Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Gmc. *gle:zam (amber)

Expand Messages
  • llama_nom
    ... In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you re thinking of OIc. glær sea , masc. (could be related; but in this word, the isn t
    Message 1 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
    • 0 Attachment
      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, David Kiltz <derdron@g...> wrote:
      >
      >
      > Isn't _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ?


      In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you're
      thinking of OIc. glær "sea", masc. (could be related; but in this
      word, the <r> isn't part of the root), versus OIc. 'gler' "glass",
      neuter.


      > In North Germanic we find <â> from the earliest attestations. Cf.
      > also such Finnish loanwords as _maanan-_ 'moon' (in _maanan-tai_
      > 'monday') vs a loan from Gothic: _miekka_ 'sword' (Goth. mêki
      (acc.)).


      Is there any way to tell when 'miekka' was borrowed, and thus
      whether it's more likely to be a loan from EG or NWG or PGmc, or
      whatever? And does the <a> in 'maanan-tai' mean that it was
      borrowed from a Proto-Norse (or NWG form) with the genitive
      *'ma:nan', as opposed to the form with /o/ (*'ma:no:n') that I
      assume gave rise to gave rise to Ic. mánudagur? I'm afraid I don't
      know anything about the history of Finnish sounds, so I don't want
      to jump to any conclusions...

      Lama Nom
    • llama_nom
      ... yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar Hi Oscar, If you delete the message you re replying to, when that isn t relevant to your own, it saves on space (and
      Message 2 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
      • 0 Attachment
        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
        > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
        yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


        Hi Oscar,

        If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
        relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
        quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
        a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
        a glance what your message is about.

        As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
        cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
        meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

        'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
        'fairnin jera' = "last year"

        I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
        but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
        know.

        Llama Nom
      • OSCAR HERRERA
        doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the
        Message 3 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
        • 0 Attachment
          doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to everyone.....oscar

          llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
          > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
          yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


          Hi Oscar,

          If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
          relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
          quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
          a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
          a glance what your message is about.

          As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
          cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
          meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

          'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
          'fairnin jera' = "last year"

          I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
          but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
          know.

          Llama Nom





          You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
          Yahoo! Groups Links









          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • llama_nom
          ... thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only
          Message 4 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
          • 0 Attachment
            --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
            > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
            thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
            fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
            means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
            queries to everyone.....oscar


            > fauradag

            Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
            *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
            day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
            yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
            that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


            > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

            I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
            meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
            something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
            the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
            Gothic 'afardags'.

            I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
            refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
            language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
            Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
            *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
            or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
            reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
            say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
            COGNATES."

            If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
            other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

            http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
            http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
            http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
            tml
            http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

            Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
            prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
            when used as a preposition,
            e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
            suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
            in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
            behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
            up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
            it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
            that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
            do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
            (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
            is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



            > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
            the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
            everyone.....oscar


            Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
            myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
            everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
            reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
            as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

            Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
            to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
            course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
            line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
            clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
            the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
            website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
            you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
            message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
            the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
            on your keyboard.

            You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
            address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
            website (sign in) and click on "post".

            To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
            somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
            want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
            the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
            you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
            block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
            that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
            press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
            really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
            say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
            explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
            my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
            doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

            Llama Nom
          • OSCAR HERRERA
            your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar ... thought it
            Message 5 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
            • 0 Attachment
              your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar

              llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
              > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
              thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
              fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
              means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
              queries to everyone.....oscar


              > fauradag

              Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
              *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
              day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
              yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
              that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


              > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

              I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
              meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
              something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
              the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
              Gothic 'afardags'.

              I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
              refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
              language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
              Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
              *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
              or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
              reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
              say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
              COGNATES."

