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  • jpisc98357@aol.com
    Click here: The Heroic Age: Archaeology Digest The Heroic Age Issue 4Winter 2001
    Message 1 of 3 , Oct 20, 2002
      <A HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/arch.html#anchor122847">Click here: The Heroic Age: Archaeology Digest</A>
      The Heroic Age

      Issue 4Winter 2001



      Archaeology Digest



      Compiled by Michelle Ziegler


      <A HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor1586028">England</A>

      <A HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor101552">Ireland</A>

      <A HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor107444">Scandinavia</A>

      <A HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor131291">Scotland</A>

      <A HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor184489">Wales</A>




      England

      Kentish Palace of the Archbishop of Canterbury DiscoveredArchaeologists
      working at Teynham, 15 miles south of Canterbury, have discovered a palace
      used by the Archbishop of Canterbury between the 9th and 16th centuries. This
      palace had a reputation for its vineyards and wine. The Swale Archaeological
      Survey, directed by Paul Wilkinson, found the site this summer by field
      walking, geophysical survey, and small-scale excavations. To date, the
      gatehouse, courtyard and stables have been discovered. Pottery found on the
      site had yielded the expected date range with most of it dating to the 13th
      -14th century. The palace's wine store may be the building discovered on the
      site in the 1970s. The site was deeded to Archbishop Athelard by King
      Cenewulf of Kent in 801. The estate was greatly expanded by Archbishop
      Lanfranc in 1070. It passed from the church back to the crown under Henry
      VIII in 1538 and was much later demolished.Source: Simon Denison (October
      2000) "Archbishop of Canterbury's palace discovered in Kent" British
      Archaeology <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#kent">http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#kent</A>Lord of
      Sutton Hoo's Ancestors FoundOn a small hill-top overlooking the River Denben,
      approximately 500 meters from Sutton Hoo, an older high status cemetery has
      been discovered. Artifacts found on the site date it to the later 6th
      century, approximately one to two generations earlier than the Sutton Hoo
      cemetery. Artifacts found include a decorated bronze hanging bowl, six graves
      with a spear and shield, one grave with a sword, two female bronze ring
      brooches and a beaded necklace. One of the shields was decorated with bronze
      studs and "decorative mounts in the shape of a fish". (Photos are available
      on the Sutton Hoo Society news site below.)Some 18 cremation and 5 inhumation
      burials were found. A circular ditch enclosed some of the cremation burials
      and many were under mounds. This is unusual in Britain but common in the
      River Elbe region of northern Germany suggesting that these settlers were
      still in touch with their homeland or newly arrived in Britain. This cemetery
      is contemporary with the richer site of Snape a few miles north which
      contained a boat burial. It has been suggested that these two cemeteries may
      represent rival branches of the Anglian royal house as it began to increase
      in power. It is possible that these northern German settlers were displaced
      by those with a stronger Scandinavian influence and who were buried at Sutton
      Hoo. A 3500 year old Bronze Age burial mound was also found along with
      several silted up Bronze and Iron Age ditches.When excavations are complete,
      the site is to be developed into the new visitor's center and exhibition
      center for the Sutton Hoo heritage site. The new buildings are scheduled to
      open in the spring of 2002.Sources: Simon Denison (August 2000) "Sixth
      century cemetery points to the origins of Sutton Hoo" British Archaeology <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html">
      http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html</A> ; "Archaeologists uncover
      another cemetery of the 6th/7th century" (June 2000) The Sutton Hoo Society
      News. <A HREF="http://www.suttonhoo.org/Digupdate/digphotos.htm">http://www.suttonhoo.org/Digupdate/digphotos.htm</A> Downloaded December
      18, 2000. ; David Keys (June 24, 2000) "Sutton Hoo gives up a royal Dark Age
      secret" The Independent <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/archeology240600.shtml">
      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/archeology240600.sht

      ml</A><A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/archaeology240600.shtml"> </A>Downloaded September 14, 2000. London's Lady Gladiator?Reexamination of
      the remains of a Roman woman's grave has raised new questions as to whether
      or not she was a gladiator. The remains were first discovered in 1996 and
      have only recently been reexamined. The grave was found outside of the Roman
      walled cemetery but of relatively high status with exotic grave goods. Her
      unusual grave reveals that she was cremated on an open pyre that then
      collapsed into a pit. The remains were determined to be female in her 20s
      based on the remains of a pelvic bone. Some sixteen ceramic objects were
      found with the remains, including three pieces depicting the Egyptian god of
      the dead, Anubis, and a lamp depicting a gladiator. In the Roman pantheon,
      Anubis was equated with the Roman god Mercury, in whose costume slaves
      removed the bodies of fallen gladiators. The combination of the unusual
      funeral pyre, burial outside of the walled cemetery, an exotic funeral feast
      serving dates, almonds, and doves, Mediterranean pinecones burned as incense
      at the funeral, and objects depicting a gladiator and Anubis have suggested
      to some that she may have been a rare female gladiator. Gladiatorial contests
      originated in Roman funeral games. According to literary sources, women were
      known to occasionally compete in gladiatorial contests but this could be the
      first archaeological proof. Gladiator's graves have been excavated in Tier,
      Germany, but these lacked the wealth of this grave. This may support the
      belief that the earliest female gladiators were from the upper class. Female
      gladiators were banned from the arena by AD 200. A gladiatorial arena was
      found in London in 1986 under Guildhall that could have held up to one third
      of the city's population at the time.Source: David Keys (September 13, 2000)
      "Roman burial site suggests that female gladiators fought in Britain" The
      Independant <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-09/gladiator130900.shtml">http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Thi
      s_Britain/2000-09/gladiator130900.shtml</A>
      Downloaded December 18, 2000; Dalya Alberge (September 13, 2000) "Woman
      Gladiator found buried in London" The Times <A HREF="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws02039.html">
      http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws02039.html.</A>
      Downloaded September 13, 2000; Philip Howard (September 13, 2000) "Spice
      Girls with serious attitude" The Times <A HREF="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws01038.html">
      http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws01038.html</A>
      Downloaded September 13, 2000; Robert Barr (September 12, 2000) "Remains may
      be of female gladiator" Salon.com <A HREF="http://www.salon.com/mwt/wire/2000/09/12/female_gladiator/print.html">
      http://www.salon.com/mwt/wire/2000/09/12/female_gladiator/print.html</A>
      Downloaded September 13, 2000. Lost Stretch of Hadrian's Wall
      UncoveredArchaeologists working at Newcastle upon Tyne have finally solved an
      old mystery, the route of the end section of Hadrian's Wall. Most of this
      region of the wall was destroyed during the development of Newcastle but a
      two-meter section has discovered during a public works construction. >From
      the current dig, archaeologists were able to uncover the foundation revealing
      two lines of sandstone fragments filled in between with clay. On the northern
      side of the foundation, there was a defensive ditch and a series of
      postholes, which may have held sharpened stakes. A similar defensive system
      of postholes was also found on the northern side of the wall at Wallsend. At
      least twenty yards surrounding this section will now be excavated.Sources:
      David Derbyshire (November 2, 2000) "Lost stretch of Hadrian's Wall is
      unearthed" The Electronic Telegraph Issue 1987 <A HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=VkZGGjFx&atmo=FFFFFFFX&pg=/et/00/11/2/nwall02.html">
      http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=VkZGGjFx&
      atmo=FFFFFFFX&pg=/et/00/11/2/nwall02.html </A>Downloaded December 18, 2000; David
      Keys (November 2, 2000) "Lost section of Hadrian's Wall is uncovered" The
      Independent Downloaded December 18, 2000.More of Boadicea's Destruction of
      London RevealedAn excavation 400 meters northwest of the Tower of London by
      the Museum of London Archaeological Service has uncovered more of the remains
      of Boadicea's destruction of the first city of London. The site near
      Fenchurch Street has revealed a layer of burnt building debris up to 30 cm
      thick in some areas. It is estimated that the area of excavation could have
      held up to twenty buildings at the time of Boadicea's rebellion. This site
      could reveal the best evidence of the extent of damage inflicted on the city
      by the British. It is also revealing the extravagant masonry buildings
      decorated with mosaics and plaster painted with pigments from Iran and
      Afganistan that replaced the original wattle and dub buildings.Source: David
      Keys (June 28, 2000) "Remains of the London that Boadicea burnt to ground are
      found by Tower" The Independent <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This-_-Britain/2000-06/boadicea280600.shtml">
      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/boadicea280600.shtml
      </A>

