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Re: [gothic-l] Re: More Neologisms

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  • David Kiltz
    ... Isn t _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ? As for , Caesar and, more importantly, Tacitus still have _Suebi_ and _Suebia_ (cf. German _Schwaben_)
    Message 1 of 30 , Sep 8, 2005
      On 08.09.2005, at 23:03, llama_nom wrote:

      > And Pliny mentions amber islands called 'Glesiae' (Naturalis
      > historia IV, 103). Tacitus's neuter form agrees perfectly with OE
      > glær. I gather that the <e> in 'glesum' wasn't confined to East
      > Germanic in the 1st century.

      Isn't _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ?
      As for <e>, Caesar and, more importantly, Tacitus still have _Suebi_
      and _Suebia_ (cf. German _Schwaben_) which also points to the
      preservation of PGerm. <e> or <æ>. The earliest attestation of <â>
      in West Germanic seems to be in Bavarian 170 AD, although the
      evidence is indirect, from sources actually dating to the 4th century
      AD. In North Germanic we find <â> from the earliest attestations. Cf.
      also such Finnish loanwords as _maanan-_ 'moon' (in _maanan-tai_
      'monday') vs a loan from Gothic: _miekka_ 'sword' (Goth. mêki (acc.)).

      David
    • llama_nom
      ... In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you re thinking of OIc. glær sea , masc. (could be related; but in this word, the isn t
      Message 2 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, David Kiltz <derdron@g...> wrote:
        >
        >
        > Isn't _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ?


        In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you're
        thinking of OIc. glær "sea", masc. (could be related; but in this
        word, the <r> isn't part of the root), versus OIc. 'gler' "glass",
        neuter.


        > In North Germanic we find <â> from the earliest attestations. Cf.
        > also such Finnish loanwords as _maanan-_ 'moon' (in _maanan-tai_
        > 'monday') vs a loan from Gothic: _miekka_ 'sword' (Goth. mêki
        (acc.)).


        Is there any way to tell when 'miekka' was borrowed, and thus
        whether it's more likely to be a loan from EG or NWG or PGmc, or
        whatever? And does the <a> in 'maanan-tai' mean that it was
        borrowed from a Proto-Norse (or NWG form) with the genitive
        *'ma:nan', as opposed to the form with /o/ (*'ma:no:n') that I
        assume gave rise to gave rise to Ic. mánudagur? I'm afraid I don't
        know anything about the history of Finnish sounds, so I don't want
        to jump to any conclusions...

        Lama Nom
      • llama_nom
        ... yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar Hi Oscar, If you delete the message you re replying to, when that isn t relevant to your own, it saves on space (and
        Message 3 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
          > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
          yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


          Hi Oscar,

          If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
          relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
          quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
          a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
          a glance what your message is about.

          As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
          cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
          meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

          'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
          'fairnin jera' = "last year"

          I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
          but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
          know.

          Llama Nom
        • OSCAR HERRERA
          doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the
          Message 4 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
            doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to everyone.....oscar

            llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
            > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
            yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


            Hi Oscar,

            If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
            relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
            quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
            a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
            a glance what your message is about.

            As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
            cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
            meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

            'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
            'fairnin jera' = "last year"

            I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
            but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
            know.

            Llama Nom





            You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
            Yahoo! Groups Links









            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • llama_nom
            ... thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only
            Message 5 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
              --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
              > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
              thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
              fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
              means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
              queries to everyone.....oscar


              > fauradag

              Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
              *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
              day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
              yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
              that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


              > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

              I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
              meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
              something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
              the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
              Gothic 'afardags'.

              I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
              refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
              language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
              Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
              *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
              or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
              reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
              say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
              COGNATES."

              If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
              other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

              http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
              http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
              http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
              tml
              http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

              Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
              prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
              when used as a preposition,
              e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
              suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
              in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
              behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
              up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
              it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
              that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
              do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
              (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
              is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



              > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
              the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
              everyone.....oscar


              Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
              myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
              everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
              reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
              as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

              Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
              to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
              course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
              line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
              clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
              the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
              website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
              you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
              message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
              the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
              on your keyboard.