              If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
              other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

              http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
              http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
              http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
              tml
              http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

              Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
              prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
              when used as a preposition,
              e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
              suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
              in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
              behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
              up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
              it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
              that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
              do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
              (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
              is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



              > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
              the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
              everyone.....oscar


              Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
              myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
              everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
              reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
              as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

              Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
              to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
              course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
              line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
              clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
              the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
              website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
              you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
              message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
              the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
              on your keyboard.

              You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
              address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
              website (sign in) and click on "post".

              To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
              somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
              want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
              the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
              you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
              block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
              that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
              press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
              really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
              say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
              explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
              my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
              doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

              Llama Nom





              You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
              Yahoo! Groups Links









              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • llama_nom
              Þatei was ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau: http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html ) Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra
              Message 6 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
              • 0 Attachment
                Þatei was

                ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau:
                http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html )

                Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra mis,
                iþ nu fanþ ik þatei wisiþ þis;
                O, traua ik du þammei was.

                Suns mis warþ; ni im manna saei faurþis was;
                hahiþ ufar mis hva riqizis;
                O þatei warþ, qam suns at mis.

                Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                Mis ni gataih.
                Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                Friaþwa, fairna was mis swa azets dags;
                þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                O, traua ik du þammei was.

                Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                Mis ni gataih.
                Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                Friaþwa, fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags;
                þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                O, traua ik du þammei was.


                Notes, liberties, etc.

                þatei wisiþ þis. Desperate partitive genitive for sake of rhyme.
                Supposed to mean "that there is staying [something] of that / this",
                i.e. that a certain amount of trouble is "here to stay". Apologies
                to songwriters and 4th century bishops everywhere.

                ...fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags. Intended to mean: "yesterday
                was such an easy day for me." `Friaþwa', just setting the context
                and not syntactically related. Ignoring the metre, the closest I
                got was: "Fairnin daga friaþwa swaleiks azets mis was laiks."
              • JoLynne
                Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes of that area.
                Message 7 of 30 , Feb 25, 2008
                • 0 Attachment
                  Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested
                  in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes
                  of that area. Mostly I am here to listen and learn.
                • Madhukar Vichare
                  Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope this is ok to post here. I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my
                  Message 8 of 30 , Jun 2, 2008
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope
                    this is ok to post here.

                    I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos, friends,
                    interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set up your own
                    here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?tmg=260177&vt=170949

                    Look forward to seeing your profile!

                    Madhukar

                    ====================
                    This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply instead of
                    email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations from being
                    sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can permanently block
                    future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                    http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Fredrik
                    It s always nice with presentations so we can know a little about each other but why not just write some words here? ... themselves, so I hope ... friends, ...
                    Message 9 of 30 , Jun 3, 2008
                    • 0 Attachment
                      It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about
                      each other but why not just write some words here?

                      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Madhukar Vichare
                      <madhukar_vichare@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about
                      themselves, so I hope
                      > this is ok to post here.
                      >
                      > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,
                      friends,
                      > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set
                      up your own
                      > here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?
                      tmg=260177&vt=170949
                      >
                      > Look forward to seeing your profile!
                      >
                      > Madhukar
                      >
                      > ====================
                      > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply
                      instead of
                      > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations
                      from being
                      > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can
                      permanently block
                      > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                      > http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                    • Madhukar Vichare
                      Finns (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                      Message 10 of 30 , Jun 5, 2008
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Finns
                        (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree
                        sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                        thousands of years. Last month, students in west­ern Finland found a piece of Stone Age birch-bark tar, be­lieved
                        to have been used for chewing and to fix broken ar­rowheads or clay dishes, ar­chaeologists
                        said. "Most likely the lump was used as an antique kind of chewing
                        gum," said Sami Vil­jamaa, an archaeologist who led the dig near Oulu, (Aulanam - Lake) north of Helsinki (helihi -the sun; sina – a period of “No Moon” night
                        when the small part of Moon is visible at certain latitudes). "But its main pur­pose was to fix things."
                        Vilja­maa said the piece of Neolith­ic gum was found among arti­facts in a
                        Stone Age village at the Kierikki (Kairavaḥ - Moon-lit-Night) Stone Age Center. "It's somewhere between 5,500 and 6,000 years
                        old," he said. The ancient Finnish habit of chewing gum surged in the
                        1980s when scientists discov­ered that gum containing xyl­itol prevented tooth
                        decay.

