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Re: [gothic-l] Re: More Neologisms

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  • David Kiltz
    ... Isn t _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ? As for , Caesar and, more importantly, Tacitus still have _Suebi_ and _Suebia_ (cf. German _Schwaben_)
    Message 1 of 30 , Sep 8, 2005
      On 08.09.2005, at 23:03, llama_nom wrote:

      > And Pliny mentions amber islands called 'Glesiae' (Naturalis
      > historia IV, 103). Tacitus's neuter form agrees perfectly with OE
      > glær. I gather that the <e> in 'glesum' wasn't confined to East
      > Germanic in the 1st century.

      Isn't _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ?
      As for <e>, Caesar and, more importantly, Tacitus still have _Suebi_
      and _Suebia_ (cf. German _Schwaben_) which also points to the
      preservation of PGerm. <e> or <æ>. The earliest attestation of <â>
      in West Germanic seems to be in Bavarian 170 AD, although the
      evidence is indirect, from sources actually dating to the 4th century
      AD. In North Germanic we find <â> from the earliest attestations. Cf.
      also such Finnish loanwords as _maanan-_ 'moon' (in _maanan-tai_
      'monday') vs a loan from Gothic: _miekka_ 'sword' (Goth. mêki (acc.)).

      David
    • OSCAR HERRERA
      i have not come across the gothic version of the word yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar ... And Pliny mentions amber islands called Glesiae (Naturalis
      Message 2 of 30 , Sep 8, 2005
        i have not come across the gothic version of the word yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar

        llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "brianbeck_au" wrote:

        > It is indirectly attested in Tacitus' Germania:
        > "....sucinum, quod ipsi glesum vocant", "...amber, which they
        > themselves (i.e. the Germans) call 'glesum'".



        And Pliny mentions amber islands called 'Glesiae' (Naturalis
        historia IV, 103). Tacitus's neuter form agrees perfectly with OE
        glær. I gather that the in 'glesum' wasn't confined to East
        Germanic in the 1st century.



        > fair-weit, na. curiosity.

        Compare Go. 'fairweitl' "a spectacle"; OE 'fyrwit' "curiosity".



        > gauma-wairþs, a. noteworthy, interesting.

        Literally: "worthy of attention", "worth taking notice of".
        Go. 'gaumjan' "perceive"; Go. *'gauma', ON 'gaum' "attention" (see
        Koebler). Google says the Norse word was borrowed into Scots
        as 'gaum', from which comes the colloqial English word 'gormless'.
        Likewise, 'spilla-wairþs' "worth telling", "worthy of reporting".



        > in-wageins, fi/o. emotion.
        > us-wageins, fi/o. excitement.

        Literally "in-motion" and "out-motion" respectively. From the
        attested verbs 'inwagjan' and 'uswagjan'. Used transitively, both
        could mean "stir up", "excite" (e.g. a crowd).
        Relfexively, 'inwagjan sik' means "to be moved", "to feel deep
        emotion" (used of Jesus's rection to the death of Lazarus).



        > qiu-sahts, fi. film, movie.
        > hugi-sahts, fi. idea.

        Another calque on Icelandic: 'kvikmynd' "film"; 'hugmynd' "idea".
        Compare Go. 'fri-sahts' "image"; 'in-
        sahts' "statement"; 'qius' "alive"; 'hugs' "mind" (masculine i-stem).

        Llama Nom





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      • llama_nom
        ... In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you re thinking of OIc. glær sea , masc. (could be related; but in this word, the isn t
        Message 3 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, David Kiltz <derdron@g...> wrote:
          >
          >
          > Isn't _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ?


          In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you're
          thinking of OIc. glær "sea", masc. (could be related; but in this
          word, the <r> isn't part of the root), versus OIc. 'gler' "glass",
          neuter.


          > In North Germanic we find <â> from the earliest attestations. Cf.
          > also such Finnish loanwords as _maanan-_ 'moon' (in _maanan-tai_
          > 'monday') vs a loan from Gothic: _miekka_ 'sword' (Goth. mêki
          (acc.)).


          Is there any way to tell when 'miekka' was borrowed, and thus
          whether it's more likely to be a loan from EG or NWG or PGmc, or
          whatever? And does the <a> in 'maanan-tai' mean that it was
          borrowed from a Proto-Norse (or NWG form) with the genitive
          *'ma:nan', as opposed to the form with /o/ (*'ma:no:n') that I
          assume gave rise to gave rise to Ic. mánudagur? I'm afraid I don't
          know anything about the history of Finnish sounds, so I don't want
          to jump to any conclusions...

