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Re: More Neologisms

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  • brianbeck_au
    ... It is indirectly attested in Tacitus Germania: ....sucinum, quod ipsi glesum vocant , ...amber, which they themselves (i.e. the Germans) call glesum .
    Message 1 of 30 , Sep 8, 2005
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      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Francisc Czobor" <fericzobor@y...>
      wrote:
      > glezamahts is a loan translation into Gothic of the Icelandic word
      > rafmagn "electricity", literally "amber's power" (cf. Greek
      > elektron "amber").
      > mahts "power" is an attested Gothic word;
      > *gleza- "amber", is not attested, but reconstructed from the Common
      > Germanic root *glesa-/gleza-, with the original meanig "amber" but
      > which gave words like German Glas, English glass.
      >
      It is indirectly attested in Tacitus' Germania:
      "....sucinum, quod ipsi glesum vocant", "...amber, which they
      themselves (i.e. the Germans) call 'glesum'".
      Cheers,
      Brian
    • llama_nom
      ... And Pliny mentions amber islands called Glesiae (Naturalis historia IV, 103). Tacitus s neuter form agrees perfectly with OE glær. I gather that the
      Message 2 of 30 , Sep 8, 2005
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        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "brianbeck_au" <babeck@a...> wrote:

        > It is indirectly attested in Tacitus' Germania:
        > "....sucinum, quod ipsi glesum vocant", "...amber, which they
        > themselves (i.e. the Germans) call 'glesum'".



        And Pliny mentions amber islands called 'Glesiae' (Naturalis
        historia IV, 103). Tacitus's neuter form agrees perfectly with OE
        glær. I gather that the <e> in 'glesum' wasn't confined to East
        Germanic in the 1st century.



        > fair-weit, na. curiosity.

        Compare Go. 'fairweitl' "a spectacle"; OE 'fyrwit' "curiosity".



        > gauma-wairþs, a. noteworthy, interesting.

        Literally: "worthy of attention", "worth taking notice of".
        Go. 'gaumjan' "perceive"; Go. *'gauma', ON 'gaum' "attention" (see
        Koebler). Google says the Norse word was borrowed into Scots
        as 'gaum', from which comes the colloqial English word 'gormless'.
        Likewise, 'spilla-wairþs' "worth telling", "worthy of reporting".



        > in-wageins, fi/o. emotion.
        > us-wageins, fi/o. excitement.

        Literally "in-motion" and "out-motion" respectively. From the
        attested verbs 'inwagjan' and 'uswagjan'. Used transitively, both
        could mean "stir up", "excite" (e.g. a crowd).
        Relfexively, 'inwagjan sik' means "to be moved", "to feel deep
        emotion" (used of Jesus's rection to the death of Lazarus).



        > qiu-sahts, fi. film, movie.
        > hugi-sahts, fi. idea.

        Another calque on Icelandic: 'kvikmynd' "film"; 'hugmynd' "idea".
        Compare Go. 'fri-sahts' "image"; 'in-
        sahts' "statement"; 'qius' "alive"; 'hugs' "mind" (masculine i-stem).

        Llama Nom
      • David Kiltz
        ... Isn t _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ? As for , Caesar and, more importantly, Tacitus still have _Suebi_ and _Suebia_ (cf. German _Schwaben_)
        Message 3 of 30 , Sep 8, 2005
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          On 08.09.2005, at 23:03, llama_nom wrote:

          > And Pliny mentions amber islands called 'Glesiae' (Naturalis
          > historia IV, 103). Tacitus's neuter form agrees perfectly with OE
          > glær. I gather that the <e> in 'glesum' wasn't confined to East
          > Germanic in the 1st century.

          Isn't _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ?
          As for <e>, Caesar and, more importantly, Tacitus still have _Suebi_
          and _Suebia_ (cf. German _Schwaben_) which also points to the
          preservation of PGerm. <e> or <æ>. The earliest attestation of <â>
          in West Germanic seems to be in Bavarian 170 AD, although the
          evidence is indirect, from sources actually dating to the 4th century
          AD. In North Germanic we find <â> from the earliest attestations. Cf.
          also such Finnish loanwords as _maanan-_ 'moon' (in _maanan-tai_
          'monday') vs a loan from Gothic: _miekka_ 'sword' (Goth. mêki (acc.)).

          David
        • OSCAR HERRERA
          i have not come across the gothic version of the word yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar ... And Pliny mentions amber islands called Glesiae (Naturalis
          Message 4 of 30 , Sep 8, 2005
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            i have not come across the gothic version of the word yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar

            llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "brianbeck_au" wrote:

            > It is indirectly attested in Tacitus' Germania:
            > "....sucinum, quod ipsi glesum vocant", "...amber, which they
            > themselves (i.e. the Germans) call 'glesum'".



            And Pliny mentions amber islands called 'Glesiae' (Naturalis
            historia IV, 103). Tacitus's neuter form agrees perfectly with OE
            glær. I gather that the in 'glesum' wasn't confined to East
            Germanic in the 1st century.



            > fair-weit, na. curiosity.

            Compare Go. 'fairweitl' "a spectacle"; OE 'fyrwit' "curiosity".



            > gauma-wairþs, a. noteworthy, interesting.

