Visigoths not "Booted Out"
You seem to be somewhat confused about this period of history.
The Visigoths were absolutely not as you say "booted out of Spain".
Neither is there evidence of any meaningful emigration outside of
Spain after their defeat in 711. Rather- after Guadalete, a great many
of remaining Visigoths retreated to Asturias, an area never occupied
by the moors. It is from Asturias that an organized resistance against
the moors (see covadonga) began under the leadership of Pelagius,
attested in period documents to have been a Visigoth noble and one of
King Roderick's bodyguards. Fafila, the son of Pelagius was actually
recognized as Rex Gothorum (King of the Goths) by the Pope after his
father's death. Roderick was of course the last king of the Toletan
Gothia. I might also add that some Visigoths were allowed to stay-on
in their lands in Castile, (North-Central Spain)and elsewhere after
the moorish invasion, however, the conditions under which they existed
became increasingly intolerable and led to what is termed as the
"Martyr's Movement". The intolerable conditions leading to the
Martyr's Movement caused many individuals, the majority being
Visigoths, to migrate northward to Asturias and Leon in northern
Spain. By that time a considerable amount of territory had already
been retaken from the moors. The latter migration is well documented
in period documents once archived at the library of the monastery of
Sahagun and subsequent onomastic research. (Fortunately, there is a
wealth of documentation in Spain even from the time of the Visigoths,
which unfortunately has not yet been fully exploited by researchers).
A paper, based on such documents and whose findings further support
the stated migration was recently published and accounts for a sudden
dearth of Gothic names in the Visigothic area under Moorish control
and a subsequent flood of Gothic names in the areas under Christian
control to the north in Asturias and Leon. I will present some
highlights of that paper at a later time.
--- In email@example.com, "James Young" <daddio52@s...> wrote:
> The Visigoths had just been booted out of Spain and the Franks didn't
> want them. Some of them probably went back to their old homeland from
> Roman days. I wonder if they had to get permission from
> Constantinople? The Turks still hadn't gotten to Turkey.
- Some sources for Gothic loans in German & Bavarian.
Wiesinger, Peter (1985) "Gotische Lehnwoerter im Bairischen", in
Fruemittelalterliche Ethnogenese im Alpenraum, 153-200
Here are some of the German words claimed as from Gothic, or from
Greek/Latin through the medium of Gothic:
STANDARD HIGH GERMAN:
Ablass < aflet(s)
anst < ansts
Bischof < Aipiskopus
Engel < Aggilus
erfuellen < usfulljan
glauben < galaubjan
Kirche < *kiriko?
Pfaffe < papa
Pfingsten (see: pfinstag)
taufen < daupjan
Teufel < diabulus
wih < weihs
nerrendeo, nerrento < nasjands
dult < dulths
maut < mota
pfaid < paida
Ertag, Irta, etc. < *arjausdags
Pfinstag, Pfinsta, etc. < *pintadags
Some of these, like Ablass, might be calques, "loan translations",
rather than loanwords as such. Some, like nerrento, wih, erfuellen,
etc., could just as well be native German words, cognate with the
Gothic ones, used by later missionaries for the same reason as the
Goths chose them: because they had the right meaning. Or the use of
nerrento might owe something to Anglo-Saxon missionaries, cf. OE
neriend. Of course, certain of the English cognates are ultimately
loans, maybe via Gothic (OE deofol, engel, cirica). The regional
preference in OHG for certain words in the south: wih, versus
Franconian heilag; anst, vesus Franconian geba/huldi - might in some
cases reflect Gothic influence, or it could just be due to later
missions, or arbitrary differences.
Kirche/church might have been an early loans from Latin direct into
West Germanic. (It is not thought to have come into German from with
the Anglo-Saxon missionaries.) But the normal word in the Latin west
was ecclesia (or basilica), hence the forms in the modern Romance and
Celtic languages. And according to the OED, "Ulphilas... belonged to
the very region and time for which we have the most weighty evidence
for the [rare] use of [Gk.] kuriakon [in the sense of a church
building]". The derivation of the word is even discussed by Walafrid
in the 9th century, with reference to the Goths in the Greek
Re: dulths, Koebler cites a suggestion by Lehmann, that it might be
from Latin indultum 'Erlaubnis' - but this is just a guess, I think.
--- In firstname.lastname@example.org, "faltin2001" <dirk@s...> wrote:
> --- In email@example.com, "llama_nom" <penterakt@f...> wrote:
> > Hi Dirk,
> > I'd be interested to see a list of the Gothic loanwords into
> > Bavarian; I'm especially curious about the "Gothic words which
> > uniquely preserved in Bavarian".
> I will have to dig out the article I refered to earlier. One
> word that springs to mind is 'Dulds' for festival.
> Do you know if these include any
> > others apart from the days of the week?
> > How certain is it that Pfait is a Gothic loan? The word is also
> > found in Old English, as PAD, with compounds such as HEREPAD (war-
> > shirt = armour) and HASUPAD (grey-shirt = wolf). According to
> > Priebsch & Collinson "The German Language", OHG pfeit "seems to
> > been shifted from a Thracian word BAITEE for a sheepskin".
> > spelt in Greek letters, I used EE for Gk. eta.)
> That seem possible. I had not heard of Pfait as a Gothic loanword
> before Francisc mentioned it.
> > Is AU the normal development of Gmc. long U: in Bavarian, as in
> > standard Modern High German? If so, this might point to the
> > confusion in Gothic between O: and U:, and I guess the final T in
> > Maut would imply that it was borrowed after the High German
> > shift. So this looks quite a good candidate.
> > The "supposedly Crimean" TELICH, of course, being so very similar
> > the Low German, raises the question of how much Bousbeque was
> > assimilating the forms of these Gothic words to those of German
> > Dutch words he was more familiar with. I wonder what the
> > of this is.
> I don't know. But you are right many or most of Busbeque's Crimean
> Gothis words are really Low German/Flemmish.
> > Another thought: is there any evidence of Gothic vocabulary in
> > Alemannic dialects of Switzerland?
> I am no aware of any study on this issue.