          Lama Nom
        • llama_nom
          ... yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar Hi Oscar, If you delete the message you re replying to, when that isn t relevant to your own, it saves on space (and
          Message 4 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
            --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
            > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
            yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


            Hi Oscar,

            If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
            relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
            quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
            a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
            a glance what your message is about.

            As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
            cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
            meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

            'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
            'fairnin jera' = "last year"

            I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
            but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
            know.

            Llama Nom
          • OSCAR HERRERA
            doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the
            Message 5 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
              doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to everyone.....oscar

              llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
              > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
              yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


              Hi Oscar,

              If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
              relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
              quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
              a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
              a glance what your message is about.

              As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
              cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
              meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

              'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
              'fairnin jera' = "last year"

              I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
              but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
              know.

              Llama Nom





              You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
              Yahoo! Groups Links









              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • llama_nom
              ... thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only
              Message 6 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
                --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
                > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
                thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
                fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
                means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
                queries to everyone.....oscar


                > fauradag

                Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
                *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
                day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
                yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
                that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


                > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

                I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
                meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
                something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
                the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
                Gothic 'afardags'.

                I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
                refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
                language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
                Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
                *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
                or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
                reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
                say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
                COGNATES."

                If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
                other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

                http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
                http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
                http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
                tml
                http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

                Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
                prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
                when used as a preposition,
                e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
                suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
                in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
                behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
                up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
                it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
                that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
                do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
                (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
                is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



                > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
                the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
                everyone.....oscar


                Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
                myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
                everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
                reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
                as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

                Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
                to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
                course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
                line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
                clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
                the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
                website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
                you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
                message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
                the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
                on your keyboard.

                You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
                address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
                website (sign in) and click on "post".

                To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
                somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
                want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
                the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
                you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
                block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
                that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
                press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
                really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
                say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
                explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
                my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
                doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

                Llama Nom
              • OSCAR HERRERA
                your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar ... thought it
                Message 7 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
                  your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar

                  llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
                  > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
                  thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
                  fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
                  means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
                  queries to everyone.....oscar


                  > fauradag

                  Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
                  *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
                  day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
                  yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
                  that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


                  > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

                  I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
                  meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
                  something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
                  the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
                  Gothic 'afardags'.

                  I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
                  refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
                  language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
                  Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
                  *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
                  or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
                  reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
                  say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
                  COGNATES."

                  If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
                  other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

                  http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
                  http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
                  http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
                  tml
                  http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

                  Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
                  prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
                  when used as a preposition,
                  e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
                  suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
                  in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
                  behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
                  up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
                  it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
                  that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
                  do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
                  (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
                  is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



                  > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
                  the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
                  everyone.....oscar


                  Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
                  myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
                  everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
                  reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
                  as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

                  Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
                  to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
                  course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
                  line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
                  clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
                  the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
                  website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
                  you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
                  message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
                  the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
                  on your keyboard.

                  You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
                  address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
                  website (sign in) and click on "post".

                  To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
                  somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
                  want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
                  the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
                  you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
                  block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
                  that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
                  press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
                  really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
                  say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
                  explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
                  my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
                  doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

                  Llama Nom





                  You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
                  Yahoo! Groups Links









                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • llama_nom
                  Þatei was ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau: http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html ) Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra
                  Message 8 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
                    Þatei was

                    ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau:
                    http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html )

                    Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra mis,
                    iþ nu fanþ ik þatei wisiþ þis;
                    O, traua ik du þammei was.

                    Suns mis warþ; ni im manna saei faurþis was;
                    hahiþ ufar mis hva riqizis;
                    O þatei warþ, qam suns at mis.

                    Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                    Mis ni gataih.
                    Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                    Friaþwa, fairna was mis swa azets dags;
                    þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                    O, traua ik du þammei was.

                    Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                    Mis ni gataih.
                    Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                    Friaþwa, fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags;
                    þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                    O, traua ik du þammei was.


                    Notes, liberties, etc.

                    þatei wisiþ þis. Desperate partitive genitive for sake of rhyme.
                    Supposed to mean "that there is staying [something] of that / this",
                    i.e. that a certain amount of trouble is "here to stay". Apologies
                    to songwriters and 4th century bishops everywhere.