                         

                        Egyptian
                        archaeolo­gists have found what they said could be the oldest hu­man footprint
                        in history in the country's western desert, the Arab country's antiquities'
                        chief said. "This could go back about two million years," said Zahi
                        Hawass, the sec­retary general of the Egypt­ian supreme council of an­tiquities.
                        "It could be the most im­portant discovery in Egypt," he said. Archaeologists found the footprint,
                        imprinted on mud and then hardened into rock, while exploring a pre­historic
                        site in Shiwa (Shiva in search of water for cooling down), a desert
                        oasis. Scientists are using car­bon tests on plants found in the rock to
                        determine its ex­act age, Hawass said. Khaled Saad, the direc­tor of prehistory
                        at the council, said that based on the age of the rock where the footprint was
                        found, it could date back even fur­ther than the renowned 3­million year-old
                        fossil Lucy, the partial skeleton of an ape-man, found in Ethiopia in 1974. Most archaeological in­terest in Egypt is focused on the time of the pharaohs. Previously,
                        the earliest human archaeological evi­dence from Egypt dated back around 200,000 years, Saad said.

                         

                        I
                        have highlighted my views of looking at the old concepts with new insights in
                        view of the new knowledge: The subject of INDOLOGY will be meaningful.              Madhukar Vichare.

                         

                        Anandamurti
                        JI wrote for the “Speaking Tree” (On Religion):

                         

                        Taraka
                        (Tarkaha
                        or Taaraka) Brahma wants to eman­cipate living beings, but only those who want
                        liberation get liberation. When you long for liberation, the search leads you
                        to the Sadguru. Every one of us has a fixed role to play. You are a character
                        in a divine drama. The composer of this drama is Taaraka Brahma. An episode in
                        the Maha­bharata is instructive in this regard: After battle, the battle­ground
                        at Kurukṣetra became a cremation ground. At the end of the war
                        some people came there from the Kauravas' side. Among them were women and a few
                        elderly men. Gandhaari, mother of the Kauravas, was also there. Kuntī, mother of the Pandavas, and Krushna, Pandavas'
                        friend, were present as well, along with the visually challenged Dhrutarashtra.
                        Everyone was weeping. Gandhaari had lost hundred sons in the war. Krushna
                        approached Gandhaari and said: "Mother, why are you weeping? Death is a
                        naturallay. One who is born will die. So why cry?" Gandhaari replied:
                        "Yes Krushna, you have come here to console me, but I ask you, behind this
                        great event whose mind was at work? Who was the author of this great plan? Was
                        it not you?" Krushna replied: "Those who have committed injustice and
                        sinned have been punished. What can I do about that?" Gandhaari said to Krushna:
                        "Everything you have said up un­til now is quite correct. From the worldly
                        point of view, everything that has happened until now is as it should be,
                        because every action must have its reaction. But my point is: You yourself are
                        Taaraka Brahma; your duty is to liberate living beings. You can give libera­tion
                        to whomsoever you please.

                         

                        'As
                        Taaraka Brahma you can create and destroy as you wish. In this drama of yours
                        you have created characters who are honest, ideological people. If one does
                        virtuous deeds then one gets liberation. To teach the people you create these
                        kinds of characters. And you also create sinful charac­ters to show how much a
                        person degenerates because of sinful behavior. In this drama, you could have
                        had my hundred sons play roles of righteousness and the Pandavas play roles of
                        unright­eousness, if you had so wished. In that case my hundred sons would have
                        gotten salvation. Now, after having made me cry, you come to console me!" Taaraka
                        Brahma for­mulates his plan in order to create situations that lend themselves
                        to illustrating values, to create awareness. For instance, if one engages in
                        honest work then one moves towards eternal truth, and if one performs dishonest
                        work then one moves towards untruth. Thereafter comes the other part of the
                        story.