            Literally: "worthy of attention", "worth taking notice of".
            Go. 'gaumjan' "perceive"; Go. *'gauma', ON 'gaum' "attention" (see
            Koebler). Google says the Norse word was borrowed into Scots
            as 'gaum', from which comes the colloqial English word 'gormless'.
            Likewise, 'spilla-wairþs' "worth telling", "worthy of reporting".



            > in-wageins, fi/o. emotion.
            > us-wageins, fi/o. excitement.

            Literally "in-motion" and "out-motion" respectively. From the
            attested verbs 'inwagjan' and 'uswagjan'. Used transitively, both
            could mean "stir up", "excite" (e.g. a crowd).
            Relfexively, 'inwagjan sik' means "to be moved", "to feel deep
            emotion" (used of Jesus's rection to the death of Lazarus).



            > qiu-sahts, fi. film, movie.
            > hugi-sahts, fi. idea.

            Another calque on Icelandic: 'kvikmynd' "film"; 'hugmynd' "idea".
            Compare Go. 'fri-sahts' "image"; 'in-
            sahts' "statement"; 'qius' "alive"; 'hugs' "mind" (masculine i-stem).

            Llama Nom





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          • llama_nom
            ... In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you re thinking of OIc. glær sea , masc. (could be related; but in this word, the isn t
            Message 5 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
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              --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, David Kiltz <derdron@g...> wrote:
              >
              >
              > Isn't _glær_ masculine and _glæs_ neuter ?


              In OE, both neuter according to Bosworth & Toller. Maybe you're
              thinking of OIc. glær "sea", masc. (could be related; but in this
              word, the <r> isn't part of the root), versus OIc. 'gler' "glass",
              neuter.


              > In North Germanic we find <â> from the earliest attestations. Cf.
              > also such Finnish loanwords as _maanan-_ 'moon' (in _maanan-tai_
              > 'monday') vs a loan from Gothic: _miekka_ 'sword' (Goth. mêki
              (acc.)).


              Is there any way to tell when 'miekka' was borrowed, and thus
              whether it's more likely to be a loan from EG or NWG or PGmc, or
              whatever? And does the <a> in 'maanan-tai' mean that it was
              borrowed from a Proto-Norse (or NWG form) with the genitive
              *'ma:nan', as opposed to the form with /o/ (*'ma:no:n') that I
              assume gave rise to gave rise to Ic. mánudagur? I'm afraid I don't
              know anything about the history of Finnish sounds, so I don't want
              to jump to any conclusions...

              Lama Nom
            • llama_nom
              ... yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar Hi Oscar, If you delete the message you re replying to, when that isn t relevant to your own, it saves on space (and
              Message 6 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
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                --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
                > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
                yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


                Hi Oscar,

                If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
                relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
                quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
                a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
                a glance what your message is about.

                As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
                cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
                meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

                'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
                'fairnin jera' = "last year"

                I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
                but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
                know.

                Llama Nom
              • OSCAR HERRERA
                doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the
                Message 7 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
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                  doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to everyone.....oscar

                  llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
                  > i have not come across the gothic version of the word
                  yesterday...could it be afdag....oscar


                  Hi Oscar,

                  If you delete the message you're replying to, when that isn't
                  relevant to your own, it saves on space (and makes it easier to read
                  quickly). You can also change the "subject" line if you're starting
                  a new topic, so that people looking through the archives can tell at
                  a glance what your message is about.

                  As far as I know, "yesterday" isn't attested. As you may know, the
                  cognate of the English word does appear, but with the
                  meaning "tomorrow" (GISTRADAGIS).

                  'in þamma afardaga' = "the next day"
                  'fairnin jera' = "last year"

                  I suppose * 'fairnin daga' (not attested) might express the idea,
                  but whether this is actually how Goths said "yesterday", I don't
                  know.

                  Llama Nom





                  You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
                  Yahoo! Groups Links









                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • llama_nom
                  ... thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your the only
                  Message 8 of 30 , Sep 9, 2005
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                    --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA <duke.co@s...> wrote:
                    > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
                    thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
                    fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
                    means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
                    queries to everyone.....oscar


                    > fauradag

                    Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
                    *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
                    day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
                    yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
                    that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


                    > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

                    I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
                    meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
                    something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
                    the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
                    Gothic 'afardags'.

                    I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
                    refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
                    language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
                    Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
                    *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
                    or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
                    reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
                    say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
                    COGNATES."

                    If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
                    other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

                    http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
                    http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
                    http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
                    tml
                    http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

                    Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
                    prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
                    when used as a preposition,
                    e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
                    suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
                    in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
                    behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
                    up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
                    it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
                    that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
                    do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
                    (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
                    is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



                    > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
                    the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
                    everyone.....oscar


                    Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
                    myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
                    everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
                    reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
                    as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

                    Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
                    to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
                    course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
                    line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
                    clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
                    the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
                    website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
                    you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
                    message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
                    the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
                    on your keyboard.

                    You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
                    address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
                    website (sign in) and click on "post".