                    ...fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags. Intended to mean: "yesterday
                    was such an easy day for me." `Friaþwa', just setting the context
                    and not syntactically related. Ignoring the metre, the closest I
                    got was: "Fairnin daga friaþwa swaleiks azets mis was laiks."
                  • JoLynne
                    Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes of that area.
                    Message 9 of 30 , Feb 25, 2008
                      Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested
                      in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes
                      of that area. Mostly I am here to listen and learn.
                    • Madhukar Vichare
                      Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope this is ok to post here. I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my
                      Message 10 of 30 , Jun 2, 2008
                        Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope
                        this is ok to post here.

                        I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos, friends,
                        interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set up your own
                        here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?tmg=260177&vt=170949

                        Look forward to seeing your profile!

                        Madhukar

                        ====================
                        This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply instead of
                        email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations from being
                        sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can permanently block
                        future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                        http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .



                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Fredrik
                        It s always nice with presentations so we can know a little about each other but why not just write some words here? ... themselves, so I hope ... friends, ...
                        Message 11 of 30 , Jun 3, 2008
                          It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about
                          each other but why not just write some words here?

                          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Madhukar Vichare
                          <madhukar_vichare@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about
                          themselves, so I hope
                          > this is ok to post here.
                          >
                          > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,
                          friends,
                          > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set
                          up your own
                          > here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?
                          tmg=260177&vt=170949
                          >
                          > Look forward to seeing your profile!
                          >
                          > Madhukar
                          >
                          > ====================
                          > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply
                          instead of
                          > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations
                          from being
                          > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can
                          permanently block
                          > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
                          > http://blog.grouply.com/protect#prevent_invites .
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >
                        • Madhukar Vichare
                          Finns (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                          Message 12 of 30 , Jun 5, 2008
                            Finns
                            (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree
                            sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                            thousands of years. Last month, students in west­ern Finland found a piece of Stone Age birch-bark tar, be­lieved
                            to have been used for chewing and to fix broken ar­rowheads or clay dishes, ar­chaeologists
                            said. "Most likely the lump was used as an antique kind of chewing
                            gum," said Sami Vil­jamaa, an archaeologist who led the dig near Oulu, (Aulanam - Lake) north of Helsinki (helihi -the sun; sina – a period of “No Moon” night
                            when the small part of Moon is visible at certain latitudes). "But its main pur­pose was to fix things."
                            Vilja­maa said the piece of Neolith­ic gum was found among arti­facts in a
                            Stone Age village at the Kierikki (Kairavaḥ - Moon-lit-Night) Stone Age Center. "It's somewhere between 5,500 and 6,000 years
                            old," he said. The ancient Finnish habit of chewing gum surged in the
                            1980s when scientists discov­ered that gum containing xyl­itol prevented tooth
                            decay.

                             

                            Egyptian
                            archaeolo­gists have found what they said could be the oldest hu­man footprint
                            in history in the country's western desert, the Arab country's antiquities'
                            chief said. "This could go back about two million years," said Zahi
                            Hawass, the sec­retary general of the Egypt­ian supreme council of an­tiquities.
                            "It could be the most im­portant discovery in Egypt," he said. Archaeologists found the footprint,
                            imprinted on mud and then hardened into rock, while exploring a pre­historic
                            site in Shiwa (Shiva in search of water for cooling down), a desert
                            oasis. Scientists are using car­bon tests on plants found in the rock to
                            determine its ex­act age, Hawass said. Khaled Saad, the direc­tor of prehistory
                            at the council, said that based on the age of the rock where the footprint was
                            found, it could date back even fur­ther than the renowned 3­million year-old
                            fossil Lucy, the partial skeleton of an ape-man, found in Ethiopia in 1974. Most archaeological in­terest in Egypt is focused on the time of the pharaohs. Previously,
                            the earliest human archaeological evi­dence from Egypt dated back around 200,000 years, Saad said.

                             

                            I
                            have highlighted my views of looking at the old concepts with new insights in
                            view of the new knowledge: The subject of INDOLOGY will be meaningful.              Madhukar Vichare.

