlee), the Aztec god of the earth. Depicted as a woman with huge
                      claws, the fearsome Tlaltecuhtli was believed to devour the dead and then give
                      them new life. In the claw of her right foot, the god holds a rabbit and 10
                      dots, indicating the date "10 Rabbit" - 1502, the year of Ahuizotl's
                      death. "Our hypothesis is precisely that this is probably the tomb of
                      Ahuizotl," said Leonardo Lopez Lujan, the lead government archaeologist on
                      the project. "Imagine it - this wasn't just any high-ranking man. The
                      Aztecs were the most powerful society of their time," Martos said.
                      "That's why Ahuizotl's tomb down there is so important."        

                       

                      The
                      Aztecs is a term used for the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico that thrived before the advent of Christopher
                      Columbus in the Americas. Aztec
                      culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions. For
                      Europeans, the most striking element of the Aztec culture was the practice of
                      human sacrifice which was conducted throughout Mesoamerica prior to the Spanish conquest Greenland was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the
                      latest of which disappeared around the year 200 AD. The island seems to have
                      been uninhabited for some eight centuries till Icelandic settlers led by
                      Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they arrived in 982 AD. They thrived
                      here for 450 years, after which they mysteriously vanished. Archeologists have
                      discovered what they think are ruins of an Aztec pyramid razed by vengeful
                      Spanish conquerors in what is now one of Mexico City's most crime-ridden districts. Construction workers
                      un­earthed ancient walls in the busy Iztapalapa neighbor­hood in June, and
                      government archeologists said on Wednes­day that they believe they may be part
                      of the main pyramid of the Aztec city, destroyed by conquistador Hernan Cortes
                      in the 16th century.

                       

                      In
                      the Gothic Bible, 'þiudans' is used of a king who goes to war:



                      aiþþau hvas þiudans gaggands stigqan wiþra anþarana þiudan (vipra praana-yukta pinda) du wiganna, niu
                      gasitands faurþis þankeiþ, siaiu mahteigs miþ taihun þusundjom gamotjan þamma
                      miþ twaim tigum þusundjo gaggandin ana sik?



                      Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first,
                      and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh
                      against him with twenty thousand?

                      Luke 14:31.



                      'frauja' (Praanaaha) "lord"
                      is also used with no Greek model for the noun in a military context (II Tim
                      2:4). I'm not sure whether 'reiks' is used anywhere in an explicitly military
                      context.



                      I am not a linguist but as far as I know they were reiks also when leading a
                      war expedition. Their sacral king, however, was never allowed to leave his own
                      territory when the people was permanently settled, but had to order a reiks (Rushis
                      –wandering Sages) to take command. During the wandering, according to Getica at
                      least, the þiuðans was sacral king and he used 'kings of the army' to lead
                      parts of the united army (like e.g. Cniva as Wolfram suggests) but I do not
                      know their title in Gothic.

                       

                      The clue to the root of the
                      hypothetical Gothic form though is in Old Norse 'ugla' and especially (Old) Swedish 'uggla'. These show a sound change common to North and East Germanic
                      whereby 'ww' > 'ggw', as described by Wright. In Old Norse, the medial vowel
                      of the suffix has been lost, which is normal, but presumably it would have been
                      present in Gothic (compare 'mawilo'
                      "little girl" San – mahilaa meaning a woman), and the 'w' has
                      been dropped, as always between two consonants. So, I'd reconstruct Gothic
                      *'uggwilo': weak noun, feminine on-stem, i.e. declined like 'mawilo', 'tuggo',
                      etc. One last clue is the Catalan word 'òliba', (San. – Ulooka) which it's been suggested may be derived from the
                      Gothic word for owl

                      2.
                      örn "eagle" (San. – utkrosha)





                      Elof
                      Hellquist's Svensk etymologisk ordbok. 6 is especially interesting; both roots
                      are attested in Gothic. This would make a very handy addition to our
                      reconstructed "modern" vocabulary. There

                      is a Gothic derivative from the same root as 2 recorded, namely 'ara' "eagle",
                      cognate with Old Norse 'ari', but since ON had 'örn' (San. – “ara” one going with speed) there's no reason Gothic couldn't
                      have had both words too.

                       

                      Ah,
                      no need for embarrassment! I was just thinking of it as an exercise in phonetic
                      reconstruction. In other words, what would a Gothic cognate of (word descended
                      from the same Proto-Germanic

                      ancestor as) Modern English 'wood' look like? But you're right 'triu' does mean
                      "a tree" (San. – “taru” means
                      tree also wood,) or "a stick". I guess that illustrates another issue
                      in reconstruction: where a word already exists in the same semantic field, how
                      might that have related to the meaning of a hypothetical, reconstructed Gothic
                      cognate? Does that make sense?