      Downloaded September 14, 2000.One of the Oldest Roman tombstones in Britain
      fully restoredThe cavalryman Longinus was one of the first Romans in Britain
      honored with a tombstone. Longinus was buried in 43-49 AD, only one to seven
      years after the Claudian invasion. So soon after that it has been suggested
      that he was part of the invasion force. The stone showing a cavalryman riding
      down an early Briton, along with another memorializing Facilis the centurion,
      are believed to have been destroyed in the Boudicca's rebellion in
      AD61.According to the inscription, Longinus Sdapeze was the second in command
      of a Thracian cavalry unit. He died in Colchester after fifteen years of
      service to the Roman army. It also indicates that the 40 year old Longinus
      was born in the area of the modern Sofia, Bulgaria.The stone was discovered
      over 70 years ago near Colchester in Essex but until now the stone was
      incomplete. Archaeologists returned to the site in 1996 to survey in front of
      a new housing project and found the missing fragments of the tombstone
      including the fragments from the face of Longinus. The fragments were
      actually found by the amateur Colchester Archaeology Group. The
      stratification, with the head buried slightly deeper than the rest of the
      tomb, indicates that tomb may have been rebuilt without the head after its
      initial destruction, only to be destroyed again at a later date.Source: Maev
      Kennedy (October 31, 2000) "Restored tombstone puts a face to Roman invader"
      The Irish Times on the Web. Downloaded December 18, 2000; Simon Denison
      (December 2000) "Roman horseman reunited with his head" British Archaeology
      Issue 56 <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba56/ba56news.html#head">http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba56/ba56news.html#head</A> Downloaded
      January 2, 2001. Roman Vindolanda's POW campRecent excavations at Vindolanda
      have reinforced the theory that the fort was used as a prisoner of war camp
      in the third century. The southwestern corner of the fort has yielded 13
      native circular stone buildings similar to those found earlier in the center
      and north of the camp. Archaeologists now assume the entire fort was covered
      in these circular native huts, arranged in back to back in narrow rows. Part
      of the fortress may have even been flattened to make room for more huts. If
      their assumptions are correct, then the fortress housed up to 2000 prisoners
      in approximately 300 huts. The rows of huts contained only hearths but no
      other signs of everyday life indicating that they were regularly sweep clean
      in antiquity. The huts have been linked to the uprisings of 209 and 211.The
      2000 excavation also yielded a first century bath house. The bricks and tiles
      captured a snapshot of wild life in the regions by preserving dog, cat,
      squirrel, deer and possibly one bear print. One tile must have been in a
      virtual stampede, reflected by its 17 prints.Source: Simon Denison (August
      2000) "More evidence of Roman POW camp on Hadrian's Wall" British Archaeology
      Issue 54 <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#pow">http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#pow </A>; David
      Derbyshire (August 11, 2000) "Roman POW camp found at Hadrian's Wall" The
      Electronic Telegraph Issue 1904 <A HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=gwwYwrNu&atmo=hhhhh%2520%0Ahhe&pg=/et/00/8/11/npow11.html">
      http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=gwwYwrNu&
      atmo=hhhhh%2520%0Ahhe&pg=/et/00/8/11/npow11.html</A> The Founders of Saxon
      Hamwic, SouthamptonHamwic was one of the earliest towns in Anglo-Saxon
      England. Recently the high status cemetery that might contain the founders of
      Hamwic was discovered on the northwestern edge of the town. The graves
      yielded weapons, gold and other precious jewelry. The date of Hamwic has been
      pushed back to the late seventh century by pottery and other artifacts found
      at the cemetery. This makes Hamwic a contemporary of the Saxon London and
      Ipswich trading centers.The trading center of Hamwic made its founders
      relatively rich. Of the forty graves found to date, two adults were buried
      with glass and amber necklaces set off by a golden pendent centerpiece. One
      of the pendants features a snake chasing its tail and a center of
      semi-precious stone jewels. At the feet of this same person, a wooden box
      with a single silver object, similar to an unstamped coin, was discovered.
      Another beaded necklace contained a Roman signet ring featuring a sculpted
      glass intaglio.In addition to the cemetery, excavators found part of the town
      of Hamwic. This area produced the typical artifacts of domestic occupation in
      addition to waste from metal and bone-working industries. Among the
      presumably accidental industrial losses were a skein of gold thread and part
      of a copper spoon. The area also lacked solidly constructed buildings
      suggesting it was a poor outlying district of the town.Source: Simon Denison
      (August 2000) "Saxon royal cemetery discovered in Southampton" British
      Archaeology Issue 54 <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#royal">http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#royal</A>The
      Roman Fort at CarlisleExcavations done ahead on Carlisle's Millennium Project
      have uncovered the Roman fortress under the current Castle Green.
      Archaeologists have been able to uncover remains of the improvements in the
      fortress walls from the original turf rampart to the final stone walls. They
      have found artifacts from all aspects of life from standing wooden buildings,
      original road surfaces, leather goods, environmental remains such as
      parasites, insects, and weeds, to correspondence. The commander's house was
      discovered, as was some of the barracks where horses were quartered with the
      men. Although nothing extraordinary was discovered, the excavations have
      provided a valuable slice of life from Roman times and an unusual opportunity
      for deep stratification excavations.Source: Giles Worsley (September 4, 2000)
      "Fort dig reveals downside of life on Hadrian's Wall" The Electronic
      Telegraph Issue 1928 <A HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=r93FSmbX&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/9/4/nfort04.html">http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000405944438668&
      rtmo=r93FSmbX&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/9/4/nfort04.html</A>Downloaded Decemeber
      18, 2000. Roman towns and villas discoveredThe Roman town of Noviomagus is
      well documented in Roman sources but until now archaeologists had been unable
      to locate it. The location is at West Wickham, Kent, near the St. John the
      Baptist church. Brian Philip discovered the site in 1966 and he has spent the
      following 34 years compiling evidence and trying to convince archaeologists
      to excavate. Finally he convinced Archaeologist Sheppard Frere who instigated
      the excavations and confirm the location.Just outside of Lewes, East Sussex,
      an extensive Roman villa complex is being uncovered. The villa had at least
      25 rooms richly decorated with painted plasters and mosaics, under floor
      heating, and bath complex with three buildings, a separate temple building
      and agricultural buildings. The elaborate lifestyle of the Roman era
      inhabitants is also evident in Gallic and Mediterranean imports, red tile
      roofs, shards of delicate glass vessels, and debris from oyster feasts.The
      estimated diameter of the Lewes villa is 120 meters and the entire villa
      complex covers 8,300 square meters. This manor may have controlled a farming
      estate of at least four square miles. The villa is believed to have been
      built in the first century and occupied for 300 years. Local records suggest
      the villa continued to be an administrative center after the Romans left,
      through the Saxon and Norman periods. Even today, it is still a focal point
      in the local area.Source: Adam Lusher (July 30, 2000) "Archaeologist's dig
      reveals solution to ancient riddle of lost Roman town" The Electronic
      Telegraph Issue 1892 <A HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=fqafMNqs&atmo=fqafMNqs%2520%0A&pg=/et/00/7/30/narch30.html">http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000140326706927&
      rtmo=fqafMNqs&atmo=fqafMNqs%2520%0A&pg=/et/00/7/30/narch30.html </A>Downloaded
      July 30, 2000; David Keys (August 5, 2000) "Roman villa complex found in
      Sussex" The Independent <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/tb11roman050800.shtml">
      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/tb11roman050800.shtm