              You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
              address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
              website (sign in) and click on "post".

              To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
              somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
              want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
              the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
              you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
              block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
              that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
              press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
              really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
              say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
              explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
              my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
              doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

              Llama Nom
            • OSCAR HERRERA
              your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar ... thought it
              Message 6 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
                your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar

                llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
                > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
                thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
                fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
                means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
                queries to everyone.....oscar


                > fauradag

                Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
                *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
                day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
                yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
                that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


                > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

                I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
                meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
                something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
                the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
                Gothic 'afardags'.

                I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
                refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
                language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
                Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
                *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
                or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
                reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
                say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
                COGNATES."

                If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
                other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

                http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
                http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
                http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
                tml
                http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

                Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
                prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
                when used as a preposition,
                e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
                suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
                in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
                behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
                up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
                it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
                that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
                do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
                (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
                is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



                > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
                the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
                everyone.....oscar


                Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
                myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
                everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
                reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
                as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

                Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
                to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
                course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
                line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
                clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
                the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
                website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
                you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
                message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
                the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
                on your keyboard.

                You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
                address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
                website (sign in) and click on "post".

                To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
                somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
                want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
                the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
                you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
                block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
                that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
                press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
                really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
                say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
                explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
                my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
                doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

                Llama Nom





                You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
                Yahoo! Groups Links









                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • llama_nom
                Þatei was ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau: http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html ) Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra
                Message 7 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
                  Þatei was

                  ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau:
                  http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html )

                  Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra mis,
                  iþ nu fanþ ik þatei wisiþ þis;
                  O, traua ik du þammei was.

                  Suns mis warþ; ni im manna saei faurþis was;
                  hahiþ ufar mis hva riqizis;
                  O þatei warþ, qam suns at mis.

                  Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                  Mis ni gataih.
                  Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                  Friaþwa, fairna was mis swa azets dags;
                  þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                  O, traua ik du þammei was.

                  Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                  Mis ni gataih.
                  Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                  Friaþwa, fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags;
                  þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                  O, traua ik du þammei was.


                  Notes, liberties, etc.

                  þatei wisiþ þis. Desperate partitive genitive for sake of rhyme.
                  Supposed to mean "that there is staying [something] of that / this",
                  i.e. that a certain amount of trouble is "here to stay". Apologies
                  to songwriters and 4th century bishops everywhere.

                  ...fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags. Intended to mean: "yesterday
                  was such an easy day for me." `Friaþwa', just setting the context
                  and not syntactically related. Ignoring the metre, the closest I
                  got was: "Fairnin daga friaþwa swaleiks azets mis was laiks."
                • JoLynne
                  Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes of that area.
                  Message 8 of 30 , Feb 25, 2008
                    Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested
                    in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes
                    of that area. Mostly I am here to listen and learn.
                  • Madhukar Vichare
                    Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope this is ok to post here. I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my
                    Message 9 of 30 , Jun 2, 2008
                      Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope
                      this is ok to post here.

                      I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos, friends,
                      interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set up your own
                      here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?tmg=260177&vt=170949

                      Look forward to seeing your profile!

                      Madhukar

                      ====================
                      This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply instead of
                      email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations from being
                      sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can permanently block
                      future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                      http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .



                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Fredrik
                      It s always nice with presentations so we can know a little about each other but why not just write some words here? ... themselves, so I hope ... friends, ...
                      Message 10 of 30 , Jun 3, 2008
                        It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about
                        each other but why not just write some words here?