                    To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
                    somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
                    want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
                    the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
                    you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
                    block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
                    that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
                    press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
                    really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
                    say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
                    explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
                    my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
                    doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

                    Llama Nom
                  • OSCAR HERRERA
                    your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar ... thought it
                    Message 9 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
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                      your right as it would appear to be a prefix.....like uf or un or fra or us or ur...im sure all these prefixes had their own meaning...oscar

                      llama_nom <600cell@...> wrote:--- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, OSCAR HERRERA wrote:
                      > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words....so i
                      thought it mught mean af before and day dag ,before today or perhaps
                      fauradag....im new to the computer so by replying directly to you
                      means your the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my
                      queries to everyone.....oscar


                      > fauradag

                      Maybe, although by analogy with 'afardags', I wonder if the word
                      *'fauradags' (if it was used) might have meant "the previous
                      day", "the day before" (i.e. before another day, not necessarily
                      yesterday). Of course, since it's not recorded in the Gothic texts
                      that are currently known about, we can't know for sure.


                      > doesnt af mean before as a cognate before other words

                      I can't think of a word where 'af' appears as a prefix
                      meaning "before". If that's what you're asking? A "prefix" is
                      something attached to the beginning of a word, for example 'to-' in
                      the English word 'today', or 'ex-' in 'example', or 'afar' in
                      Gothic 'afardags'.

                      I don't know what you mean by "cognate" here. To me, "cognate"
                      refers to words that have a common origin in some ancestral
                      language. For example, English 'day' is COGNATE with
                      Gothic 'dags'. They each come from the hypothetical Proto Germanic
                      *'dagaz'. (Historical linguists use an asterisk to show that a word
                      or word-form is not actually recorded, excepts as a modern
                      reconstruction.) You can also used the word 'cognate' as a noun and
                      say: "The English word 'day' and the Gothic word 'dags' are
                      COGNATES."

                      If you're curious about the meaning of 'af' "off", "away" or any
                      other word you might find these dictionaries useful:

                      http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html
                      http://www.wulfila.be/lib/streitberg/1910/
                      http://www.geocities.com/velikovski_project/dictionairygothicgerman.h
                      tml
                      http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

                      Here you can also browse lists of compound words where 'af' is a
                      prefix. In some, the meaning may diverge a bit from that of 'af'
                      when used as a preposition,
                      e.g. 'afetja' "glutton", 'afdrugkja' "drunkard". Is the prefix
                      suggestion that these people have gone "off" from the correct course
                      in life, that they have moved "away" from decent and respectable
                      behaviour? Or does it indicate a lost verb *'afetjan' "to eat all
                      up", "to gobble up", colloquially "to polish off"? In other words,
                      it's the food that's gone away. In favour of this idea is the fact
                      that 'afhvapjan' is "to choke", "to suffocate" (and thereby
                      do "away" with). Then there is a verb 'anadrigkan' "to get drunk"
                      (see Ephesians 5,18). As a preposition, the basic meaning of 'ana'
                      is "on", "onto", but as a prefix it's often more abstract.



                      > im new to the computer so by replying directly to you means your
                      the only one reading it...if so how am i to send my queries to
                      everyone.....oscar


                      Ah, you have my sympathies then: I'm not too clever with computers
                      myself! Don't worry, this last message of yours should have reached
                      everyone, because I'm reading it on the Yahoo Groups website [
                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gothic-l/ ]. Personally, I read and
                      reply to messages using the website, but you can also receive them
                      as e-mails. I don't know which method you use?

                      Anyway, I probably didn't explain myself well enough. I didn't mean
                      to say that you shouldn't post messages to the whole group. Of
                      course you can! I just suggested that you could change the "subject
                      line" (that's the title of each message), if you wanted to make it
                      clear to us that you were starting a new topic. This is
                      the "subject" in the box at the top of the e-mail; or on the
                      website, it's the title that you click on to view the message. When
                      you reply, it appears in a separate box, above the box where the
                      message is. To change it, just move the cursor over it, click on
                      the box, then delete it with the "delete" key or the "backspace" key
                      on your keyboard.

                      You might also be able to send a completely new message to the group
                      address. Or, if you want to start a new topic, you could go to the
                      website (sign in) and click on "post".

                      To delete a large amount of text (a lot of words), for example
                      somebody else's previous message if that's not important to what you
                      want to write about, then you can move the cursor over it, hold down
                      the (left) button on the mouse, or near the touchpad, or whatever
                      you're using, and then move the mouse over it. This makes a solid
                      block of colour appear round the letters. Experiment until you have
                      that coloured block around the words you want to delete, then
                      press "delete" in your keyboard. Please excuse me if this sounds
                      really patronising, or if I've misunderstood your question. As I
                      say, I'm not very good with computers and often need people to
                      explain things to me. And if this is all much too complicated and
                      my explanation is too confusing, don't worry about that either. It
                      doesn't really matter in the scheme of things.

                      Llama Nom





                      You are a member of the Gothic-L list. To unsubscribe, send a blank email to .
                      Yahoo! Groups Links









                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • llama_nom
                      Þatei was ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau: http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html ) Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra
                      Message 10 of 30 , Sep 10, 2005
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                        Þatei was

                        ( afar Fairnin daga, fram Pawlau Kartneins sunau:
                        http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/poetry/lennon-mccartney.html )

                        Þuhta þan þreihsl mein swa fairra mis,
                        iþ nu fanþ ik þatei wisiþ þis;
                        O, traua ik du þammei was.

                        Suns mis warþ; ni im manna saei faurþis was;
                        hahiþ ufar mis hva riqizis;
                        O þatei warþ, qam suns at mis.

                        Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                        Mis ni gataih.
                        Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                        Friaþwa, fairna was mis swa azets dags;
                        þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                        O, traua ik du þammei was.