                         

                        Gandhaari
                        said: "Kṛṣṇa, give me permission to curse you". Krushna
                        replied: "Okay, curse me. I give you permission". Gandhaari cursed
                        him: "Just as my entire lineage has been destroyed before my very eyes,
                        may your Yaadava lineage be destroyed before your very eyes as well".
                        "Let it be so", Krushna replied. Remember always that we are only
                        actors in a universal drama. This is not our real identity. Some­one may play
                        the role of a king, but he might not even have two hand­fuls of rice in his
                        house. Someone plays the role of a poor man, but in real life he may be very
                        rich. We ought to remember that we are only playing specific roles in a cosmic
                        drama. Act according to the role given. This is a person's duty. This is a
                        wrong note to end the moral of the “Cosmic Drama” – Man must keep on bettering
                        his lot; learning new things, and keeping himself fit to fight against the
                        odds. He must use his intelligence and apply his mind. Krushna is not
                        coming to salvage your soul; man has to come up to the expectation of the Super
                        Personality of Godhead- it is symbolic, you have to become Krushna.

                         

                        Uyuni
                        is in Bolivia: On the edge of the world's biggest salt desert,
                        villagers optimistical­ly scrawl "salt for sale" signs on their mud
                        brick homes. In backyards, mountains of the stuff are heaped like year-­round
                        snow drifts. But mining salt is no longer the only way to survive in this cold,
                        arid corner of south­western Bolivia. The Salar de Uyuni is becoming a must-see for
                        adventurous visitors to South
                        America, changing at least
                        some fortunes in the poor village of Colchani. "There's nothing here apart from salt... Tourists used to arrive
                        and they wouldn't buy anything, so we thought, 'How can we improve
                        things?" said Fermin Villca, who now sells ashtrays and llama fig­urines
                        carved from salt stone. Stretched between distant Andean peaks like a shimmer­ing
                        white carpet, the Salar de Uyuni is home to pink flamin­gos, 1,000-year-old
                        cacti, rare hummingbirds and hotels built entirely from blocks of salt. Earlier
                        this year, leading travel publisher Rough Guides listed the Salar as one of its
                        top 25 wonders of the world, along side far better-known attrac­tions such as
                        the Taj Mahal, Grand Canyon and Great
                        Wall of China.

                         

                        A
                        gargantuan explosion ripped apart a star perhaps 150 times more mas­sive than
                        our Sun in a rela­tively nearby galaxy in the most powerful and brightest
                        supernova ever observed, as­tronomers said. And there is one such star in our
                        own Milky Way galaxy that appears to be on the brink of dying in just
                        such a super­nova. The exploding star's dra­matic death may have come in a rare
                        type of supernova reserved for "freakishly mas­sive" stars that
                        astronomers had speculated about but nev­er previously witnessed. The
                        supernova, designat­ed as SN 2006gy, occurred 240 million light years
                        away in a galaxy called NGC 1260, and was studied using observa­tions from NASA's
                        orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as earthbound optical telescopes.. The
                        explosion occurred long ago but was detected last year after its light traveled
                        many trillions of kilometers before it could be observed from Earth. "That
                        sounds far away but it's actually quite nearby on the vast scale of the uni­verse,"
                        astronomer Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led the research, said. A supernova marks a star's
                        death in a spectacular explosion. Scientists say these events playa crucial role
                        in creating heavy ele­ments through nuclear fu­sion and synthesis and then
                        expelling them into space, seeding the cosmos with metals.