                        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Madhukar Vichare
                        <madhukar_vichare@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about
                        themselves, so I hope
                        > this is ok to post here.
                        >
                        > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,
                        friends,
                        > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set
                        up your own
                        > here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?
                        tmg=260177&vt=170949
                        >
                        > Look forward to seeing your profile!
                        >
                        > Madhukar
                        >
                        > ====================
                        > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply
                        instead of
                        > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations
                        from being
                        > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can
                        permanently block
                        > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                        > http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        >
                      • Madhukar Vichare
                        Finns (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                        Message 11 of 30 , Jun 5, 2008
                          Finns
                          (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree
                          sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                          thousands of years. Last month, students in west­ern Finland found a piece of Stone Age birch-bark tar, be­lieved
                          to have been used for chewing and to fix broken ar­rowheads or clay dishes, ar­chaeologists
                          said. "Most likely the lump was used as an antique kind of chewing
                          gum," said Sami Vil­jamaa, an archaeologist who led the dig near Oulu, (Aulanam - Lake) north of Helsinki (helihi -the sun; sina – a period of “No Moon” night
                          when the small part of Moon is visible at certain latitudes). "But its main pur­pose was to fix things."
                          Vilja­maa said the piece of Neolith­ic gum was found among arti­facts in a
                          Stone Age village at the Kierikki (Kairavaḥ - Moon-lit-Night) Stone Age Center. "It's somewhere between 5,500 and 6,000 years
                          old," he said. The ancient Finnish habit of chewing gum surged in the
                          1980s when scientists discov­ered that gum containing xyl­itol prevented tooth
                          decay.

                           

                          Egyptian
                          archaeolo­gists have found what they said could be the oldest hu­man footprint
                          in history in the country's western desert, the Arab country's antiquities'
                          chief said. "This could go back about two million years," said Zahi
                          Hawass, the sec­retary general of the Egypt­ian supreme council of an­tiquities.
                          "It could be the most im­portant discovery in Egypt," he said. Archaeologists found the footprint,
                          imprinted on mud and then hardened into rock, while exploring a pre­historic
                          site in Shiwa (Shiva in search of water for cooling down), a desert
                          oasis. Scientists are using car­bon tests on plants found in the rock to
                          determine its ex­act age, Hawass said. Khaled Saad, the direc­tor of prehistory
                          at the council, said that based on the age of the rock where the footprint was
                          found, it could date back even fur­ther than the renowned 3­million year-old
                          fossil Lucy, the partial skeleton of an ape-man, found in Ethiopia in 1974. Most archaeological in­terest in Egypt is focused on the time of the pharaohs. Previously,
                          the earliest human archaeological evi­dence from Egypt dated back around 200,000 years, Saad said.

                           

                          I
                          have highlighted my views of looking at the old concepts with new insights in
                          view of the new knowledge: The subject of INDOLOGY will be meaningful.              Madhukar Vichare.

                           

                          Anandamurti
                          JI wrote for the “Speaking Tree” (On Religion):

                           

                          Taraka
                          (Tarkaha
                          or Taaraka) Brahma wants to eman­cipate living beings, but only those who want
                          liberation get liberation. When you long for liberation, the search leads you
                          to the Sadguru. Every one of us has a fixed role to play. You are a character
                          in a divine drama. The composer of this drama is Taaraka Brahma. An episode in
                          the Maha­bharata is instructive in this regard: After battle, the battle­ground
                          at Kurukṣetra became a cremation ground. At the end of the war
                          some people came there from the Kauravas' side. Among them were women and a few
                          elderly men. Gandhaari, mother of the Kauravas, was also there. Kuntī, mother of the Pandavas, and Krushna, Pandavas'
                          friend, were present as well, along with the visually challenged Dhrutarashtra.
                          Everyone was weeping. Gandhaari had lost hundred sons in the war. Krushna
                          approached Gandhaari and said: "Mother, why are you weeping? Death is a
                          naturallay. One who is born will die. So why cry?" Gandhaari replied:
                          "Yes Krushna, you have come here to console me, but I ask you, behind this
                          great event whose mind was at work? Who was the author of this great plan? Was
                          it not you?" Krushna replied: "Those who have committed injustice and
                          sinned have been punished. What can I do about that?" Gandhaari said to Krushna:
                          "Everything you have said up un­til now is quite correct. From the worldly
                          point of view, everything that has happened until now is as it should be,
                          because every action must have its reaction. But my point is: You yourself are
                          Taaraka Brahma; your duty is to liberate living beings. You can give libera­tion
                          to whomsoever you please.