                        Duhve mik bilaiþ si, ik ni wait;
                        Mis ni gataih.
                        Ik hva unraiht qaþ jah nu gairnja þizei was.

                        Friaþwa, fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags;
                        þarf nu stadis þarei filhan mag
                        O, traua ik du þammei was.


                        Notes, liberties, etc.

                        þatei wisiþ þis. Desperate partitive genitive for sake of rhyme.
                        Supposed to mean "that there is staying [something] of that / this",
                        i.e. that a certain amount of trouble is "here to stay". Apologies
                        to songwriters and 4th century bishops everywhere.

                        ...fairna was mis swaleiks azets dags. Intended to mean: "yesterday
                        was such an easy day for me." `Friaþwa', just setting the context
                        and not syntactically related. Ignoring the metre, the closest I
                        got was: "Fairnin daga friaþwa swaleiks azets mis was laiks."
                      • JoLynne
                        Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes of that area.
                        Message 11 of 30 , Feb 25, 2008
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                          Thank you for accepting me as a member of your group. I am interested
                          in the history of Bavaria, including the history of the ancient tribes
                          of that area. Mostly I am here to listen and learn.
                        • Madhukar Vichare
                          Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope this is ok to post here. I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my
                          Message 12 of 30 , Jun 2, 2008
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                            Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about themselves, so I hope
                            this is ok to post here.

                            I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos, friends,
                            interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set up your own
                            here: http://www.grouply.com/register.php?tmg=260177&vt=170949

                            Look forward to seeing your profile!

                            Madhukar

                            ====================
                            This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply instead of
                            email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations from being
                            sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can permanently block
                            future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:
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                          • Fredrik
                            It s always nice with presentations so we can know a little about each other but why not just write some words here? ... themselves, so I hope ... friends, ...
                            Message 13 of 30 , Jun 3, 2008
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                              It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about
                              each other but why not just write some words here?

                              --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, Madhukar Vichare
                              <madhukar_vichare@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about
                              themselves, so I hope
                              > this is ok to post here.
                              >
                              > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,
                              friends,
                              > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set
                              up your own
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                            • Madhukar Vichare
                              Finns (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                              Message 14 of 30 , Jun 5, 2008
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                                Finns
                                (phiha means angry but wicked man), who intro­duced a birch-tree
                                sweetener for gum, have found that the habit of chewing sticky lumps dates back
                                thousands of years. Last month, students in west­ern Finland found a piece of Stone Age birch-bark tar, be­lieved
                                to have been used for chewing and to fix broken ar­rowheads or clay dishes, ar­chaeologists
                                said. "Most likely the lump was used as an antique kind of chewing
                                gum," said Sami Vil­jamaa, an archaeologist who led the dig near Oulu, (Aulanam - Lake) north of Helsinki (helihi -the sun; sina – a period of “No Moon” night
                                when the small part of Moon is visible at certain latitudes). "But its main pur­pose was to fix things."
                                Vilja­maa said the piece of Neolith­ic gum was found among arti­facts in a
                                Stone Age village at the Kierikki (Kairavaḥ - Moon-lit-Night) Stone Age Center. "It's somewhere between 5,500 and 6,000 years
                                old," he said. The ancient Finnish habit of chewing gum surged in the
                                1980s when scientists discov­ered that gum containing xyl­itol prevented tooth
                                decay.

                                 

                                Egyptian
                                archaeolo­gists have found what they said could be the oldest hu­man footprint
                                in history in the country's western desert, the Arab country's antiquities'
                                chief said. "This could go back about two million years," said Zahi
                                Hawass, the sec­retary general of the Egypt­ian supreme council of an­tiquities.
                                "It could be the most im­portant discovery in Egypt," he said. Archaeologists found the footprint,
                                imprinted on mud and then hardened into rock, while exploring a pre­historic
                                site in Shiwa (Shiva in search of water for cooling down), a desert
                                oasis. Scientists are using car­bon tests on plants found in the rock to
                                determine its ex­act age, Hawass said. Khaled Saad, the direc­tor of prehistory
                                at the council, said that based on the age of the rock where the footprint was
                                found, it could date back even fur­ther than the renowned 3­million year-old
                                fossil Lucy, the partial skeleton of an ape-man, found in Ethiopia in 1974. Most archaeological in­terest in Egypt is focused on the time of the pharaohs. Previously,
                                the earliest human archaeological evi­dence from Egypt dated back around 200,000 years, Saad said.

                                 

                                I
                                have highlighted my views of looking at the old concepts with new insights in
                                view of the new knowledge: The subject of INDOLOGY will be meaningful.              Madhukar Vichare.