      l </A>Downloaded September 14, 2000. Saxon JusticeAnother Saxon execution may
      have been discovered at Hinchingbrooke near Huntington. The burial resembled
      those in the execution cemetary at Sutton Hoo, with in this case, the
      skeleton discovered buried face-down on its knees in a pit. This site had
      been a former Roman villa and an earlier middle and late Iron Age farmstead.
      The Iron Age farm yielded roundhouses, pots, and iron currency bars found in
      ditches. The Roman villa yielded painted plaster, a building thought to be a
      temple, possible garden features, and an aisled barn in trial excavations.
      Hopes of further excavations were been dashed when the Cambridge County
      Council canceled excavation plans and put the property up for sale.A skeleton
      previously found in Stonehenge has been radiocarbon dated to AD 650-690. Like
      other executions, the victim, in his 30s, had been beheaded. The location of
      the grave had lead to speculation that the victim could have been a Christian
      slain in a period when Wessex was not yet ruled by a unified dynasty and when
      Christianity was not yet accepted by all its inhabitants. However, it has
      also been noted that Stonehenge sits on a hundred boundary, the type of
      location later used for judicial executions. The three other skeletons found
      in the past may reinforce the latter since two of them may also be execution
      victims. Recent estimations suggest that up to three percent of males in this
      period died by execution. There have been approximately twenty execution
      cemeteries found to date.Source: Simon Denison (October 2000) "Saxon
      Criminal" British Archaeology Issue 55 <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#inbrief">
      http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#inbrief</A>; Simon Denison
      (August 2000) "Stonehenge man" British Archaeology Issue 54 <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief">
      http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief</A>; David Keys (July 14,
      2000) "Stonehenge used as Saxon execution site" The Independent <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-07/henge140700.shtml">
      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-07/henge140700.shtml</A>
      Downloaded September 14, 2000. Saxon LondonNew pottery found in London
      suggests that a Saxon presence could have been in the city earlier than had
      been supposed. One of the pots was produced with tempered bone meal, of the
      same type found at sites west of London in the 5th-6th century. The new site
      is at the west end of Long Acre, west of a large Saxon site found in Convent
      Garden under the Royal Opera House. The Convent Garden site produced a
      6th-7th century bronze saucer-brooch. It has been suggested that Saxon
      Lundenwic could have been located in the region of the Convent Garden and the
      Strand. It should be mentioned that without other evidence of settlement,
      pottery could reach the site by trade or other means.Source: Norman Hammond
      (August 11, 2000) "Unearthing a Bone of Contention" The Times <A HREF="http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/11/timcrtcrt01002.html">
      http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/11/timcrtcrt01002.html</A>
      Sexing Anglo-Saxon RemainsNew work done under the direction of Dominic
      Powlesland has brought into question methods for sexing Anglo-Saxon remains.
      Skeletons from the Heslerton Anglo-Saxon village, near Malton, in North
      Yorkshire have been subjected to DNA analysis and yielded some surprises. Two
      skeletons buried with spears and a knife have turned out to be genetically
      female while six remains buried with "brooches, beads and handbangs" are
      genetically male. Previously, burials containing spears were assumed to be
      male and those with beads and handbags were assumed to be female.Source: Nick
      Nuttall (August 22, 2000) "New light on the Dark Ages" The Times <A HREF="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/22/timnwsnws01005.html">
      http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/22/timnwsnws01005.html</A>
      Downloaded August 22, 2000. Ireland