                           

                          'As
                          Taaraka Brahma you can create and destroy as you wish. In this drama of yours
                          you have created characters who are honest, ideological people. If one does
                          virtuous deeds then one gets liberation. To teach the people you create these
                          kinds of characters. And you also create sinful charac­ters to show how much a
                          person degenerates because of sinful behavior. In this drama, you could have
                          had my hundred sons play roles of righteousness and the Pandavas play roles of
                          unright­eousness, if you had so wished. In that case my hundred sons would have
                          gotten salvation. Now, after having made me cry, you come to console me!" Taaraka
                          Brahma for­mulates his plan in order to create situations that lend themselves
                          to illustrating values, to create awareness. For instance, if one engages in
                          honest work then one moves towards eternal truth, and if one performs dishonest
                          work then one moves towards untruth. Thereafter comes the other part of the
                          story.

                           

                          Gandhaari
                          said: "Kṛṣṇa, give me permission to curse you". Krushna
                          replied: "Okay, curse me. I give you permission". Gandhaari cursed
                          him: "Just as my entire lineage has been destroyed before my very eyes,
                          may your Yaadava lineage be destroyed before your very eyes as well".
                          "Let it be so", Krushna replied. Remember always that we are only
                          actors in a universal drama. This is not our real identity. Some­one may play
                          the role of a king, but he might not even have two hand­fuls of rice in his
                          house. Someone plays the role of a poor man, but in real life he may be very
                          rich. We ought to remember that we are only playing specific roles in a cosmic
                          drama. Act according to the role given. This is a person's duty. This is a
                          wrong note to end the moral of the “Cosmic Drama” – Man must keep on bettering
                          his lot; learning new things, and keeping himself fit to fight against the
                          odds. He must use his intelligence and apply his mind. Krushna is not
                          coming to salvage your soul; man has to come up to the expectation of the Super
                          Personality of Godhead- it is symbolic, you have to become Krushna.

                           

                          Uyuni
                          is in Bolivia: On the edge of the world's biggest salt desert,
                          villagers optimistical­ly scrawl "salt for sale" signs on their mud
                          brick homes. In backyards, mountains of the stuff are heaped like year-­round
                          snow drifts. But mining salt is no longer the only way to survive in this cold,
                          arid corner of south­western Bolivia. The Salar de Uyuni is becoming a must-see for
                          adventurous visitors to South
                          America, changing at least
                          some fortunes in the poor village of Colchani. "There's nothing here apart from salt... Tourists used to arrive
                          and they wouldn't buy anything, so we thought, 'How can we improve
                          things?" said Fermin Villca, who now sells ashtrays and llama fig­urines
                          carved from salt stone. Stretched between distant Andean peaks like a shimmer­ing
                          white carpet, the Salar de Uyuni is home to pink flamin­gos, 1,000-year-old
                          cacti, rare hummingbirds and hotels built entirely from blocks of salt. Earlier
                          this year, leading travel publisher Rough Guides listed the Salar as one of its
                          top 25 wonders of the world, along side far better-known attrac­tions such as
                          the Taj Mahal, Grand Canyon and Great
                          Wall of China.

                           

                          A
                          gargantuan explosion ripped apart a star perhaps 150 times more mas­sive than
                          our Sun in a rela­tively nearby galaxy in the most powerful and brightest
                          supernova ever observed, as­tronomers said. And there is one such star in our
                          own Milky Way galaxy that appears to be on the brink of dying in just
                          such a super­nova. The exploding star's dra­matic death may have come in a rare
                          type of supernova reserved for "freakishly mas­sive" stars that
                          astronomers had speculated about but nev­er previously witnessed. The
                          supernova, designat­ed as SN 2006gy, occurred 240 million light years
                          away in a galaxy called NGC 1260, and was studied using observa­tions from NASA's
                          orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as earthbound optical telescopes.. The
                          explosion occurred long ago but was detected last year after its light traveled
                          many trillions of kilometers before it could be observed from Earth. "That
                          sounds far away but it's actually quite nearby on the vast scale of the uni­verse,"
                          astronomer Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led the research, said. A supernova marks a star's
                          death in a spectacular explosion. Scientists say these events playa crucial role
                          in creating heavy ele­ments through nuclear fu­sion and synthesis and then
                          expelling them into space, seeding the cosmos with metals.

