- While we're in a Gothic composition frenzy, here's my list of verbs
that take dative - which sometimes comes in handy. Not necessarily
complete, just the few listed by Wright + those I've spotted since.
So if you see any gaps... Or if anyone has a more definitive list?
(bi-aukan - dat. for person who benefits from the increase, acc. for
thing of theirs which is increased/added to - an ethic dative
construction, rather than dat. dir. obj.)
fra-bugjan - dat. once for commodity; otherwise acc.
us-dreiban - dat. or acc. (same meaning)
fraujinon - but: thiudanon ufar +dat.
and-hafjan - dat. for person answered
haftjan, sik ga-haftjan, ga-haftnan
ana-haitan - +dat. = scold; +acc. = invoke
hamon, ga-hamon (ana-hamon not attested with object)
us-kiusan - +dat. = reject; +acc. = prove, test, choose
kukjan - but bi-kukjan +acc.
ga-laubjan - "to believe in", but "to believe that" +acc.
ga-leikon, sik ga-ga-leikon, thairh-galeikon - +dat. 'imitate, act/be
like'; +acc. compare "to" +dat.
bi-leithan - dat. or acc. (same meaning)
fra-qiman - only dat. attested (maybe acc. possible too?)
us-qiman - dat. or acc. (same meaning)
us-qistjan, fra-qistjan - dat. or acc. (same meaning)
af-qithan - (but af-aikan +acc.)
rignjan - dat. for what falls
sakan, ga-sakan - the latter also found with acc.
skaidan - dat. or acc., possibly with no difference in meaning;
attested examples: +dat. = "sever" e.g. bond of matrimony (thatei nu
guth gawath, manna thamma ni skaidai 'what God has joined, let no man
put asunder'); +dat. or +acc. = "split, cause to separate" e.g.
skaidan mannan withra attan 'divide a man against his father'; qenai
fairra abin ni skaidan 'not to part a wife from her husband'. Also:
skaidith sik 'he departs', lit. "separates himself".
?*skiutan (only recorded in Crimean, but cf. ON skjo'ta +dat. for
missile & Go. wairpan, etc.)
straujan, uf-straujan (ga-straujan not attested with object)
ufar-trusnjan - dat. of substance sprinkled
wairpan, ga-wairpan, af-wairpan, us-wairpan - dat. or acc. (same
wasjan, [sik] ga-wasjan
witan 3 - "to keep watch over"
Typically verbs meaning "to act as" or "to perform the role of X
towards" - especially 2nd weak verbs, many ending -inon - take dative
for the person thus served.
Verbs with the prefix mith- take dat. for the person with whom the
action is performed. Some verbs with the prefix af-, but not all.
Verbs of throwing/raining/strewing/sprinkling take dat. for missile.
Derivatives of hamon & wasjan take dat. for item of clothing being
As in modern German, Russian, etc., doing something to a particular
part of someone (hitting face, washing feet, cutting ear off, etc.)
often expressed with person in dat., body-part in acc.
Many verbs of destruction, loss and injury take dat. for thing harmed
or lost, at least optionally. Where dat. & acc. indicate different
meanings, the dat. usually signals the more negative one.
Synonyms don't necessarily take the same case.