                      In this case, it seems that the better attested early Germanic languages did
                      have a few partly overlapping words in this semantic field, e.g. Old Norse has a word 'viðr' which is
                      cognate with 'wood', as well as a word 'tré' congate with English 'tree'.
                      So there's nothing improbably about supposing Gothic had cognates for both,
                      even though only one, 'triu', is recorded.





                      The
                      gist is this: initial 'b' in English corresponds to Gothic 'b' (as in Go.
                      'broþar' : Modern English 'brother' Sanskrit
                      is “Bhaartru”)-- no catch there. I found a comparison chart but it didn't
                      tell me what to do with initial B, medial TH, or final -M, let alone the
                      morpheme -AM, so I'm a little lost right now.

                      other Indo-European languages (e.g. Latin 2nd declension nouns ending
                      in -um, Greek in -on, Sanskrit in -am).

                      The
                      3rd person singular

                      (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in –iþ for the verbs used in the story.
                      "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ' (from 'slepan' "to sleep" San. Root is “svap” - svapiti). The
                      last sentence is in subjunctive, but you can have a simpler translation.

                       

                      Some vocabulary you need: early morning – air uhtwon clothes – wasti  (Sanskrit
                      – Vastra) F.-jo (that is, feminine jo-stem) staff – hrugga F.-o to push –
                      stigqan to get awake – gawaknan to climb up – ussteigan to look like – wisan
                      galeiks (lit. "to be like") + noun in dative ("he's looking like
                      A." is 'ist galeiks A.'). Don't forget to put the A. ("owl" in
                      our case) in dative.

                       

                      That
                      is, "I take" is 'nima' (from
                      'niman' "to take" Sanskrit word “nirgam” means get off, get away from
                      – ni-sru). The 3rd person singular (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in
                      –iþ for the verbs used in the story. "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ'
                      (from 'slepan' "to sleep"). The last sentence is in subjunctive, but
                      you can have a simpler translation.





                      early
                      morning – air uhtwon; Sanskrit – ushas;






                      to
                      push – stigqan; Sanskrit – saahasin; to
                      climb up – ussteigan, San. – upari gama;

                      *kiggwan, OE cíowan, (San. –
                      ‘charvanam”) ON tyggva? 6. däggdjur "mammal"





                      So
                      you are through with your Aztec torment,
                      unlike me. Everyone saying that Gothic is difficult should be immediately
                      reminded of the existence of Nahuatl.
                      A couple remarks. Ilnâmiqui is "to remember", right? Niquilnâmiqui –  þis (or þata) [ik] ga-man? Iirc 'cân' can be
                      both directional and stative. I mean weren't it better to say 'þarei' with
                      'ainshun ni gaswiltiþ' and 'manna sigis nimiþ'? Is it the 'îchân tônatiuh', the
                      place? An interesting parallel between 'in yâômiqui' and einherjar...





                      Irish
                      Suibhne geilt living on trees and perhaps also the Nahuatl (Aztec) word for "demon" (= Go. skohsl) –
                      tlâcatecolôtl, lit. "man-owl", used in the Anales de Cuauhtitlan of
                      the gods whom human sacrifices were due to.





                       



                      --- On Tue, 3/6/08, Fredrik <gadrauhts@...> wrote:
                      From: Fredrik <gadrauhts@...>
                      Subject: [gothic-l] Re: Introduction
                      To: gothic-l@yahoogroups.com
                      Date: Tuesday, 3 June, 2008, 8:05 PM











                      It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about

                      each other but why not just write some words here?



                      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroup s.com, Madhukar Vichare

                      <madhukar_vichare@ ...> wrote:

                      >

                      > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about

                      themselves, so I hope

                      > this is ok to post here.

                      >

                      > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,

                      friends,

                      > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set

                      up your own

                      > here: http://www.grouply. com/register. php?

                      tmg=260177&amp; vt=170949

                      >

                      > Look forward to seeing your profile!

                      >

                      > Madhukar

                      >

                      > ============ ========

                      > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply

                      instead of

                      > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations

                      from being

                      > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can

                      permanently block

                      > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:

                      > http://blog. grouply.com/ protect#prevent_ invites .

                      >

                      >

                      >

                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                      >



























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