                           

                          The
                          travel of Manu and the great Fish, a symbolic story of the Puraana, the event
                          that occurred 10,000 BCE (ca): An
                          event like the one involving Noah's ark is depicted in- almost every ­ ancient
                          civilization or religion: Naunet in Egyptian; Manu in Hindu; Nuwa in Chinese;
                          Ziusudra in Sumerian; Atra-Hasis, Utnapishtim and Xisuthrus in Babylonian;
                          Deucalion in Greek; and Toptlipetlocali in Toltec. Noah is also mentioned often
                          in the Qumran, referred to as the prophet ‘Nuh’. All the names are
                          the corruption of original Sanskrit words used in Vedic rituals by the Āryans.

                           

                          For
                          many scientists, the evi­dence that moral reasoning is a result of physical
                          traits that evolve along with everything else is just more evidence against
                          the exis­tence of the soul, or of a God to imbue humans with souls. For
                          many believers, particularly in the US, the findings show the er­ror, even wickedness, of
                          viewing the world in strictly material terms. And they provide for the­ologians
                          a growing impetus to rec­oncile the existence of the soul with the growing
                          evidence that humans are not, physically or even mentally, in a class by
                          themselves. The idea that human minds are the product of evolution is
                          "unassailable fact," the journal Nature said this month in an ed­itorial
                          on new findings on the physical basis of moral thought. A headline on the
                          editorial drove the point home: "With all defer­ence to the sensibilities
                          of reli­gious people, the idea that man was created in the image of God can
                          surely be put aside." Or as V S Ramachandran, a brain scientist at the University of California, San Diego, said in an interview, there may be soul in the sense
                          of "the universal spir­it of the cosmos," but the soul as it is
                          usually spoken of, "an im­material spirit that occupies in­dividual brains
                          and that only evolved in humans - all that is complete nonsense." Belief
                          in that kind of soul "is basically super­stition," he said.

                           

                          Greenland
                          was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the latest of which disappeared around the year 200
                          AD. The island seems to have been uninhabited for some eight centuries till
                          Icelandic settlers led by Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they
                          arrived in 982 AD. They thrived here for 450 years, after which they
                          mysteriously vanished.

                           ­

                          The
                          term tetra-pod, from the Greek 'tetrapoda,' (Sanskrit-“totra-vetram”- weapon of
                          Viṣṇu- + pada means feet) refers to vertebrate animals
                          having four feet, legs or leg-like appendages. Amphibians, lizards and mammals
                          are all tetra-pods. The term auto-pod, however, is used to refer to animals
                          whose limbs are subdivided into hands and feet, example: Humans.

                           

                          The
                          researchers therefore believe that the capability of building limbs with
                          fingers and toes existed for a long period of time, but it took a set of
                          environmental triggers to make use of that capability. "Animals in the
                          Late Devonian period (385 to 359 million years ago) acquired limbs with fingers
                          using this primitive design, largely because their ecosystem - the small
                          streams that they lived in - was new," Shubin said "It had the tools,
                          but it needed the opportuni­ty as well." In yet another study on what
                          killed off the beasts of the Ice Age, researchers said that an extraterrestrial
                          object with a three-mile girth might have ex­ploded over southern Canada nearly
                          13,000 years ago, wiping out an ancient Stone Age culture as well as mega-fauna
                          like mastodons and mammoths. The blast could be to blame for a ma­jor cold
                          spell called the Younger Dryas that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene
                          Epoch, a period of time spanning from about 1.8 million years ago to 11,500
                          years ago. Research, presented at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union
                          (AGU) in Acapulco, Mexico this week, could shed light on major questions about
                          the mega-fauna extinction, the disappear­ance of the Clovis people, and an
                          abrupt climate change, Live-science reported. "Based on the distribution
                          of mate­rial, it looks like this impact probably occurred in southern Canada near the Great Lakes, over
                          what at that time would have been a major glacier, the Laurentide ice
                          sheet," said one of the presen­ters, Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley
                          National Laboratory. They couldn't find a distinct crater, suggesting the comet
                          burst in the air rather than slamming into Earth. Even an airburst should leave
                          its mark, so the scientists think the Laurentide Ice Sheet absorbed much of the
                          impact.