                             

                            Anandamurti
                            JI wrote for the “Speaking Tree” (On Religion):

                             

                            Taraka
                            (Tarkaha
                            or Taaraka) Brahma wants to eman­cipate living beings, but only those who want
                            liberation get liberation. When you long for liberation, the search leads you
                            to the Sadguru. Every one of us has a fixed role to play. You are a character
                            in a divine drama. The composer of this drama is Taaraka Brahma. An episode in
                            the Maha­bharata is instructive in this regard: After battle, the battle­ground
                            at Kurukṣetra became a cremation ground. At the end of the war
                            some people came there from the Kauravas' side. Among them were women and a few
                            elderly men. Gandhaari, mother of the Kauravas, was also there. Kuntī, mother of the Pandavas, and Krushna, Pandavas'
                            friend, were present as well, along with the visually challenged Dhrutarashtra.
                            Everyone was weeping. Gandhaari had lost hundred sons in the war. Krushna
                            approached Gandhaari and said: "Mother, why are you weeping? Death is a
                            naturallay. One who is born will die. So why cry?" Gandhaari replied:
                            "Yes Krushna, you have come here to console me, but I ask you, behind this
                            great event whose mind was at work? Who was the author of this great plan? Was
                            it not you?" Krushna replied: "Those who have committed injustice and
                            sinned have been punished. What can I do about that?" Gandhaari said to Krushna:
                            "Everything you have said up un­til now is quite correct. From the worldly
                            point of view, everything that has happened until now is as it should be,
                            because every action must have its reaction. But my point is: You yourself are
                            Taaraka Brahma; your duty is to liberate living beings. You can give libera­tion
                            to whomsoever you please.

                             

                            'As
                            Taaraka Brahma you can create and destroy as you wish. In this drama of yours
                            you have created characters who are honest, ideological people. If one does
                            virtuous deeds then one gets liberation. To teach the people you create these
                            kinds of characters. And you also create sinful charac­ters to show how much a
                            person degenerates because of sinful behavior. In this drama, you could have
                            had my hundred sons play roles of righteousness and the Pandavas play roles of
                            unright­eousness, if you had so wished. In that case my hundred sons would have
                            gotten salvation. Now, after having made me cry, you come to console me!" Taaraka
                            Brahma for­mulates his plan in order to create situations that lend themselves
                            to illustrating values, to create awareness. For instance, if one engages in
                            honest work then one moves towards eternal truth, and if one performs dishonest
                            work then one moves towards untruth. Thereafter comes the other part of the
                            story.

                             

                            Gandhaari
                            said: "Kṛṣṇa, give me permission to curse you". Krushna
                            replied: "Okay, curse me. I give you permission". Gandhaari cursed
                            him: "Just as my entire lineage has been destroyed before my very eyes,
                            may your Yaadava lineage be destroyed before your very eyes as well".
                            "Let it be so", Krushna replied. Remember always that we are only
                            actors in a universal drama. This is not our real identity. Some­one may play
                            the role of a king, but he might not even have two hand­fuls of rice in his
                            house. Someone plays the role of a poor man, but in real life he may be very
                            rich. We ought to remember that we are only playing specific roles in a cosmic
                            drama. Act according to the role given. This is a person's duty. This is a
                            wrong note to end the moral of the “Cosmic Drama” – Man must keep on bettering
                            his lot; learning new things, and keeping himself fit to fight against the
                            odds. He must use his intelligence and apply his mind. Krushna is not
                            coming to salvage your soul; man has to come up to the expectation of the Super
                            Personality of Godhead- it is symbolic, you have to become Krushna.

                             

                            Uyuni
                            is in Bolivia: On the edge of the world's biggest salt desert,
                            villagers optimistical­ly scrawl "salt for sale" signs on their mud
                            brick homes. In backyards, mountains of the stuff are heaped like year-­round
                            snow drifts. But mining salt is no longer the only way to survive in this cold,
                            arid corner of south­western Bolivia. The Salar de Uyuni is becoming a must-see for
                            adventurous visitors to South
                            America, changing at least
                            some fortunes in the poor village of Colchani. "There's nothing here apart from salt... Tourists used to arrive
                            and they wouldn't buy anything, so we thought, 'How can we improve
                            things?" said Fermin Villca, who now sells ashtrays and llama fig­urines
                            carved from salt stone. Stretched between distant Andean peaks like a shimmer­ing
                            white carpet, the Salar de Uyuni is home to pink flamin­gos, 1,000-year-old
                            cacti, rare hummingbirds and hotels built entirely from blocks of salt. Earlier
                            this year, leading travel publisher Rough Guides listed the Salar as one of its
                            top 25 wonders of the world, along side far better-known attrac­tions such as
                            the Taj Mahal, Grand Canyon and Great
                            Wall of China.