                         

                        The
                        travel of Manu and the great Fish, a symbolic story of the Puraana, the event
                        that occurred 10,000 BCE (ca): An
                        event like the one involving Noah's ark is depicted in- almost every ­ ancient
                        civilization or religion: Naunet in Egyptian; Manu in Hindu; Nuwa in Chinese;
                        Ziusudra in Sumerian; Atra-Hasis, Utnapishtim and Xisuthrus in Babylonian;
                        Deucalion in Greek; and Toptlipetlocali in Toltec. Noah is also mentioned often
                        in the Qumran, referred to as the prophet ‘Nuh’. All the names are
                        the corruption of original Sanskrit words used in Vedic rituals by the Āryans.

                         

                        For
                        many scientists, the evi­dence that moral reasoning is a result of physical
                        traits that evolve along with everything else is just more evidence against
                        the exis­tence of the soul, or of a God to imbue humans with souls. For
                        many believers, particularly in the US, the findings show the er­ror, even wickedness, of
                        viewing the world in strictly material terms. And they provide for the­ologians
                        a growing impetus to rec­oncile the existence of the soul with the growing
                        evidence that humans are not, physically or even mentally, in a class by
                        themselves. The idea that human minds are the product of evolution is
                        "unassailable fact," the journal Nature said this month in an ed­itorial
                        on new findings on the physical basis of moral thought. A headline on the
                        editorial drove the point home: "With all defer­ence to the sensibilities
                        of reli­gious people, the idea that man was created in the image of God can
                        surely be put aside." Or as V S Ramachandran, a brain scientist at the University of California, San Diego, said in an interview, there may be soul in the sense
                        of "the universal spir­it of the cosmos," but the soul as it is
                        usually spoken of, "an im­material spirit that occupies in­dividual brains
                        and that only evolved in humans - all that is complete nonsense." Belief
                        in that kind of soul "is basically super­stition," he said.

                         

                        Greenland
                        was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the latest of which disappeared around the year 200
                        AD. The island seems to have been uninhabited for some eight centuries till
                        Icelandic settlers led by Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they
                        arrived in 982 AD. They thrived here for 450 years, after which they
                        mysteriously vanished.

                         ­

                        The
                        term tetra-pod, from the Greek 'tetrapoda,' (Sanskrit-“totra-vetram”- weapon of
                        Viṣṇu- + pada means feet) refers to vertebrate animals
                        having four feet, legs or leg-like appendages. Amphibians, lizards and mammals
                        are all tetra-pods. The term auto-pod, however, is used to refer to animals
                        whose limbs are subdivided into hands and feet, example: Humans.

                         

                        The
                        researchers therefore believe that the capability of building limbs with
                        fingers and toes existed for a long period of time, but it took a set of
                        environmental triggers to make use of that capability. "Animals in the
                        Late Devonian period (385 to 359 million years ago) acquired limbs with fingers
                        using this primitive design, largely because their ecosystem - the small
                        streams that they lived in - was new," Shubin said "It had the tools,
                        but it needed the opportuni­ty as well." In yet another study on what
                        killed off the beasts of the Ice Age, researchers said that an extraterrestrial
                        object with a three-mile girth might have ex­ploded over southern Canada nearly
                        13,000 years ago, wiping out an ancient Stone Age culture as well as mega-fauna
                        like mastodons and mammoths. The blast could be to blame for a ma­jor cold
                        spell called the Younger Dryas that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene
                        Epoch, a period of time spanning from about 1.8 million years ago to 11,500
                        years ago. Research, presented at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union
                        (AGU) in Acapulco, Mexico this week, could shed light on major questions about
                        the mega-fauna extinction, the disappear­ance of the Clovis people, and an
                        abrupt climate change, Live-science reported. "Based on the distribution
                        of mate­rial, it looks like this impact probably occurred in southern Canada near the Great Lakes, over
                        what at that time would have been a major glacier, the Laurentide ice
                        sheet," said one of the presen­ters, Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley
                        National Laboratory. They couldn't find a distinct crater, suggesting the comet
                        burst in the air rather than slamming into Earth. Even an airburst should leave
                        its mark, so the scientists think the Laurentide Ice Sheet absorbed much of the
                        impact.