                           

                          A
                          huge flood hundreds of thou­sands of years ago cut Britain off from the rest of Europe and turned it into an
                          island, according to a new study that of­fers clues to how England was settled.
                          Using high-resolution sonar waves, researchers mapped the floor of the Eng­lish Channel and turned up images of an enormous valley tens of
                          kilometers wide and up to 50 meters deep carved into chalk bedrock. The images
                          were similar to an area in the state of Washington where a mega-flood some 15,000 years ago also created
                          a landscape of distinctive land formations - indicating that the same thing
                          happened in Britain, the re­searchers said. Scientists said the study
                          provides the best evidence yet in the de­bate seeking to explain how the English Channel formed and cut Britain off from the rest of Europe.
                          "It showed us for the first time the ex­istence of this huge valley in the
                          centre of the English Channel," said Sanjeev Gupta, a researcher at Imperial
                          College London.

                           

                          Mexican
                          archaeologists using ground-penetrating radar have detected underground
                          chambers they believe contain the remains of Emperor Ahuizotl, who ruled
                          the Aztecs when Columbus landed in the Americas. Ahuizotl (ah-WEE-zoh-tuhl), an empire-builder who
                          extended the Aztecs' reach as far as Guatemala, in South
                          America, was the last
                          emperor to complete his rule before the Spanish Conquest. Accounts written by
                          Spanish priests suggest the said area was used by the Aztecs to cremate and
                          bury their rulers. But no tomb of an Aztec ruler has ever been found. Now,
                          archaeologists said that they have located what appears to be a
                          Six-foot-by-six-foot entryway into a tomb about 15 feet below ground, off Mexico City's Zocalo plaza. The passage is filled with water,
                          rocks and mud, forcing work­ers to dig delicately. Later this year, they hope
                          to enter the inner chambers - a damp, low-ceilinged space - and discover the
                          ashes of Ahuizotl, who was likely cremated on a funeral pyre in 1502. Because
                          no Aztec royal tomb has ever been found, the archaeologists are literally
                          digging into the unknown. Radar indicates the tomb has up to four chambers, and
                          scientists think they will find a host of elaborate offerings to the gods on
                          the floor. "He must have been buried in solemn ceremony with rich
                          offerings, like vases and ornaments," said Luis Alberto Martos, director
                          of archaeological studies at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History.

                           

                          All
                          signs found so far point to Ahuizotl. The site lies direct­ly below a huge,
                          recently discovered stone monolith carved with a representation of Tlaltecuhtli
                          (tlahl-tay-KOO-tlee), the Aztec god of the earth. Depicted as a woman with huge
                          claws, the fearsome Tlaltecuhtli was believed to devour the dead and then give
                          them new life. In the claw of her right foot, the god holds a rabbit and 10
                          dots, indicating the date "10 Rabbit" - 1502, the year of Ahuizotl's
                          death. "Our hypothesis is precisely that this is probably the tomb of
                          Ahuizotl," said Leonardo Lopez Lujan, the lead government archaeologist on
                          the project. "Imagine it - this wasn't just any high-ranking man. The
                          Aztecs were the most powerful society of their time," Martos said.
                          "That's why Ahuizotl's tomb down there is so important."        