                                 

                                Anandamurti
                                JI wrote for the “Speaking Tree” (On Religion):

                                 

                                Taraka
                                (Tarkaha
                                or Taaraka) Brahma wants to eman­cipate living beings, but only those who want
                                liberation get liberation. When you long for liberation, the search leads you
                                to the Sadguru. Every one of us has a fixed role to play. You are a character
                                in a divine drama. The composer of this drama is Taaraka Brahma. An episode in
                                the Maha­bharata is instructive in this regard: After battle, the battle­ground
                                at Kurukṣetra became a cremation ground. At the end of the war
                                some people came there from the Kauravas' side. Among them were women and a few
                                elderly men. Gandhaari, mother of the Kauravas, was also there. Kuntī, mother of the Pandavas, and Krushna, Pandavas'
                                friend, were present as well, along with the visually challenged Dhrutarashtra.
                                Everyone was weeping. Gandhaari had lost hundred sons in the war. Krushna
                                approached Gandhaari and said: "Mother, why are you weeping? Death is a
                                naturallay. One who is born will die. So why cry?" Gandhaari replied:
                                "Yes Krushna, you have come here to console me, but I ask you, behind this
                                great event whose mind was at work? Who was the author of this great plan? Was
                                it not you?" Krushna replied: "Those who have committed injustice and
                                sinned have been punished. What can I do about that?" Gandhaari said to Krushna:
                                "Everything you have said up un­til now is quite correct. From the worldly
                                point of view, everything that has happened until now is as it should be,
                                because every action must have its reaction. But my point is: You yourself are
                                Taaraka Brahma; your duty is to liberate living beings. You can give libera­tion
                                to whomsoever you please.

                                 

                                'As
                                Taaraka Brahma you can create and destroy as you wish. In this drama of yours
                                you have created characters who are honest, ideological people. If one does
                                virtuous deeds then one gets liberation. To teach the people you create these
                                kinds of characters. And you also create sinful charac­ters to show how much a
                                person degenerates because of sinful behavior. In this drama, you could have
                                had my hundred sons play roles of righteousness and the Pandavas play roles of
                                unright­eousness, if you had so wished. In that case my hundred sons would have
                                gotten salvation. Now, after having made me cry, you come to console me!" Taaraka
                                Brahma for­mulates his plan in order to create situations that lend themselves
                                to illustrating values, to create awareness. For instance, if one engages in
                                honest work then one moves towards eternal truth, and if one performs dishonest
                                work then one moves towards untruth. Thereafter comes the other part of the
                                story.

                                 

                                Gandhaari
                                said: "Kṛṣṇa, give me permission to curse you". Krushna
                                replied: "Okay, curse me. I give you permission". Gandhaari cursed
                                him: "Just as my entire lineage has been destroyed before my very eyes,
                                may your Yaadava lineage be destroyed before your very eyes as well".
                                "Let it be so", Krushna replied. Remember always that we are only
                                actors in a universal drama. This is not our real identity. Some­one may play
                                the role of a king, but he might not even have two hand­fuls of rice in his
                                house. Someone plays the role of a poor man, but in real life he may be very
                                rich. We ought to remember that we are only playing specific roles in a cosmic
                                drama. Act according to the role given. This is a person's duty. This is a
                                wrong note to end the moral of the “Cosmic Drama” – Man must keep on bettering
                                his lot; learning new things, and keeping himself fit to fight against the
                                odds. He must use his intelligence and apply his mind. Krushna is not
                                coming to salvage your soul; man has to come up to the expectation of the Super
                                Personality of Godhead- it is symbolic, you have to become Krushna.

                                 

                                Uyuni
                                is in Bolivia: On the edge of the world's biggest salt desert,
                                villagers optimistical­ly scrawl "salt for sale" signs on their mud
                                brick homes. In backyards, mountains of the stuff are heaped like year-­round
                                snow drifts. But mining salt is no longer the only way to survive in this cold,
                                arid corner of south­western Bolivia. The Salar de Uyuni is becoming a must-see for
                                adventurous visitors to South
                                America, changing at least
                                some fortunes in the poor village of Colchani. "There's nothing here apart from salt... Tourists used to arrive
                                and they wouldn't buy anything, so we thought, 'How can we improve
                                things?" said Fermin Villca, who now sells ashtrays and llama fig­urines
                                carved from salt stone. Stretched between distant Andean peaks like a shimmer­ing
                                white carpet, the Salar de Uyuni is home to pink flamin­gos, 1,000-year-old
                                cacti, rare hummingbirds and hotels built entirely from blocks of salt. Earlier
                                this year, leading travel publisher Rough Guides listed the Salar as one of its
                                top 25 wonders of the world, along side far better-known attrac­tions such as
                                the Taj Mahal, Grand Canyon and Great
                                Wall of China.

                                 

                                A
                                gargantuan explosion ripped apart a star perhaps 150 times more mas­sive than
                                our Sun in a rela­tively nearby galaxy in the most powerful and brightest
                                supernova ever observed, as­tronomers said. And there is one such star in our
                                own Milky Way galaxy that appears to be on the brink of dying in just
                                such a super­nova. The exploding star's dra­matic death may have come in a rare
                                type of supernova reserved for "freakishly mas­sive" stars that
                                astronomers had speculated about but nev­er previously witnessed. The
                                supernova, designat­ed as SN 2006gy, occurred 240 million light years
                                away in a galaxy called NGC 1260, and was studied using observa­tions from NASA's
                                orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as earthbound optical telescopes.. The
                                explosion occurred long ago but was detected last year after its light traveled
                                many trillions of kilometers before it could be observed from Earth. "That
                                sounds far away but it's actually quite nearby on the vast scale of the uni­verse,"
                                astronomer Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led the research, said. A supernova marks a star's
                                death in a spectacular explosion. Scientists say these events playa crucial role
                                in creating heavy ele­ments through nuclear fu­sion and synthesis and then
                                expelling them into space, seeding the cosmos with metals.