      Sixth Century Crozier Discovered Stuck in the MudMs. Ellen O'Carroll of the
      Archaeological Development Services discovered a rare sixth century Bishop's
      crozier stuck vertically in the mud as she surveyed in advance of peat
      harvesting in Offaly county near Ferbane, about ten miles from Clonmacnoise.
      The crozier, now broken into several segements, was originally about 1.25
      meters long with a 25mm diameter. It appears to have been carved out of a
      single branch or stem of Cherry wood.The crozier is believed to be the
      earliest one discovered in Ireland. Surprisingly, the crook is crafted to
      enclose a Greek cross and the tip of the crozier is "stepped and pointed". It
      is unclear if it originally had a metal point on the end. It was discovered
      next to a pathway of split oak planks dated by dendrochronology to AD 596. It
      has been suggested that it could have been a 'ritual deposition' of a cross.
      The pathway was constructed to give an elevated walkway above the surface of
      the bog. It provided access on foot from dry land of Killiaghintober to
      Leamanaghan Island, which contains the remains of St. Manchan's Church. The
      foundation of the church is reputed to have predated St. Manachan's death in
      AD 665. In the process of removing the upper layers of peat, networks of
      other pathways have been uncovered. These other pathways have been dated to
      the 10th to 17th centuries. In addition to the pathways, some coins and
      leather shoes have also been discovered.Source: "Archaeologist uncovers 6th
      century crozier in Offaly" (June 22, 2000) The Irish Times <A HREF="http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2000/0622/hom5.htm">
      http://www.ireland.com:80/newspaper/ireland/2000/0622/hom5.htm</A> downloaded
      June 25, 2000; Simon Denison (August 2000) "Bishop's Crozier" British
      Archaeology Issue 54 <A HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief">http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief</A>
      Bronze Age to Early Christian Cemetery Uncovered in MeathWorking in advance
      of a new development project, archaeologists in Laytown, Meath, have
      discovered an early Christian cemetery and a Bronze Age enclosure. By August,
      50 stone-lined graves of both men and women had been uncovered but curiously
      they found very few children. Double ditches suggesting extensive defenses
      encircled the Bronze Age sub-rectangular enclosure, although no artifacts had
      yet been discovered in August. Another Bronze Age settlement with its
      cemetery was discovered about two years ago at Bettystown, only a half a mile
      from Laytown.Source: Elaine Keogh (August 15, 2000) "Meath dig yields early
      Christian Graves" The Irish Times <A HREF="http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2000/085/north10.htm">
      http://www.ireland.com:80/newspaper/ireland/2000/085/north10.htm</A> Downloaded
      August 21, 2000. Scandinavia

      Roman Era Warriors Camp Discovered in NorwayAn approximately 2000 year old
      military camp has been discovered at Spangereid, Norway. The site of
      Spangereid is located on the Norweigan coast at the point closest to Denmark,
      at the time possibly held by the Jutes. This site is the easternmost of
      twenty newly discovered camps in Norway. The site with the remains of ten
      buildings has been determined to have been a military court because it lacked
      artifacts of normal civilian settlements. Several large boathouses were
      discovered near the Spangereid site. It has been suggested that these
      boathouses were used to house warships. The nearby village produced several
      rich graves illustrating contact with Britain, Roman Gaul, and the Baltic
      after A.D. 200.Source: Frans-Arne Stylegar. (December 12, 2000) "A Warrior
      Camp: Pre-Viking Chieftans Likely Drove Scandinavian Contacts" Discovering
      Archaeology <A HREF="http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/121200-warrior.shtml">http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/121200-warrior.shtml</A>
      Downloaded December 13, 2000. (When this story was originally posted by
      Discovering Archaeology they credited it to Michael A. Stowe. It as since
      been changed to Frans-Arne Stylegar.) King Gorm Laid to Rest...AgainKing Gorm
      the Old died in AD 959 and was buried in a pagan mound at Jelling, Denmark.
      Gorm's son King Harold Bluetooth (r. 959-987) was the first Danish king to
      convert to Christianity and, according to legend, in an effort to save his
      father's soul, had his father exhumed and reburied in a wooden church in the
      same cemetery. Like many other wooden churches, this church burned down, as
      did two subsequent churches on the site, before a stone church was built in
      c. 1100. That this site was assoicated with Gorm and his son Harold is
      confirmed by the presence of two rune stones along with burial mounds. The
      oldest rune stone was dedicated by Gorm himself to the memory of his wife
      Thyra who is called "Denmark's Adornment". Harold erected the second stone to
      the memory of his parents, Gorm and Thyra, and claims that Harold won Denmark
      and Norway and made Denmark Christian.The saga of Gorm's travels after death
      began in 1820 when archaeologists excavated his first mound burial and found
      it empty, except for a single silver cup. Dendrochronological studies on the
      wooden beams in the burial chamber in the mound later confirmed a cutting
      date of c. 959, matching the reported date of Gorm's death. Further
      excavations sanctioned by King Frederik VII in 1861 excavated the other
      burial mound at the site and found it also empty. In the 1970s, the remains
      of a 173 cm middle aged man were found in a burial chamber in the stone
      church at Jelling. There is some controversy between archaeologists on
      whether or not these remains belonged to Gorm. Since their discovery, the
      remains had been studied and stored at Coppenhagen's University and National
      Museum. The remains were reburied in the Jelling church in the presence of
      Queen Margrethe II and the royal family. The new sealing stone on the tomb
      reads "King Gorm Laid to Rest in 959 and Later Entombed Here".Mark Rose
      (November/December 2000) "Gorm the Old Goes Home" Archaeology Volume 53
      Number 6. <A HREF="http://www.archaeology.org/0011/newsbriefs/gorm.html">http://www.archaeology.org/0011/newsbriefs/gorm.html </A>; Peter Starck
      (August 30, 2000) "Viking-era bones reburied - but is it Gorm" Reuters. (via
      OldNorseNet) Roman Era Swedish Temple DiscoveredA unique pentagonal shaped
      pagan temple has been found at Västerhanige, fifteen miles south of
      Stockholm, Sweden. The six postholes have up to a three-foot diameter and are
      five and a half feet deep with a lining of sturdy packing stones. The
      postholes are an impressive 23 feet apart. To date, there is no evidence of
      other supporting posts suggesting that these posts may have supported a roof.
      If so, this roof would have spanned 40 feet. There is disagreement between
      the archaeologists on whether or not there was a roof based partially on the
      suggestion that no roof spanned more than 30 feet until the Middle Ages. One
      of the posts was split to allow a granite and red sandstone threshold,
      possibly marking the entrance to the structure. In the center of the
      structure, a burial pit with creamated bones and a partially preserved clay
      floor have been preserved. A small strand of Roman gold thread dated to c.
      A.D. 150-345 has dated the remains.Source: Erling Hoh (October 11, 2000)
      "Unique Pentagonal Temple" Archaeology <A HREF="http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/sweden.html">
      http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/sweden.html</A> Gotland treasure hoard the
      largest ever foundArchaeologists working on Gotland have found the largest
      ever Viking treasure hoard. The 70 kg hoard of 13,000 Arabic silver coins,
      500 Viking arm bands and bracelets, dozens of silver bars, rings and
      countless jewelry fragments were discovered under the floorboards of a
      merchants home. It is believed that the hoard was buried in AD c. 870. The
      hoard is valued at £400,000.This hoard will be added to some 800 other
      treasure hoards discovered on Gotland alone. The vast wealth of this hoard
      and the sheer number of other hoards discovered over the years illustrate the
      wealth and importance of Gotland as a trading center. Gotland traded with
      Russia, Sweden, the Baltic coast and further afield. Although today Gotland
      is part of Sweden, it was a semi-independent state of approximately 30,000
      people with its own parliament in the ninth century when this hoard was
      buried. Then, Gotland was dominated by merchants, the metal working industry,
      and shipbuilding.Source: David Keys (September 4, 2000) "Viking treasure is
      discovered after 11 centuries under the floorboards" The Independent <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-09/viking040900.shtml">
      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-09/viking040900.shtml</A>
      Downloaded September 14, 2000. Roman Era finds discovered in Skåne, Southern
      SwedenThis years excavations at Uppåkra, near Lund focused on an area known
      as "Jonas' Hill", where previous excavations had found sheets of gold and
      artifacts suggesting a workshop. This year further parts of the settlement,
      dating from the early first century, were uncovered. The main structures of a
      house were well preserved including its outside walls, and oven. Finds were
      mostly confined to pottery and bones. One building did yield a sheet of
      silver and some charred stones that may suggest this was a silversmith's
      shop. Graves had previously been discovered 600-700 meters from "Jonas'
      Hill'.In late October, archaeologists found a remarkably rich grave of a tall
      in Österlen, Skåne. The site is at Simrishamn, five kilometers west of
      Gärdestad. Among the artifacts found withher include a silver cup from the
      Black Sea region, a silver clasp, and over ninety amber beads. The grave has
      been dated to the fourth century. It is believed that this is one of the
      three richest graves found to date in Skåne.Source: Sydsvenska Dagbladet (30
      October 2000) 'Järnåldersgrav funnen i Skåne' <A HREF="http://sydsvenskan.se/pub/hpsart-43.html">
      http://sydsvenskan.se/pub/hpsart-43.html</A> . ; Birgitta Åkesson, "Uppåkra -
      avslutade grävningar", Artefact, Nr. 11. November 2000, <A HREF="http://welcome.to/artefact">
      http://welcome.to/artefact</A> Information for these stories was contributed to
      the Heroic Age by Sara E. Ellis. Scotland