                         

                        A
                        huge flood hundreds of thou­sands of years ago cut Britain off from the rest of Europe and turned it into an
                        island, according to a new study that of­fers clues to how England was settled.
                        Using high-resolution sonar waves, researchers mapped the floor of the Eng­lish Channel and turned up images of an enormous valley tens of
                        kilometers wide and up to 50 meters deep carved into chalk bedrock. The images
                        were similar to an area in the state of Washington where a mega-flood some 15,000 years ago also created
                        a landscape of distinctive land formations - indicating that the same thing
                        happened in Britain, the re­searchers said. Scientists said the study
                        provides the best evidence yet in the de­bate seeking to explain how the English Channel formed and cut Britain off from the rest of Europe.
                        "It showed us for the first time the ex­istence of this huge valley in the
                        centre of the English Channel," said Sanjeev Gupta, a researcher at Imperial
                        College London.

                         

                        Mexican
                        archaeologists using ground-penetrating radar have detected underground
                        chambers they believe contain the remains of Emperor Ahuizotl, who ruled
                        the Aztecs when Columbus landed in the Americas. Ahuizotl (ah-WEE-zoh-tuhl), an empire-builder who
                        extended the Aztecs' reach as far as Guatemala, in South
                        America, was the last
                        emperor to complete his rule before the Spanish Conquest. Accounts written by
                        Spanish priests suggest the said area was used by the Aztecs to cremate and
                        bury their rulers. But no tomb of an Aztec ruler has ever been found. Now,
                        archaeologists said that they have located what appears to be a
                        Six-foot-by-six-foot entryway into a tomb about 15 feet below ground, off Mexico City's Zocalo plaza. The passage is filled with water,
                        rocks and mud, forcing work­ers to dig delicately. Later this year, they hope
                        to enter the inner chambers - a damp, low-ceilinged space - and discover the
                        ashes of Ahuizotl, who was likely cremated on a funeral pyre in 1502. Because
                        no Aztec royal tomb has ever been found, the archaeologists are literally
                        digging into the unknown. Radar indicates the tomb has up to four chambers, and
                        scientists think they will find a host of elaborate offerings to the gods on
                        the floor. "He must have been buried in solemn ceremony with rich
                        offerings, like vases and ornaments," said Luis Alberto Martos, director
                        of archaeological studies at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History.

                         

                        All
                        signs found so far point to Ahuizotl. The site lies direct­ly below a huge,
                        recently discovered stone monolith carved with a representation of Tlaltecuhtli
                        (tlahl-tay-KOO-tlee), the Aztec god of the earth. Depicted as a woman with huge
                        claws, the fearsome Tlaltecuhtli was believed to devour the dead and then give
                        them new life. In the claw of her right foot, the god holds a rabbit and 10
                        dots, indicating the date "10 Rabbit" - 1502, the year of Ahuizotl's
                        death. "Our hypothesis is precisely that this is probably the tomb of
                        Ahuizotl," said Leonardo Lopez Lujan, the lead government archaeologist on
                        the project. "Imagine it - this wasn't just any high-ranking man. The
                        Aztecs were the most powerful society of their time," Martos said.
                        "That's why Ahuizotl's tomb down there is so important."        

                         

                        The
                        Aztecs is a term used for the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico that thrived before the advent of Christopher
                        Columbus in the Americas. Aztec
                        culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions. For
                        Europeans, the most striking element of the Aztec culture was the practice of
                        human sacrifice which was conducted throughout Mesoamerica prior to the Spanish conquest Greenland was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the
                        latest of which disappeared around the year 200 AD. The island seems to have
                        been uninhabited for some eight centuries till Icelandic settlers led by
                        Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they arrived in 982 AD. They thrived
                        here for 450 years, after which they mysteriously vanished. Archeologists have
                        discovered what they think are ruins of an Aztec pyramid razed by vengeful
                        Spanish conquerors in what is now one of Mexico City's most crime-ridden districts. Construction workers
                        un­earthed ancient walls in the busy Iztapalapa neighbor­hood in June, and
                        government archeologists said on Wednes­day that they believe they may be part
                        of the main pyramid of the Aztec city, destroyed by conquistador Hernan Cortes
                        in the 16th century.