                             

                            A
                            gargantuan explosion ripped apart a star perhaps 150 times more mas­sive than
                            our Sun in a rela­tively nearby galaxy in the most powerful and brightest
                            supernova ever observed, as­tronomers said. And there is one such star in our
                            own Milky Way galaxy that appears to be on the brink of dying in just
                            such a super­nova. The exploding star's dra­matic death may have come in a rare
                            type of supernova reserved for "freakishly mas­sive" stars that
                            astronomers had speculated about but nev­er previously witnessed. The
                            supernova, designat­ed as SN 2006gy, occurred 240 million light years
                            away in a galaxy called NGC 1260, and was studied using observa­tions from NASA's
                            orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as earthbound optical telescopes.. The
                            explosion occurred long ago but was detected last year after its light traveled
                            many trillions of kilometers before it could be observed from Earth. "That
                            sounds far away but it's actually quite nearby on the vast scale of the uni­verse,"
                            astronomer Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led the research, said. A supernova marks a star's
                            death in a spectacular explosion. Scientists say these events playa crucial role
                            in creating heavy ele­ments through nuclear fu­sion and synthesis and then
                            expelling them into space, seeding the cosmos with metals.

                             

                            The
                            travel of Manu and the great Fish, a symbolic story of the Puraana, the event
                            that occurred 10,000 BCE (ca): An
                            event like the one involving Noah's ark is depicted in- almost every ­ ancient
                            civilization or religion: Naunet in Egyptian; Manu in Hindu; Nuwa in Chinese;
                            Ziusudra in Sumerian; Atra-Hasis, Utnapishtim and Xisuthrus in Babylonian;
                            Deucalion in Greek; and Toptlipetlocali in Toltec. Noah is also mentioned often
                            in the Qumran, referred to as the prophet ‘Nuh’. All the names are
                            the corruption of original Sanskrit words used in Vedic rituals by the Āryans.

                             

                            For
                            many scientists, the evi­dence that moral reasoning is a result of physical
                            traits that evolve along with everything else is just more evidence against
                            the exis­tence of the soul, or of a God to imbue humans with souls. For
                            many believers, particularly in the US, the findings show the er­ror, even wickedness, of
                            viewing the world in strictly material terms. And they provide for the­ologians
                            a growing impetus to rec­oncile the existence of the soul with the growing
                            evidence that humans are not, physically or even mentally, in a class by
                            themselves. The idea that human minds are the product of evolution is
                            "unassailable fact," the journal Nature said this month in an ed­itorial
                            on new findings on the physical basis of moral thought. A headline on the
                            editorial drove the point home: "With all defer­ence to the sensibilities
                            of reli­gious people, the idea that man was created in the image of God can
                            surely be put aside." Or as V S Ramachandran, a brain scientist at the University of California, San Diego, said in an interview, there may be soul in the sense
                            of "the universal spir­it of the cosmos," but the soul as it is
                            usually spoken of, "an im­material spirit that occupies in­dividual brains
                            and that only evolved in humans - all that is complete nonsense." Belief
                            in that kind of soul "is basically super­stition," he said.

                             

                            Greenland
                            was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the latest of which disappeared around the year 200
                            AD. The island seems to have been uninhabited for some eight centuries till
                            Icelandic settlers led by Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they
                            arrived in 982 AD. They thrived here for 450 years, after which they
                            mysteriously vanished.

                             ­

                            The
                            term tetra-pod, from the Greek 'tetrapoda,' (Sanskrit-“totra-vetram”- weapon of
                            Viṣṇu- + pada means feet) refers to vertebrate animals
                            having four feet, legs or leg-like appendages. Amphibians, lizards and mammals
                            are all tetra-pods. The term auto-pod, however, is used to refer to animals
                            whose limbs are subdivided into hands and feet, example: Humans.