      Caledonian extortion of Rome.A new hoard of Roman coins has been found at
      Birnie, near Elgin in northern Scotland. The hoard contained some 300 Roman
      coins, which date from the early third century. Literary sources indicated
      the Roman governor paid large sums of money to the inhabitants of southern
      Scotland but this hoard now brings into question if the Romans were also
      paying off the northern Caledonians as well. Reexamination of the coin hoards
      held by the National Museums of Scotland indicate that the payments were made
      to the Britons and Caledonians in four areas: southern Scotland (south of
      Edinburgh), Fife and Dundee, the Aberdeen region, and along the southern
      shore of the Moray Firth. The hoards of 200-400 silver coins were often
      ritually deposited. This newest hoard was found buried in a pot in a hole
      that had previously held a post. The Birnie hoard is estimated to be worth
      £20,000.Source: David Keys (November 3, 2000) "Romans paid Scots protection
      money" The Independent <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This-_Britain/2000-11/roman031100.shtml">
      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-11/roman031100.shtml</A>
      Downloaded December 18, 2000. Early Orkney Monastery DiscoveredA monastery
      has been discovered on the remote island of Papa Stronsay in the Orkney
      archipelago. The discovering archaeologists from Headland Archaeology of
      Edinburgh and the University of Birmingham have dated the ruins to the
      seventh or eighth century. By August, archaeologists had found a small church
      (23 feet by 11.5 feet), a circular chapel (16.5 feet by 10 feet) and several
      small domestic huts. It has been suggested that the monastery was founded AD
      650-750 and that the monastery was a supply center for other hermits in the
      Orkney archipelago. Although the monastery was abandoned in the Middle Ages,
      two chapels continued to be maintained on the island until the eighteenth
      century.Source: David Keys (August 27, 2000) "Early Christian outpost found
      in remote Orkneys" The Independent <A HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/orkney270800.shtml">
      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/orkney270800.shtml</A>
      Downloaded September 14, 2000. Easter Ross Monastery Redated to the Sixth
      CenturyThe monastery of Portmahomack in Easter Ross has been redated to the
      sixth century based on new radiocarbon dating of the human remains. Earlier
      excavations had discovered an all male cemetery and an enclosure including
      Christian sculpture
      Best Regards, John Piscopo
      <A HREF="http://www.johnpiscoposwords.com">JohnPiscopoSwords.com</A>
      <A HREF="http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ancientweapons">http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ancientweapons</A>
      <A HREF="http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ancientartifacts">http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ancientartifacts</A>
      <A HREF="http://groups:yahoo.com/group/ancient_thailand">http://groups:yahoo.com/group/ancient_thailand</A>
      <A HREF="http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Dong_Son">http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Dong_Son</A>
      <A HREF="http://forums.swordforum.com/forumdisplay.php?s=&daysprune=&forumid=12">Sword Forum</A>
      PO Box 137
      Western Springs, IL 60558
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      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • AElfric and Ursula
      Greetings! Click here: The Heroic Age: Archaeology Digest The Heroic Age While
      Message 2 of 3 , Oct 21, 2002
        Greetings!


        <A HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/arch.html#anchor122847">Click here: The Heroic Age: Archaeology Digest</A>
        The Heroic Age


        While all of this was perhaps interesting to some people on this list, I would suggest that such posts be reduced to what one believes to be specifically relevant to Gothic studies.

        Albareiks
        Moderator, Gothic-L


        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Le Bateman
        I clicked on all of these links and it told me page could not be displayed. Le ... From: To: ;
        Message 3 of 3 , Oct 21, 2002
          I clicked on all of these links and it told me page could not be displayed.
          Le
          ----- Original Message -----
          From: <jpisc98357@...>
          To: <germanic-l@yahoogroups.com>; <gothic-l@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Sunday, October 20, 2002 11:08 PM
          Subject: [gothic-l] Check out The Heroic Age: Archaeology Digest


          <A
          HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/arch.html#anchor122847">Click
          here: The Heroic Age: Archaeology Digest</A>
          The Heroic Age

          Issue 4Winter 2001



          Archaeology Digest



          Compiled by Michelle Ziegler


          <A
          HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor1586028">England</A>

          <A
          HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor101552">Ireland</A>

          <A
          HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor107444">Scandinavia</A
          >

          <A
          HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor131291">Scotland</A>

          <A
          HREF="http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/4/#anchor184489">Wales</A>