                                 

                                The
                                travel of Manu and the great Fish, a symbolic story of the Puraana, the event
                                that occurred 10,000 BCE (ca): An
                                event like the one involving Noah's ark is depicted in- almost every ­ ancient
                                civilization or religion: Naunet in Egyptian; Manu in Hindu; Nuwa in Chinese;
                                Ziusudra in Sumerian; Atra-Hasis, Utnapishtim and Xisuthrus in Babylonian;
                                Deucalion in Greek; and Toptlipetlocali in Toltec. Noah is also mentioned often
                                in the Qumran, referred to as the prophet ‘Nuh’. All the names are
                                the corruption of original Sanskrit words used in Vedic rituals by the Āryans.

                                 

                                For
                                many scientists, the evi­dence that moral reasoning is a result of physical
                                traits that evolve along with everything else is just more evidence against
                                the exis­tence of the soul, or of a God to imbue humans with souls. For
                                many believers, particularly in the US, the findings show the er­ror, even wickedness, of
                                viewing the world in strictly material terms. And they provide for the­ologians
                                a growing impetus to rec­oncile the existence of the soul with the growing
                                evidence that humans are not, physically or even mentally, in a class by
                                themselves. The idea that human minds are the product of evolution is
                                "unassailable fact," the journal Nature said this month in an ed­itorial
                                on new findings on the physical basis of moral thought. A headline on the
                                editorial drove the point home: "With all defer­ence to the sensibilities
                                of reli­gious people, the idea that man was created in the image of God can
                                surely be put aside." Or as V S Ramachandran, a brain scientist at the University of California, San Diego, said in an interview, there may be soul in the sense
                                of "the universal spir­it of the cosmos," but the soul as it is
                                usually spoken of, "an im­material spirit that occupies in­dividual brains
                                and that only evolved in humans - all that is complete nonsense." Belief
                                in that kind of soul "is basically super­stition," he said.

                                 

                                Greenland
                                was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the latest of which disappeared around the year 200
                                AD. The island seems to have been uninhabited for some eight centuries till
                                Icelandic settlers led by Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they
                                arrived in 982 AD. They thrived here for 450 years, after which they
                                mysteriously vanished.

                                 ­

                                The
                                term tetra-pod, from the Greek 'tetrapoda,' (Sanskrit-“totra-vetram”- weapon of
                                Viṣṇu- + pada means feet) refers to vertebrate animals
                                having four feet, legs or leg-like appendages. Amphibians, lizards and mammals
                                are all tetra-pods. The term auto-pod, however, is used to refer to animals
                                whose limbs are subdivided into hands and feet, example: Humans.

                                 

                                The
                                researchers therefore believe that the capability of building limbs with
                                fingers and toes existed for a long period of time, but it took a set of
                                environmental triggers to make use of that capability. "Animals in the
                                Late Devonian period (385 to 359 million years ago) acquired limbs with fingers
                                using this primitive design, largely because their ecosystem - the small
                                streams that they lived in - was new," Shubin said "It had the tools,
                                but it needed the opportuni­ty as well." In yet another study on what
                                killed off the beasts of the Ice Age, researchers said that an extraterrestrial
                                object with a three-mile girth might have ex­ploded over southern Canada nearly
                                13,000 years ago, wiping out an ancient Stone Age culture as well as mega-fauna
                                like mastodons and mammoths. The blast could be to blame for a ma­jor cold
                                spell called the Younger Dryas that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene
                                Epoch, a period of time spanning from about 1.8 million years ago to 11,500
                                years ago. Research, presented at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union
                                (AGU) in Acapulco, Mexico this week, could shed light on major questions about
                                the mega-fauna extinction, the disappear­ance of the Clovis people, and an
                                abrupt climate change, Live-science reported. "Based on the distribution
                                of mate­rial, it looks like this impact probably occurred in southern Canada near the Great Lakes, over
                                what at that time would have been a major glacier, the Laurentide ice
                                sheet," said one of the presen­ters, Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley
                                National Laboratory. They couldn't find a distinct crater, suggesting the comet
                                burst in the air rather than slamming into Earth. Even an airburst should leave
                                its mark, so the scientists think the Laurentide Ice Sheet absorbed much of the
                                impact.

                                 

                                A
                                huge flood hundreds of thou­sands of years ago cut Britain off from the rest of Europe and turned it into an
                                island, according to a new study that of­fers clues to how England was settled.
                                Using high-resolution sonar waves, researchers mapped the floor of the Eng­lish Channel and turned up images of an enormous valley tens of
                                kilometers wide and up to 50 meters deep carved into chalk bedrock. The images
                                were similar to an area in the state of Washington where a mega-flood some 15,000 years ago also created
                                a landscape of distinctive land formations - indicating that the same thing
                                happened in Britain, the re­searchers said. Scientists said the study
                                provides the best evidence yet in the de­bate seeking to explain how the English Channel formed and cut Britain off from the rest of Europe.
                                "It showed us for the first time the ex­istence of this huge valley in the
                                centre of the English Channel," said Sanjeev Gupta, a researcher at Imperial
                                College London.