                             

                            The
                            researchers therefore believe that the capability of building limbs with
                            fingers and toes existed for a long period of time, but it took a set of
                            environmental triggers to make use of that capability. "Animals in the
                            Late Devonian period (385 to 359 million years ago) acquired limbs with fingers
                            using this primitive design, largely because their ecosystem - the small
                            streams that they lived in - was new," Shubin said "It had the tools,
                            but it needed the opportuni­ty as well." In yet another study on what
                            killed off the beasts of the Ice Age, researchers said that an extraterrestrial
                            object with a three-mile girth might have ex­ploded over southern Canada nearly
                            13,000 years ago, wiping out an ancient Stone Age culture as well as mega-fauna
                            like mastodons and mammoths. The blast could be to blame for a ma­jor cold
                            spell called the Younger Dryas that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene
                            Epoch, a period of time spanning from about 1.8 million years ago to 11,500
                            years ago. Research, presented at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union
                            (AGU) in Acapulco, Mexico this week, could shed light on major questions about
                            the mega-fauna extinction, the disappear­ance of the Clovis people, and an
                            abrupt climate change, Live-science reported. "Based on the distribution
                            of mate­rial, it looks like this impact probably occurred in southern Canada near the Great Lakes, over
                            what at that time would have been a major glacier, the Laurentide ice
                            sheet," said one of the presen­ters, Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley
                            National Laboratory. They couldn't find a distinct crater, suggesting the comet
                            burst in the air rather than slamming into Earth. Even an airburst should leave
                            its mark, so the scientists think the Laurentide Ice Sheet absorbed much of the
                            impact.

                             

                            A
                            huge flood hundreds of thou­sands of years ago cut Britain off from the rest of Europe and turned it into an
                            island, according to a new study that of­fers clues to how England was settled.
                            Using high-resolution sonar waves, researchers mapped the floor of the Eng­lish Channel and turned up images of an enormous valley tens of
                            kilometers wide and up to 50 meters deep carved into chalk bedrock. The images
                            were similar to an area in the state of Washington where a mega-flood some 15,000 years ago also created
                            a landscape of distinctive land formations - indicating that the same thing
                            happened in Britain, the re­searchers said. Scientists said the study
                            provides the best evidence yet in the de­bate seeking to explain how the English Channel formed and cut Britain off from the rest of Europe.
                            "It showed us for the first time the ex­istence of this huge valley in the
                            centre of the English Channel," said Sanjeev Gupta, a researcher at Imperial
                            College London.

                             

                            Mexican
                            archaeologists using ground-penetrating radar have detected underground
                            chambers they believe contain the remains of Emperor Ahuizotl, who ruled
                            the Aztecs when Columbus landed in the Americas. Ahuizotl (ah-WEE-zoh-tuhl), an empire-builder who
                            extended the Aztecs' reach as far as Guatemala, in South
                            America, was the last
                            emperor to complete his rule before the Spanish Conquest. Accounts written by
                            Spanish priests suggest the said area was used by the Aztecs to cremate and
                            bury their rulers. But no tomb of an Aztec ruler has ever been found. Now,
                            archaeologists said that they have located what appears to be a
                            Six-foot-by-six-foot entryway into a tomb about 15 feet below ground, off Mexico City's Zocalo plaza. The passage is filled with water,
                            rocks and mud, forcing work­ers to dig delicately. Later this year, they hope
                            to enter the inner chambers - a damp, low-ceilinged space - and discover the
                            ashes of Ahuizotl, who was likely cremated on a funeral pyre in 1502. Because
                            no Aztec royal tomb has ever been found, the archaeologists are literally
                            digging into the unknown. Radar indicates the tomb has up to four chambers, and
                            scientists think they will find a host of elaborate offerings to the gods on
                            the floor. "He must have been buried in solemn ceremony with rich
                            offerings, like vases and ornaments," said Luis Alberto Martos, director
                            of archaeological studies at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History.

                             

                            All
                            signs found so far point to Ahuizotl. The site lies direct­ly below a huge,
                            recently discovered stone monolith carved with a representation of Tlaltecuhtli
                            (tlahl-tay-KOO-tlee), the Aztec god of the earth. Depicted as a woman with huge
                            claws, the fearsome Tlaltecuhtli was believed to devour the dead and then give
                            them new life. In the claw of her right foot, the god holds a rabbit and 10
                            dots, indicating the date "10 Rabbit" - 1502, the year of Ahuizotl's
                            death. "Our hypothesis is precisely that this is probably the tomb of
                            Ahuizotl," said Leonardo Lopez Lujan, the lead government archaeologist on
                            the project. "Imagine it - this wasn't just any high-ranking man. The
                            Aztecs were the most powerful society of their time," Martos said.
                            "That's why Ahuizotl's tomb down there is so important."        