          England

          Kentish Palace of the Archbishop of Canterbury DiscoveredArchaeologists
          working at Teynham, 15 miles south of Canterbury, have discovered a palace
          used by the Archbishop of Canterbury between the 9th and 16th centuries.
          This
          palace had a reputation for its vineyards and wine. The Swale Archaeological
          Survey, directed by Paul Wilkinson, found the site this summer by field
          walking, geophysical survey, and small-scale excavations. To date, the
          gatehouse, courtyard and stables have been discovered. Pottery found on the
          site had yielded the expected date range with most of it dating to the 13th
          -14th century. The palace's wine store may be the building discovered on the
          site in the 1970s. The site was deeded to Archbishop Athelard by King
          Cenewulf of Kent in 801. The estate was greatly expanded by Archbishop
          Lanfranc in 1070. It passed from the church back to the crown under Henry
          VIII in 1538 and was much later demolished.Source: Simon Denison (October
          2000) "Archbishop of Canterbury's palace discovered in Kent" British
          Archaeology <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#kent">http://www.brita
          rch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#kent</A>Lord of
          Sutton Hoo's Ancestors FoundOn a small hill-top overlooking the River
          Denben,
          approximately 500 meters from Sutton Hoo, an older high status cemetery has
          been discovered. Artifacts found on the site date it to the later 6th
          century, approximately one to two generations earlier than the Sutton Hoo
          cemetery. Artifacts found include a decorated bronze hanging bowl, six
          graves
          with a spear and shield, one grave with a sword, two female bronze ring
          brooches and a beaded necklace. One of the shields was decorated with bronze
          studs and "decorative mounts in the shape of a fish". (Photos are available
          on the Sutton Hoo Society news site below.)Some 18 cremation and 5
          inhumation
          burials were found. A circular ditch enclosed some of the cremation burials
          and many were under mounds. This is unusual in Britain but common in the
          River Elbe region of northern Germany suggesting that these settlers were
          still in touch with their homeland or newly arrived in Britain. This
          cemetery
          is contemporary with the richer site of Snape a few miles north which
          contained a boat burial. It has been suggested that these two cemeteries may
          represent rival branches of the Anglian royal house as it began to increase
          in power. It is possible that these northern German settlers were displaced
          by those with a stronger Scandinavian influence and who were buried at
          Sutton
          Hoo. A 3500 year old Bronze Age burial mound was also found along with
          several silted up Bronze and Iron Age ditches.When excavations are complete,
          the site is to be developed into the new visitor's center and exhibition
          center for the Sutton Hoo heritage site. The new buildings are scheduled to
          open in the spring of 2002.Sources: Simon Denison (August 2000) "Sixth
          century cemetery points to the origins of Sutton Hoo" British Archaeology <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html">
          http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html</A> ; "Archaeologists
          uncover
          another cemetery of the 6th/7th century" (June 2000) The Sutton Hoo Society
          News. <A
          HREF="http://www.suttonhoo.org/Digupdate/digphotos.htm">http://www.suttonhoo
          .org/Digupdate/digphotos.htm</A> Downloaded December
          18, 2000. ; David Keys (June 24, 2000) "Sutton Hoo gives up a royal Dark Age
          secret" The Independent <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/archeology24
          0600.shtml">
          http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/archeology240600.s
          ht

          ml</A><A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/archaeology2
          40600.shtml"> </A>Downloaded September 14, 2000. London's Lady
          Gladiator?Reexamination of
          the remains of a Roman woman's grave has raised new questions as to whether
          or not she was a gladiator. The remains were first discovered in 1996 and
          have only recently been reexamined. The grave was found outside of the Roman
          walled cemetery but of relatively high status with exotic grave goods. Her
          unusual grave reveals that she was cremated on an open pyre that then
          collapsed into a pit. The remains were determined to be female in her 20s
          based on the remains of a pelvic bone. Some sixteen ceramic objects were
          found with the remains, including three pieces depicting the Egyptian god of
          the dead, Anubis, and a lamp depicting a gladiator. In the Roman pantheon,
          Anubis was equated with the Roman god Mercury, in whose costume slaves
          removed the bodies of fallen gladiators. The combination of the unusual
          funeral pyre, burial outside of the walled cemetery, an exotic funeral feast
          serving dates, almonds, and doves, Mediterranean pinecones burned as incense
          at the funeral, and objects depicting a gladiator and Anubis have suggested
          to some that she may have been a rare female gladiator. Gladiatorial
          contests
          originated in Roman funeral games. According to literary sources, women were
          known to occasionally compete in gladiatorial contests but this could be the
          first archaeological proof. Gladiator's graves have been excavated in Tier,
          Germany, but these lacked the wealth of this grave. This may support the
          belief that the earliest female gladiators were from the upper class. Female
          gladiators were banned from the arena by AD 200. A gladiatorial arena was
          found in London in 1986 under Guildhall that could have held up to one third
          of the city's population at the time.Source: David Keys (September 13, 2000)
          "Roman burial site suggests that female gladiators fought in Britain" The
          Independant <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-09/gladiator130
          900.shtml">http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Thi
          s_Britain/2000-09/gladiator130900.shtml</A>
          Downloaded December 18, 2000; Dalya Alberge (September 13, 2000) "Woman
          Gladiator found buried in London" The Times <A
          HREF="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws02039.ht
          ml">
          http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws02039.html.</A
          >
          Downloaded September 13, 2000; Philip Howard (September 13, 2000) "Spice
          Girls with serious attitude" The Times <A
          HREF="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws01038.ht
          ml">
          http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/09/13/timnwsnws01038.html</A>
          Downloaded September 13, 2000; Robert Barr (September 12, 2000) "Remains may
          be of female gladiator" Salon.com <A
          HREF="http://www.salon.com/mwt/wire/2000/09/12/female_gladiator/print.html">
          http://www.salon.com/mwt/wire/2000/09/12/female_gladiator/print.html</A>
          Downloaded September 13, 2000. Lost Stretch of Hadrian's Wall
          UncoveredArchaeologists working at Newcastle upon Tyne have finally solved
          an
          old mystery, the route of the end section of Hadrian's Wall. Most of this
          region of the wall was destroyed during the development of Newcastle but a
          two-meter section has discovered during a public works construction. >From
          the current dig, archaeologists were able to uncover the foundation
          revealing
          two lines of sandstone fragments filled in between with clay. On the
          northern
          side of the foundation, there was a defensive ditch and a series of
          postholes, which may have held sharpened stakes. A similar defensive system
          of postholes was also found on the northern side of the wall at Wallsend. At
          least twenty yards surrounding this section will now be excavated.Sources:
          David Derbyshire (November 2, 2000) "Lost stretch of Hadrian's Wall is
          unearthed" The Electronic Telegraph Issue 1987 <A
          HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=VkZGGjFx&atmo=FF
          FFFFFX&pg=/et/00/11/2/nwall02.html">
          http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=VkZGGjFx&
          atmo=FFFFFFFX&pg=/et/00/11/2/nwall02.html </A>Downloaded December 18, 2000;
          David
          Keys (November 2, 2000) "Lost section of Hadrian's Wall is uncovered" The
          Independent Downloaded December 18, 2000.More of Boadicea's Destruction of
          London RevealedAn excavation 400 meters northwest of the Tower of London by
          the Museum of London Archaeological Service has uncovered more of the
          remains
          of Boadicea's destruction of the first city of London. The site near
          Fenchurch Street has revealed a layer of burnt building debris up to 30 cm
          thick in some areas. It is estimated that the area of excavation could have
          held up to twenty buildings at the time of Boadicea's rebellion. This site
          could reveal the best evidence of the extent of damage inflicted on the city
          by the British. It is also revealing the extravagant masonry buildings
          decorated with mosaics and plaster painted with pigments from Iran and
          Afganistan that replaced the original wattle and dub buildings.Source: David
          Keys (June 28, 2000) "Remains of the London that Boadicea burnt to ground
          are
          found by Tower" The Independent <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This-_-Britain/2000-06/boadicea28
          0600.shtml">
          http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-06/boadicea280600.sht
          ml
          </A>