                                 

                                Mexican
                                archaeologists using ground-penetrating radar have detected underground
                                chambers they believe contain the remains of Emperor Ahuizotl, who ruled
                                the Aztecs when Columbus landed in the Americas. Ahuizotl (ah-WEE-zoh-tuhl), an empire-builder who
                                extended the Aztecs' reach as far as Guatemala, in South
                                America, was the last
                                emperor to complete his rule before the Spanish Conquest. Accounts written by
                                Spanish priests suggest the said area was used by the Aztecs to cremate and
                                bury their rulers. But no tomb of an Aztec ruler has ever been found. Now,
                                archaeologists said that they have located what appears to be a
                                Six-foot-by-six-foot entryway into a tomb about 15 feet below ground, off Mexico City's Zocalo plaza. The passage is filled with water,
                                rocks and mud, forcing work­ers to dig delicately. Later this year, they hope
                                to enter the inner chambers - a damp, low-ceilinged space - and discover the
                                ashes of Ahuizotl, who was likely cremated on a funeral pyre in 1502. Because
                                no Aztec royal tomb has ever been found, the archaeologists are literally
                                digging into the unknown. Radar indicates the tomb has up to four chambers, and
                                scientists think they will find a host of elaborate offerings to the gods on
                                the floor. "He must have been buried in solemn ceremony with rich
                                offerings, like vases and ornaments," said Luis Alberto Martos, director
                                of archaeological studies at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History.

                                 

                                All
                                signs found so far point to Ahuizotl. The site lies direct­ly below a huge,
                                recently discovered stone monolith carved with a representation of Tlaltecuhtli
                                (tlahl-tay-KOO-tlee), the Aztec god of the earth. Depicted as a woman with huge
                                claws, the fearsome Tlaltecuhtli was believed to devour the dead and then give
                                them new life. In the claw of her right foot, the god holds a rabbit and 10
                                dots, indicating the date "10 Rabbit" - 1502, the year of Ahuizotl's
                                death. "Our hypothesis is precisely that this is probably the tomb of
                                Ahuizotl," said Leonardo Lopez Lujan, the lead government archaeologist on
                                the project. "Imagine it - this wasn't just any high-ranking man. The
                                Aztecs were the most powerful society of their time," Martos said.
                                "That's why Ahuizotl's tomb down there is so important."        

                                 

                                The
                                Aztecs is a term used for the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico that thrived before the advent of Christopher
                                Columbus in the Americas. Aztec
                                culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions. For
                                Europeans, the most striking element of the Aztec culture was the practice of
                                human sacrifice which was conducted throughout Mesoamerica prior to the Spanish conquest Greenland was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the
                                latest of which disappeared around the year 200 AD. The island seems to have
                                been uninhabited for some eight centuries till Icelandic settlers led by
                                Norwegian Erik the Red found the land when they arrived in 982 AD. They thrived
                                here for 450 years, after which they mysteriously vanished. Archeologists have
                                discovered what they think are ruins of an Aztec pyramid razed by vengeful
                                Spanish conquerors in what is now one of Mexico City's most crime-ridden districts. Construction workers
                                un­earthed ancient walls in the busy Iztapalapa neighbor­hood in June, and
                                government archeologists said on Wednes­day that they believe they may be part
                                of the main pyramid of the Aztec city, destroyed by conquistador Hernan Cortes
                                in the 16th century.

                                 

                                In
                                the Gothic Bible, 'þiudans' is used of a king who goes to war:



                                aiþþau hvas þiudans gaggands stigqan wiþra anþarana þiudan (vipra praana-yukta pinda) du wiganna, niu
                                gasitands faurþis þankeiþ, siaiu mahteigs miþ taihun þusundjom gamotjan þamma
                                miþ twaim tigum þusundjo gaggandin ana sik?



                                Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first,
                                and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh
                                against him with twenty thousand?

                                Luke 14:31.



                                'frauja' (Praanaaha) "lord"
                                is also used with no Greek model for the noun in a military context (II Tim
                                2:4). I'm not sure whether 'reiks' is used anywhere in an explicitly military
                                context.



                                I am not a linguist but as far as I know they were reiks also when leading a
                                war expedition. Their sacral king, however, was never allowed to leave his own
                                territory when the people was permanently settled, but had to order a reiks (Rushis
                                –wandering Sages) to take command. During the wandering, according to Getica at
                                least, the þiuðans was sacral king and he used 'kings of the army' to lead
                                parts of the united army (like e.g. Cniva as Wolfram suggests) but I do not
                                know their title in Gothic.

                                 

                                The clue to the root of the
                                hypothetical Gothic form though is in Old Norse 'ugla' and especially (Old) Swedish 'uggla'. These show a sound change common to North and East Germanic
                                whereby 'ww' > 'ggw', as described by Wright. In Old Norse, the medial vowel
                                of the suffix has been lost, which is normal, but presumably it would have been
                                present in Gothic (compare 'mawilo'
                                "little girl" San – mahilaa meaning a woman), and the 'w' has
                                been dropped, as always between two consonants. So, I'd reconstruct Gothic
                                *'uggwilo': weak noun, feminine on-stem, i.e. declined like 'mawilo', 'tuggo',
                                etc. One last clue is the Catalan word 'òliba', (San. – Ulooka) which it's been suggested may be derived from the
                                Gothic word for owl

                                2.
                                örn "eagle" (San. – utkrosha)





                                Elof
                                Hellquist's Svensk etymologisk ordbok. 6 is especially interesting; both roots
                                are attested in Gothic. This would make a very handy addition to our
                                reconstructed "modern" vocabulary. There

                                is a Gothic derivative from the same root as 2 recorded, namely 'ara' "eagle",
                                cognate with Old Norse 'ari', but since ON had 'örn' (San. – “ara” one going with speed) there's no reason Gothic couldn't
                                have had both words too.