                             

                            The
                            Aztecs is a term used for the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico that thrived before the advent of Christopher
                            Columbus in the Americas. Aztec
                            culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions. For
                            Europeans, the most striking element of the Aztec culture was the practice of
                            human sacrifice which was conducted throughout Mesoamerica prior to the Spanish conquest Greenland was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the
                            latest of which disappeared around the year 200 AD. The island seems to have
                            been uninhabited for some eight centuries till Icelandic settlers led by
                            Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they arrived in 982 AD. They thrived
                            here for 450 years, after which they mysteriously vanished. Archeologists have
                            discovered what they think are ruins of an Aztec pyramid razed by vengeful
                            Spanish conquerors in what is now one of Mexico City's most crime-ridden districts. Construction workers
                            un­earthed ancient walls in the busy Iztapalapa neighbor­hood in June, and
                            government archeologists said on Wednes­day that they believe they may be part
                            of the main pyramid of the Aztec city, destroyed by conquistador Hernan Cortes
                            in the 16th century.

                             

                            In
                            the Gothic Bible, 'þiudans' is used of a king who goes to war:



                            aiþþau hvas þiudans gaggands stigqan wiþra anþarana þiudan (vipra praana-yukta pinda) du wiganna, niu
                            gasitands faurþis þankeiþ, siaiu mahteigs miþ taihun þusundjom gamotjan þamma
                            miþ twaim tigum þusundjo gaggandin ana sik?



                            Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first,
                            and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh
                            against him with twenty thousand?

                            Luke 14:31.



                            'frauja' (Praanaaha) "lord"
                            is also used with no Greek model for the noun in a military context (II Tim
                            2:4). I'm not sure whether 'reiks' is used anywhere in an explicitly military
                            context.



                            I am not a linguist but as far as I know they were reiks also when leading a
                            war expedition. Their sacral king, however, was never allowed to leave his own
                            territory when the people was permanently settled, but had to order a reiks (Rushis
                            –wandering Sages) to take command. During the wandering, according to Getica at
                            least, the þiuðans was sacral king and he used 'kings of the army' to lead
                            parts of the united army (like e.g. Cniva as Wolfram suggests) but I do not
                            know their title in Gothic.

                             

                            The clue to the root of the
                            hypothetical Gothic form though is in Old Norse 'ugla' and especially (Old) Swedish 'uggla'. These show a sound change common to North and East Germanic
                            whereby 'ww' > 'ggw', as described by Wright. In Old Norse, the medial vowel
                            of the suffix has been lost, which is normal, but presumably it would have been
                            present in Gothic (compare 'mawilo'
                            "little girl" San – mahilaa meaning a woman), and the 'w' has
                            been dropped, as always between two consonants. So, I'd reconstruct Gothic
                            *'uggwilo': weak noun, feminine on-stem, i.e. declined like 'mawilo', 'tuggo',
                            etc. One last clue is the Catalan word 'òliba', (San. – Ulooka) which it's been suggested may be derived from the
                            Gothic word for owl

                            2.
                            örn "eagle" (San. – utkrosha)





                            Elof
                            Hellquist's Svensk etymologisk ordbok. 6 is especially interesting; both roots
                            are attested in Gothic. This would make a very handy addition to our
                            reconstructed "modern" vocabulary. There

                            is a Gothic derivative from the same root as 2 recorded, namely 'ara' "eagle",
                            cognate with Old Norse 'ari', but since ON had 'örn' (San. – “ara” one going with speed) there's no reason Gothic couldn't
                            have had both words too.

                             

                            Ah,
                            no need for embarrassment! I was just thinking of it as an exercise in phonetic
                            reconstruction. In other words, what would a Gothic cognate of (word descended
                            from the same Proto-Germanic

                            ancestor as) Modern English 'wood' look like? But you're right 'triu' does mean
                            "a tree" (San. – “taru” means
                            tree also wood,) or "a stick". I guess that illustrates another issue
                            in reconstruction: where a word already exists in the same semantic field, how
                            might that have related to the meaning of a hypothetical, reconstructed Gothic
                            cognate? Does that make sense?