                         

                        In
                        the Gothic Bible, 'þiudans' is used of a king who goes to war:



                        aiþþau hvas þiudans gaggands stigqan wiþra anþarana þiudan (vipra praana-yukta pinda) du wiganna, niu
                        gasitands faurþis þankeiþ, siaiu mahteigs miþ taihun þusundjom gamotjan þamma
                        miþ twaim tigum þusundjo gaggandin ana sik?



                        Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first,
                        and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh
                        against him with twenty thousand?

                        Luke 14:31.



                        'frauja' (Praanaaha) "lord"
                        is also used with no Greek model for the noun in a military context (II Tim
                        2:4). I'm not sure whether 'reiks' is used anywhere in an explicitly military
                        context.



                        I am not a linguist but as far as I know they were reiks also when leading a
                        war expedition. Their sacral king, however, was never allowed to leave his own
                        territory when the people was permanently settled, but had to order a reiks (Rushis
                        –wandering Sages) to take command. During the wandering, according to Getica at
                        least, the þiuðans was sacral king and he used 'kings of the army' to lead
                        parts of the united army (like e.g. Cniva as Wolfram suggests) but I do not
                        know their title in Gothic.

                         

                        The clue to the root of the
                        hypothetical Gothic form though is in Old Norse 'ugla' and especially (Old) Swedish 'uggla'. These show a sound change common to North and East Germanic
                        whereby 'ww' > 'ggw', as described by Wright. In Old Norse, the medial vowel
                        of the suffix has been lost, which is normal, but presumably it would have been
                        present in Gothic (compare 'mawilo'
                        "little girl" San – mahilaa meaning a woman), and the 'w' has
                        been dropped, as always between two consonants. So, I'd reconstruct Gothic
                        *'uggwilo': weak noun, feminine on-stem, i.e. declined like 'mawilo', 'tuggo',
                        etc. One last clue is the Catalan word 'òliba', (San. – Ulooka) which it's been suggested may be derived from the
                        Gothic word for owl

                        2.
                        örn "eagle" (San. – utkrosha)





                        Elof
                        Hellquist's Svensk etymologisk ordbok. 6 is especially interesting; both roots
                        are attested in Gothic. This would make a very handy addition to our
                        reconstructed "modern" vocabulary. There

                        is a Gothic derivative from the same root as 2 recorded, namely 'ara' "eagle",
                        cognate with Old Norse 'ari', but since ON had 'örn' (San. – “ara” one going with speed) there's no reason Gothic couldn't
                        have had both words too.

                         

                        Ah,
                        no need for embarrassment! I was just thinking of it as an exercise in phonetic
                        reconstruction. In other words, what would a Gothic cognate of (word descended
                        from the same Proto-Germanic

                        ancestor as) Modern English 'wood' look like? But you're right 'triu' does mean
                        "a tree" (San. – “taru” means
                        tree also wood,) or "a stick". I guess that illustrates another issue
                        in reconstruction: where a word already exists in the same semantic field, how
                        might that have related to the meaning of a hypothetical, reconstructed Gothic
                        cognate? Does that make sense?



                        In this case, it seems that the better attested early Germanic languages did
                        have a few partly overlapping words in this semantic field, e.g. Old Norse has a word 'viðr' which is
                        cognate with 'wood', as well as a word 'tré' congate with English 'tree'.
                        So there's nothing improbably about supposing Gothic had cognates for both,
                        even though only one, 'triu', is recorded.