                           

                          The
                          Aztecs is a term used for the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico that thrived before the advent of Christopher
                          Columbus in the Americas. Aztec
                          culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions. For
                          Europeans, the most striking element of the Aztec culture was the practice of
                          human sacrifice which was conducted throughout Mesoamerica prior to the Spanish conquest Greenland was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the
                          latest of which disappeared around the year 200 AD. The island seems to have
                          been uninhabited for some eight centuries till Icelandic settlers led by
                          Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they arrived in 982 AD. They thrived
                          here for 450 years, after which they mysteriously vanished. Archeologists have
                          discovered what they think are ruins of an Aztec pyramid razed by vengeful
                          Spanish conquerors in what is now one of Mexico City's most crime-ridden districts. Construction workers
                          un­earthed ancient walls in the busy Iztapalapa neighbor­hood in June, and
                          government archeologists said on Wednes­day that they believe they may be part
                          of the main pyramid of the Aztec city, destroyed by conquistador Hernan Cortes
                          in the 16th century.

                           

                          In
                          the Gothic Bible, 'þiudans' is used of a king who goes to war:



                          aiþþau hvas þiudans gaggands stigqan wiþra anþarana þiudan (vipra praana-yukta pinda) du wiganna, niu
                          gasitands faurþis þankeiþ, siaiu mahteigs miþ taihun þusundjom gamotjan þamma
                          miþ twaim tigum þusundjo gaggandin ana sik?



                          Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first,
                          and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh
                          against him with twenty thousand?

                          Luke 14:31.



                          'frauja' (Praanaaha) "lord"
                          is also used with no Greek model for the noun in a military context (II Tim
                          2:4). I'm not sure whether 'reiks' is used anywhere in an explicitly military
                          context.



                          I am not a linguist but as far as I know they were reiks also when leading a
                          war expedition. Their sacral king, however, was never allowed to leave his own
                          territory when the people was permanently settled, but had to order a reiks (Rushis
                          –wandering Sages) to take command. During the wandering, according to Getica at
                          least, the þiuðans was sacral king and he used 'kings of the army' to lead
                          parts of the united army (like e.g. Cniva as Wolfram suggests) but I do not
                          know their title in Gothic.

                           

                          The clue to the root of the
                          hypothetical Gothic form though is in Old Norse 'ugla' and especially (Old) Swedish 'uggla'. These show a sound change common to North and East Germanic
                          whereby 'ww' > 'ggw', as described by Wright. In Old Norse, the medial vowel
                          of the suffix has been lost, which is normal, but presumably it would have been
                          present in Gothic (compare 'mawilo'
                          "little girl" San – mahilaa meaning a woman), and the 'w' has
                          been dropped, as always between two consonants. So, I'd reconstruct Gothic
                          *'uggwilo': weak noun, feminine on-stem, i.e. declined like 'mawilo', 'tuggo',
                          etc. One last clue is the Catalan word 'òliba', (San. – Ulooka) which it's been suggested may be derived from the
                          Gothic word for owl

                          2.
                          örn "eagle" (San. – utkrosha)





                          Elof
                          Hellquist's Svensk etymologisk ordbok. 6 is especially interesting; both roots
                          are attested in Gothic. This would make a very handy addition to our
                          reconstructed "modern" vocabulary. There

                          is a Gothic derivative from the same root as 2 recorded, namely 'ara' "eagle",
                          cognate with Old Norse 'ari', but since ON had 'örn' (San. – “ara” one going with speed) there's no reason Gothic couldn't
                          have had both words too.

                           

                          Ah,
                          no need for embarrassment! I was just thinking of it as an exercise in phonetic
                          reconstruction. In other words, what would a Gothic cognate of (word descended
                          from the same Proto-Germanic

                          ancestor as) Modern English 'wood' look like? But you're right 'triu' does mean
                          "a tree" (San. – “taru” means
                          tree also wood,) or "a stick". I guess that illustrates another issue
                          in reconstruction: where a word already exists in the same semantic field, how
                          might that have related to the meaning of a hypothetical, reconstructed Gothic
                          cognate? Does that make sense?



                          In this case, it seems that the better attested early Germanic languages did
                          have a few partly overlapping words in this semantic field, e.g. Old Norse has a word 'viðr' which is
                          cognate with 'wood', as well as a word 'tré' congate with English 'tree'.
                          So there's nothing improbably about supposing Gothic had cognates for both,
                          even though only one, 'triu', is recorded.