          Downloaded September 14, 2000.One of the Oldest Roman tombstones in Britain
          fully restoredThe cavalryman Longinus was one of the first Romans in Britain
          honored with a tombstone. Longinus was buried in 43-49 AD, only one to seven
          years after the Claudian invasion. So soon after that it has been suggested
          that he was part of the invasion force. The stone showing a cavalryman
          riding
          down an early Briton, along with another memorializing Facilis the
          centurion,
          are believed to have been destroyed in the Boudicca's rebellion in
          AD61.According to the inscription, Longinus Sdapeze was the second in
          command
          of a Thracian cavalry unit. He died in Colchester after fifteen years of
          service to the Roman army. It also indicates that the 40 year old Longinus
          was born in the area of the modern Sofia, Bulgaria.The stone was discovered
          over 70 years ago near Colchester in Essex but until now the stone was
          incomplete. Archaeologists returned to the site in 1996 to survey in front
          of
          a new housing project and found the missing fragments of the tombstone
          including the fragments from the face of Longinus. The fragments were
          actually found by the amateur Colchester Archaeology Group. The
          stratification, with the head buried slightly deeper than the rest of the
          tomb, indicates that tomb may have been rebuilt without the head after its
          initial destruction, only to be destroyed again at a later date.Source: Maev
          Kennedy (October 31, 2000) "Restored tombstone puts a face to Roman invader"
          The Irish Times on the Web. Downloaded December 18, 2000; Simon Denison
          (December 2000) "Roman horseman reunited with his head" British Archaeology
          Issue 56 <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba56/ba56news.html#head">http://www.brita
          rch.ac.uk/ba/ba56/ba56news.html#head</A> Downloaded
          January 2, 2001. Roman Vindolanda's POW campRecent excavations at Vindolanda
          have reinforced the theory that the fort was used as a prisoner of war camp
          in the third century. The southwestern corner of the fort has yielded 13
          native circular stone buildings similar to those found earlier in the center
          and north of the camp. Archaeologists now assume the entire fort was covered
          in these circular native huts, arranged in back to back in narrow rows. Part
          of the fortress may have even been flattened to make room for more huts. If
          their assumptions are correct, then the fortress housed up to 2000 prisoners
          in approximately 300 huts. The rows of huts contained only hearths but no
          other signs of everyday life indicating that they were regularly sweep clean
          in antiquity. The huts have been linked to the uprisings of 209 and 211.The
          2000 excavation also yielded a first century bath house. The bricks and
          tiles
          captured a snapshot of wild life in the regions by preserving dog, cat,
          squirrel, deer and possibly one bear print. One tile must have been in a
          virtual stampede, reflected by its 17 prints.Source: Simon Denison (August
          2000) "More evidence of Roman POW camp on Hadrian's Wall" British
          Archaeology
          Issue 54 <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#pow">http://www.britar
          ch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#pow </A>; David
          Derbyshire (August 11, 2000) "Roman POW camp found at Hadrian's Wall" The
          Electronic Telegraph Issue 1904 <A
          HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=gwwYwrNu&atmo=hh
          hhh%2520%0Ahhe&pg=/et/00/8/11/npow11.html">
          http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=gwwYwrNu&
          atmo=hhhhh%2520%0Ahhe&pg=/et/00/8/11/npow11.html</A> The Founders of Saxon
          Hamwic, SouthamptonHamwic was one of the earliest towns in Anglo-Saxon
          England. Recently the high status cemetery that might contain the founders
          of
          Hamwic was discovered on the northwestern edge of the town. The graves
          yielded weapons, gold and other precious jewelry. The date of Hamwic has
          been
          pushed back to the late seventh century by pottery and other artifacts found
          at the cemetery. This makes Hamwic a contemporary of the Saxon London and
          Ipswich trading centers.The trading center of Hamwic made its founders
          relatively rich. Of the forty graves found to date, two adults were buried
          with glass and amber necklaces set off by a golden pendent centerpiece. One
          of the pendants features a snake chasing its tail and a center of
          semi-precious stone jewels. At the feet of this same person, a wooden box
          with a single silver object, similar to an unstamped coin, was discovered.
          Another beaded necklace contained a Roman signet ring featuring a sculpted
          glass intaglio.In addition to the cemetery, excavators found part of the
          town
          of Hamwic. This area produced the typical artifacts of domestic occupation
          in
          addition to waste from metal and bone-working industries. Among the
          presumably accidental industrial losses were a skein of gold thread and part
          of a copper spoon. The area also lacked solidly constructed buildings
          suggesting it was a poor outlying district of the town.Source: Simon Denison
          (August 2000) "Saxon royal cemetery discovered in Southampton" British
          Archaeology Issue 54 <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#royal">http://www.brit
          arch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#royal</A>The
          Roman Fort at CarlisleExcavations done ahead on Carlisle's Millennium
          Project
          have uncovered the Roman fortress under the current Castle Green.
          Archaeologists have been able to uncover remains of the improvements in the
          fortress walls from the original turf rampart to the final stone walls. They
          have found artifacts from all aspects of life from standing wooden
          buildings,
          original road surfaces, leather goods, environmental remains such as
          parasites, insects, and weeds, to correspondence. The commander's house was
          discovered, as was some of the barracks where horses were quartered with the
          men. Although nothing extraordinary was discovered, the excavations have
          provided a valuable slice of life from Roman times and an unusual
          opportunity
          for deep stratification excavations.Source: Giles Worsley (September 4,
          2000)
          "Fort dig reveals downside of life on Hadrian's Wall" The Electronic
          Telegraph Issue 1928 <A
          HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=r93FSmbX&atmo=99
          999999&pg=/et/00/9/4/nfort04.html">http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=00040
          5944438668&
          rtmo=r93FSmbX&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/9/4/nfort04.html</A>Downloaded
          Decemeber
          18, 2000. Roman towns and villas discoveredThe Roman town of Noviomagus is
          well documented in Roman sources but until now archaeologists had been
          unable
          to locate it. The location is at West Wickham, Kent, near the St. John the
          Baptist church. Brian Philip discovered the site in 1966 and he has spent
          the
          following 34 years compiling evidence and trying to convince archaeologists
          to excavate. Finally he convinced Archaeologist Sheppard Frere who
          instigated
          the excavations and confirm the location.Just outside of Lewes, East Sussex,
          an extensive Roman villa complex is being uncovered. The villa had at least
          25 rooms richly decorated with painted plasters and mosaics, under floor
          heating, and bath complex with three buildings, a separate temple building
          and agricultural buildings. The elaborate lifestyle of the Roman era
          inhabitants is also evident in Gallic and Mediterranean imports, red tile
          roofs, shards of delicate glass vessels, and debris from oyster feasts.The
          estimated diameter of the Lewes villa is 120 meters and the entire villa
          complex covers 8,300 square meters. This manor may have controlled a farming
          estate of at least four square miles. The villa is believed to have been
          built in the first century and occupied for 300 years. Local records suggest
          the villa continued to be an administrative center after the Romans left,
          through the Saxon and Norman periods. Even today, it is still a focal point
          in the local area.Source: Adam Lusher (July 30, 2000) "Archaeologist's dig
          reveals solution to ancient riddle of lost Roman town" The Electronic
          Telegraph Issue 1892 <A
          HREF="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=fqafMNqs&atmo=fq
          afMNqs%2520%0A&pg=/et/00/7/30/narch30.html">http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac
          =000140326706927&
          rtmo=fqafMNqs&atmo=fqafMNqs%2520%0A&pg=/et/00/7/30/narch30.html
          </A>Downloaded
          July 30, 2000; David Keys (August 5, 2000) "Roman villa complex found in
          Sussex" The Independent <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/tb11roman050
          800.shtml">
          http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/tb11roman050800.sh
          tm