                            In this case, it seems that the better attested early Germanic languages did
                            have a few partly overlapping words in this semantic field, e.g. Old Norse has a word 'viðr' which is
                            cognate with 'wood', as well as a word 'tré' congate with English 'tree'.
                            So there's nothing improbably about supposing Gothic had cognates for both,
                            even though only one, 'triu', is recorded.





                            The
                            gist is this: initial 'b' in English corresponds to Gothic 'b' (as in Go.
                            'broþar' : Modern English 'brother' Sanskrit
                            is “Bhaartru”)-- no catch there. I found a comparison chart but it didn't
                            tell me what to do with initial B, medial TH, or final -M, let alone the
                            morpheme -AM, so I'm a little lost right now.

                            other Indo-European languages (e.g. Latin 2nd declension nouns ending
                            in -um, Greek in -on, Sanskrit in -am).

                            The
                            3rd person singular

                            (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in –iþ for the verbs used in the story.
                            "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ' (from 'slepan' "to sleep" San. Root is “svap” - svapiti). The
                            last sentence is in subjunctive, but you can have a simpler translation.

                             

                            Some vocabulary you need: early morning – air uhtwon clothes – wasti  (Sanskrit
                            – Vastra) F.-jo (that is, feminine jo-stem) staff – hrugga F.-o to push –
                            stigqan to get awake – gawaknan to climb up – ussteigan to look like – wisan
                            galeiks (lit. "to be like") + noun in dative ("he's looking like
                            A." is 'ist galeiks A.'). Don't forget to put the A. ("owl" in
                            our case) in dative.

                             

                            That
                            is, "I take" is 'nima' (from
                            'niman' "to take" Sanskrit word “nirgam” means get off, get away from
                            – ni-sru). The 3rd person singular (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in
                            –iþ for the verbs used in the story. "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ'
                            (from 'slepan' "to sleep"). The last sentence is in subjunctive, but
                            you can have a simpler translation.





                            early
                            morning – air uhtwon; Sanskrit – ushas;






                            to
                            push – stigqan; Sanskrit – saahasin; to
                            climb up – ussteigan, San. – upari gama;

                            *kiggwan, OE cíowan, (San. –
                            ‘charvanam”) ON tyggva? 6. däggdjur "mammal"





                            So
                            you are through with your Aztec torment,
                            unlike me. Everyone saying that Gothic is difficult should be immediately
                            reminded of the existence of Nahuatl.
                            A couple remarks. Ilnâmiqui is "to remember", right? Niquilnâmiqui –  þis (or þata) [ik] ga-man? Iirc 'cân' can be
                            both directional and stative. I mean weren't it better to say 'þarei' with
                            'ainshun ni gaswiltiþ' and 'manna sigis nimiþ'? Is it the 'îchân tônatiuh', the
                            place? An interesting parallel between 'in yâômiqui' and einherjar...





                            Irish
                            Suibhne geilt living on trees and perhaps also the Nahuatl (Aztec) word for "demon" (= Go. skohsl) –
                            tlâcatecolôtl, lit. "man-owl", used in the Anales de Cuauhtitlan of
                            the gods whom human sacrifices were due to.





                             



                            --- On Tue, 3/6/08, Fredrik <gadrauhts@...> wrote:
                            From: Fredrik <gadrauhts@...>
                            Subject: [gothic-l] Re: Introduction
                            To: gothic-l@yahoogroups.com
                            Date: Tuesday, 3 June, 2008, 8:05 PM











                            It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about

                            each other but why not just write some words here?



                            --- In gothic-l@yahoogroup s.com, Madhukar Vichare

                            <madhukar_vichare@ ...> wrote:

                            >

                            > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about

                            themselves, so I hope

                            > this is ok to post here.

                            >

                            > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,

                            friends,

                            > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set

                            up your own

                            > here: http://www.grouply. com/register. php?

                            tmg=260177&amp; vt=170949

                            >

                            > Look forward to seeing your profile!

                            >

                            > Madhukar

                            >

                            > ============ ========

                            > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply

                            instead of

                            > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations

                            from being

                            > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can

                            permanently block

                            > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:

                            > http://blog. grouply.com/ protect#prevent_ invites .

                            >

                            >

                            >

                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                            >



























                            Bollywood, fun, friendship, sports and more. You name it, we have it on http://in.promos.yahoo.com/groups/bestofyahoo/

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