                                 

                                Ah,
                                no need for embarrassment! I was just thinking of it as an exercise in phonetic
                                reconstruction. In other words, what would a Gothic cognate of (word descended
                                from the same Proto-Germanic

                                ancestor as) Modern English 'wood' look like? But you're right 'triu' does mean
                                "a tree" (San. – “taru” means
                                tree also wood,) or "a stick". I guess that illustrates another issue
                                in reconstruction: where a word already exists in the same semantic field, how
                                might that have related to the meaning of a hypothetical, reconstructed Gothic
                                cognate? Does that make sense?



                                In this case, it seems that the better attested early Germanic languages did
                                have a few partly overlapping words in this semantic field, e.g. Old Norse has a word 'viðr' which is
                                cognate with 'wood', as well as a word 'tré' congate with English 'tree'.
                                So there's nothing improbably about supposing Gothic had cognates for both,
                                even though only one, 'triu', is recorded.





                                The
                                gist is this: initial 'b' in English corresponds to Gothic 'b' (as in Go.
                                'broþar' : Modern English 'brother' Sanskrit
                                is “Bhaartru”)-- no catch there. I found a comparison chart but it didn't
                                tell me what to do with initial B, medial TH, or final -M, let alone the
                                morpheme -AM, so I'm a little lost right now.

                                other Indo-European languages (e.g. Latin 2nd declension nouns ending
                                in -um, Greek in -on, Sanskrit in -am).

                                The
                                3rd person singular

                                (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in –iþ for the verbs used in the story.
                                "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ' (from 'slepan' "to sleep" San. Root is “svap” - svapiti). The
                                last sentence is in subjunctive, but you can have a simpler translation.

                                 

                                Some vocabulary you need: early morning – air uhtwon clothes – wasti  (Sanskrit
                                – Vastra) F.-jo (that is, feminine jo-stem) staff – hrugga F.-o to push –
                                stigqan to get awake – gawaknan to climb up – ussteigan to look like – wisan
                                galeiks (lit. "to be like") + noun in dative ("he's looking like
                                A." is 'ist galeiks A.'). Don't forget to put the A. ("owl" in
                                our case) in dative.

                                 

                                That
                                is, "I take" is 'nima' (from
                                'niman' "to take" Sanskrit word “nirgam” means get off, get away from
                                – ni-sru). The 3rd person singular (he/she/it does/is doing smth) ends in
                                –iþ for the verbs used in the story. "He's sleeping" is 'slepiþ'
                                (from 'slepan' "to sleep"). The last sentence is in subjunctive, but
                                you can have a simpler translation.





                                early
                                morning – air uhtwon; Sanskrit – ushas;






                                to
                                push – stigqan; Sanskrit – saahasin; to
                                climb up – ussteigan, San. – upari gama;

                                *kiggwan, OE cíowan, (San. –
                                ‘charvanam”) ON tyggva? 6. däggdjur "mammal"





                                So
                                you are through with your Aztec torment,
                                unlike me. Everyone saying that Gothic is difficult should be immediately
                                reminded of the existence of Nahuatl.
                                A couple remarks. Ilnâmiqui is "to remember", right? Niquilnâmiqui –  þis (or þata) [ik] ga-man? Iirc 'cân' can be
                                both directional and stative. I mean weren't it better to say 'þarei' with
                                'ainshun ni gaswiltiþ' and 'manna sigis nimiþ'? Is it the 'îchân tônatiuh', the
                                place? An interesting parallel between 'in yâômiqui' and einherjar...





                                Irish
                                Suibhne geilt living on trees and perhaps also the Nahuatl (Aztec) word for "demon" (= Go. skohsl) –
                                tlâcatecolôtl, lit. "man-owl", used in the Anales de Cuauhtitlan of
                                the gods whom human sacrifices were due to.





                                 



                                --- On Tue, 3/6/08, Fredrik <gadrauhts@...> wrote:
                                From: Fredrik <gadrauhts@...>
                                Subject: [gothic-l] Re: Introduction
                                To: gothic-l@yahoogroups.com
                                Date: Tuesday, 3 June, 2008, 8:05 PM











                                It's always nice with presentations so we can know a little about

                                each other but why not just write some words here?



                                --- In gothic-l@yahoogroup s.com, Madhukar Vichare

                                <madhukar_vichare@ ...> wrote:

                                >

                                > Most of my groups encourage members to share a bit about

                                themselves, so I hope

                                > this is ok to post here.

                                >

                                > I just setup a profile on Grouply where you can see my photos,

                                friends,

                                > interests, and a list of my groups. You can see my profile and set

                                up your own

                                > here: http://www.grouply. com/register. php?

                                tmg=260177&amp; vt=170949

                                >

                                > Look forward to seeing your profile!

                                >

                                > Madhukar

                                >

                                > ============ ========

                                > This message was posted by a fellow group member who uses Grouply

                                instead of

                                > email to access this group. Grouply blocks additional invitations

                                from being

                                > sent to this group by anyone for 30 days. Group owners can

                                permanently block

                                > future invitations using Grouply Owner Controls:

                                > http://blog. grouply.com/ protect#prevent_ invites .

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                                Bollywood, fun, friendship, sports and more. You name it, we have it on http://in.promos.yahoo.com/groups/bestofyahoo/

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