                        The
                        gist is this: initial 'b' in English corresponds to Gothic 'b' (as in Go.
                        'broþar' : Modern English 'brother' Sanskrit
                        is “Bhaartru”)-- no catch there. I found a comparison chart but it didn't
                        tell me what to do with initial B, medial TH, or final -M, let alone the
                        morpheme -AM, so I'm a little lost right now.

                        other Indo-European languages (e.g. Latin 2nd declension nouns ending
                        in -um, Greek in -on, Sanskrit in -am).

                        The
                        3rd person singular

                        (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in –iþ for the verbs used in the story.
                        "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ' (from 'slepan' "to sleep" San. Root is “svap” - svapiti). The
                        last sentence is in subjunctive, but you can have a simpler translation.

                         

                        Some vocabulary you need: early morning – air uhtwon clothes – wasti  (Sanskrit
                        – Vastra) F.-jo (that is, feminine jo-stem) staff – hrugga F.-o to push –
                        stigqan to get awake – gawaknan to climb up – ussteigan to look like – wisan
                        galeiks (lit. "to be like") + noun in dative ("he's looking like
                        A." is 'ist galeiks A.'). Don't forget to put the A. ("owl" in
                        our case) in dative.

                         

                        That
                        is, "I take" is 'nima' (from
                        'niman' "to take" Sanskrit word “nirgam” means get off, get away from
                        – ni-sru). The 3rd person singular (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in
                        –iþ for the verbs used in the story. "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ'
                        (from 'slepan' "to sleep"). The last sentence is in subjunctive, but
                        you can have a simpler translation.





                        early
                        morning – air uhtwon; Sanskrit – ushas;






                        to
                        push – stigqan; Sanskrit – saahasin; to
                        climb up – ussteigan, San. – upari gama;

                        *kiggwan, OE cíowan, (San. –
                        ‘charvanam”) ON tyggva? 6. däggdjur "mammal"





                        So
                        you are through with your Aztec torment,
                        unlike me. Everyone saying that Gothic is difficult should be immediately
                        reminded of the existence of Nahuatl.
                        A couple remarks. Ilnâmiqui is "to remember", right? Niquilnâmiqui –  þis (or þata) [ik] ga-man? Iirc 'cân' can be
                        both directional and stative. I mean weren't it better to say 'þarei' with
                        'ainshun ni gaswiltiþ' and 'manna sigis nimiþ'? Is it the 'îchân tônatiuh', the
                        place? An interesting parallel between 'in yâômiqui' and einherjar...





                        Irish
                        Suibhne geilt living on trees and perhaps also the Nahuatl (Aztec) word for "demon" (= Go. skohsl) –
                        tlâcatecolôtl, lit. "man-owl", used in the Anales de Cuauhtitlan of
                        the gods whom human sacrifices were due to.





                         



                        --- On Tue, 3/6/08, Fredrik <gadrauhts@...> wrote:
                        From: Fredrik <gadrauhts@...>
                        Subject: [gothic-l] Re: Introduction
                        To: gothic-l@yahoogroups.com
                        Date: Tuesday, 3 June, 2008, 8:05 PM











                        It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about

                        each other but why not just write some words here?



                        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroup s.com, Madhukar Vichare

                        <madhukar_vichare@ ...> wrote:

                        >

                        > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about

                        themselves, so I hope

                        > this is ok to post here.

                        >

                        > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,

                        friends,

                        > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set

                        up your own

                        > here: http://www.grouply. com/register. php?

                        tmg=260177&amp; vt=170949

                        >

                        > Look forward to seeing your profile!

                        >

                        > Madhukar

                        >

                        > ============ ========

                        > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply

                        instead of

                        > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations

                        from being

                        > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can

                        permanently block

                        > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:

                        > http://blog. grouply.com/ protect#prevent_ invites .

                        >

                        >

                        >

                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        >



























                        Bollywood, fun, friendship, sports and more. You name it, we have it on http://in.promos.yahoo.com/groups/bestofyahoo/

                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.