                          The
                          gist is this: initial 'b' in English corresponds to Gothic 'b' (as in Go.
                          'broþar' : Modern English 'brother' Sanskrit
                          is “Bhaartru”)-- no catch there. I found a comparison chart but it didn't
                          tell me what to do with initial B, medial TH, or final -M, let alone the
                          morpheme -AM, so I'm a little lost right now.

                          other Indo-European languages (e.g. Latin 2nd declension nouns ending
                          in -um, Greek in -on, Sanskrit in -am).

                          The
                          3rd person singular

                          (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in –iþ for the verbs used in the story.
                          "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ' (from 'slepan' "to sleep" San. Root is “svap” - svapiti). The
                          last sentence is in subjunctive, but you can have a simpler translation.

                           

                          Some vocabulary you need: early morning – air uhtwon clothes – wasti  (Sanskrit
                          – Vastra) F.-jo (that is, feminine jo-stem) staff – hrugga F.-o to push –
                          stigqan to get awake – gawaknan to climb up – ussteigan to look like – wisan
                          galeiks (lit. "to be like") + noun in dative ("he's looking like
                          A." is 'ist galeiks A.'). Don't forget to put the A. ("owl" in
                          our case) in dative.

                           

                          That
                          is, "I take" is 'nima' (from
                          'niman' "to take" Sanskrit word “nirgam” means get off, get away from
                          – ni-sru). The 3rd person singular (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in
                          –iþ for the verbs used in the story. "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ'
                          (from 'slepan' "to sleep"). The last sentence is in subjunctive, but
                          you can have a simpler translation.





                          early
                          morning – air uhtwon; Sanskrit – ushas;






                          to
                          push – stigqan; Sanskrit – saahasin; to
                          climb up – ussteigan, San. – upari gama;

                          *kiggwan, OE cíowan, (San. –
                          ‘charvanam”) ON tyggva? 6. däggdjur "mammal"





                          So
                          you are through with your Aztec torment,
                          unlike me. Everyone saying that Gothic is difficult should be immediately
                          reminded of the existence of Nahuatl.
                          A couple remarks. Ilnâmiqui is "to remember", right? Niquilnâmiqui –  þis (or þata) [ik] ga-man? Iirc 'cân' can be
                          both directional and stative. I mean weren't it better to say 'þarei' with
                          'ainshun ni gaswiltiþ' and 'manna sigis nimiþ'? Is it the 'îchân tônatiuh', the
                          place? An interesting parallel between 'in yâômiqui' and einherjar...





                          Irish
                          Suibhne geilt living on trees and perhaps also the Nahuatl (Aztec) word for "demon" (= Go. skohsl) –
                          tlâcatecolôtl, lit. "man-owl", used in the Anales de Cuauhtitlan of
                          the gods whom human sacrifices were due to.





                           



                          --- On Tue, 3/6/08, Fredrik <gadrauhts@...> wrote:
                          From: Fredrik <gadrauhts@...>
                          Subject: [gothic-l] Re: Introduction
                          To: gothic-l@yahoogroups.com
                          Date: Tuesday, 3 June, 2008, 8:05 PM











                          It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about

                          each other but why not just write some words here?



                          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroup s.com, Madhukar Vichare

                          <madhukar_vichare@ ...> wrote:

                          >

                          > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about

                          themselves, so I hope

                          > this is ok to post here.

                          >

                          > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,

                          friends,

                          > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set

                          up your own

                          > here: http://www.grouply. com/register. php?

                          tmg=260177&amp; vt=170949

                          >

                          > Look forward to seeing your profile!

                          >

                          > Madhukar

                          >

                          > ============ ========

                          > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply

                          instead of

                          > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations

                          from being

                          > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can

                          permanently block

                          > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:

                          > http://blog. grouply.com/ protect#prevent_ invites .

                          >

                          >

                          >

                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                          >



























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