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Re: Greek

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  • llama_nom
    ... the ... anywhere? ... Hi Larry, I don t know of a complete list, but if you wanted to compile one G. Koebler s dictionary would probably be the place to
    Message 1 of 2 , Oct 29, 2004
      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Larry J. Swain" <theswain@o...>
      wrote:
      >
      >
      > A discussion on a related list brought up a language question for
      me:
      > what if any loan words from Greek are there in Gothic? After all
      > since our principle source for the language is the translation of
      the
      > Bible from Greek, one would expect a few. IS there a list
      anywhere?
      >
      > Larry Swain



      Hi Larry,

      I don't know of a complete list, but if you wanted to compile one G.
      Koebler's dictionary would probably be the place to start
      ("Gotisches Woerterbuch"
      http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html ). The main source of
      Greek loans is of course proper names - but apart from that there
      are surprisingly few. These tend to be technical religious terms,
      many ultimately from Aramaic:

      diakaunus 'deacon'
      apaustaulus 'apostle'
      daimonareis 'devil-possessed person'
      aggilus 'angel'
      aipistaule 'epistle, letter'
      papa 'priest, presbyter'
      praitauriaun 'pretorium, judgement-hall'
      praizbytairei 'church authority, elders'
      synagoge 'synagogue'
      sabbato, sabbatus 'sabbath'
      raka 'good-for-nothing'
      aiwaggeljo 'gospel, the Christian community'
      alabalstraun 'alabaster container'
      gazaufylakio 'temple treasury'
      kaurbaunan 'temple treasury'
      kaurban 'a donation to the temple'
      aiwlaugia 'donation'

      Sometimes the same word is borrowed in one place, but translated at
      another, e.g.

      diabaulus/diabulus 'devil' (besides the native: unhultho, unhultha &
      skohsl)
      taitrarkes 'tetrarch, one of the 4 governors of Palestine in Roman
      times' (also translated fidur-ragineis)
      laigaion 'Legion' (name of demon possessed man, in Mark's gospel -
      but in Luke, the same Gk. word legiwn is rendered with the native
      Go. harjis)

      It seems to be a deliberate practise to translate Greek where
      possible, but leave Aramaic unaltered:

      Gaiaina 'Gehennah, hell' (but also: halja 'hell, death' - in this
      case the Greek a(des = halja, but the Aramaic derived Geenna is
      simply transcribed)
      rabbei 'Rabbi' (but laisareis, talzjands 'teacher')
      ailoe ailoe lima sabakthani 'my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken
      me' (the following explanation of the meaning is fully translated)

      Most often even religious concepts are translated into native words:
      himins 'heaven', alhs 'temple', maithms 'gift to temple',
      sauths 'sacrifice', gudja 'priest', sinista 'elder', etc.

      Far more common than outright loans, probably, are calques (loan
      translations) like fidurragineis - but without other texts it's hard
      to gauge the true extent of these. Curiously, a lot of the not so
      technical Greek loans already existing in Gothic at the time of the
      Bible translation seem to have come through the medium of Latin, as
      far as it's possible to tell, e.g. skaurpjo 'scorpion' (cf.
      Kortland "The Origins of the Goths" -
      http://www.kortlandt.nl/publications/art 198e.pdf ).

      Another set of Greek loans are the names of the days of the week.
      Though not recorded in Gothic, Greek based day-names are thought to
      have come via Gothic to the South German dialects:

      Tuesday: *ARJAUSSDAGS, or *Areinsdags ( < Gk. arhos h(mera ) - NHG
      Arestag, Ertag, Irtag, Irchtag, Erchtag, Erichtag
      Thursday: *PINTADAGS, or *paintedags ( < Gk. pempth h(mera ) -
      Pfinztag - NHG dialects: Pfincztag, Pfünztag, Pfinztag, Pfinstag
      Friday: *PAREINSDAGS ( < Gk. paraskeuh ) - Pol. pia,tek (That comma
      is supposed to be a nasal mark under the "a"), Cz. Pátek
      Saturday: *SAMBATODAGS ( < Gk. Sambaton ) - OHG sambaztag > NHG
      Samstag; OBulg. Sabota, Rum. Sambata, Hung. Szombat, Pers. Samba

      Hope that helps,

      Llama Nom

      P.S.
      Useful links:

      The declension of Greek nouns in Gothic:
      http://www.nthuleen.com/papers/755gothpaper.html

      Other Gothic dictionaries & glossaries:
      http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/language_resources.html

      The Gothic Corpus:
      http://www.wulfila.be
      http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/indexe.htm

      An essay emphasizing (overemphasizing?) the artificiality of the
      Gothic Bible & its dependence on the Greek original:
      http://www.shakespeare.uk.net/journal/1_3/davis1_3.html
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