          l </A>Downloaded September 14, 2000. Saxon JusticeAnother Saxon execution
          may
          have been discovered at Hinchingbrooke near Huntington. The burial resembled
          those in the execution cemetary at Sutton Hoo, with in this case, the
          skeleton discovered buried face-down on its knees in a pit. This site had
          been a former Roman villa and an earlier middle and late Iron Age farmstead.
          The Iron Age farm yielded roundhouses, pots, and iron currency bars found in
          ditches. The Roman villa yielded painted plaster, a building thought to be a
          temple, possible garden features, and an aisled barn in trial excavations.
          Hopes of further excavations were been dashed when the Cambridge County
          Council canceled excavation plans and put the property up for sale.A
          skeleton
          previously found in Stonehenge has been radiocarbon dated to AD 650-690.
          Like
          other executions, the victim, in his 30s, had been beheaded. The location of
          the grave had lead to speculation that the victim could have been a
          Christian
          slain in a period when Wessex was not yet ruled by a unified dynasty and
          when
          Christianity was not yet accepted by all its inhabitants. However, it has
          also been noted that Stonehenge sits on a hundred boundary, the type of
          location later used for judicial executions. The three other skeletons found
          in the past may reinforce the latter since two of them may also be execution
          victims. Recent estimations suggest that up to three percent of males in
          this
          period died by execution. There have been approximately twenty execution
          cemeteries found to date.Source: Simon Denison (October 2000) "Saxon
          Criminal" British Archaeology Issue 55 <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#inbrief">
          http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba55/ba55news.html#inbrief</A>; Simon Denison
          (August 2000) "Stonehenge man" British Archaeology Issue 54 <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief">
          http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief</A>; David Keys
          (July 14,
          2000) "Stonehenge used as Saxon execution site" The Independent <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-07/henge140700.
          shtml">
          http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-07/henge140700.shtml<
          /A>
          Downloaded September 14, 2000. Saxon LondonNew pottery found in London
          suggests that a Saxon presence could have been in the city earlier than had
          been supposed. One of the pots was produced with tempered bone meal, of the
          same type found at sites west of London in the 5th-6th century. The new site
          is at the west end of Long Acre, west of a large Saxon site found in Convent
          Garden under the Royal Opera House. The Convent Garden site produced a
          6th-7th century bronze saucer-brooch. It has been suggested that Saxon
          Lundenwic could have been located in the region of the Convent Garden and
          the
          Strand. It should be mentioned that without other evidence of settlement,
          pottery could reach the site by trade or other means.Source: Norman Hammond
          (August 11, 2000) "Unearthing a Bone of Contention" The Times <A
          HREF="http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/11/timcrtcrt01002
          .html">
          http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/11/timcrtcrt01002.html<
          /A>
          Sexing Anglo-Saxon RemainsNew work done under the direction of Dominic
          Powlesland has brought into question methods for sexing Anglo-Saxon remains.
          Skeletons from the Heslerton Anglo-Saxon village, near Malton, in North
          Yorkshire have been subjected to DNA analysis and yielded some surprises.
          Two
          skeletons buried with spears and a knife have turned out to be genetically
          female while six remains buried with "brooches, beads and handbangs" are
          genetically male. Previously, burials containing spears were assumed to be
          male and those with beads and handbags were assumed to be female.Source:
          Nick
          Nuttall (August 22, 2000) "New light on the Dark Ages" The Times <A
          HREF="http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/22/timnwsnws01005.ht
          ml">
          http://www.the-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/08/22/timnwsnws01005.html</A>
          Downloaded August 22, 2000. Ireland

          Sixth Century Crozier Discovered Stuck in the MudMs. Ellen O'Carroll of the
          Archaeological Development Services discovered a rare sixth century Bishop's
          crozier stuck vertically in the mud as she surveyed in advance of peat
          harvesting in Offaly county near Ferbane, about ten miles from Clonmacnoise.
          The crozier, now broken into several segements, was originally about 1.25
          meters long with a 25mm diameter. It appears to have been carved out of a
          single branch or stem of Cherry wood.The crozier is believed to be the
          earliest one discovered in Ireland. Surprisingly, the crook is crafted to
          enclose a Greek cross and the tip of the crozier is "stepped and pointed".
          It
          is unclear if it originally had a metal point on the end. It was discovered
          next to a pathway of split oak planks dated by dendrochronology to AD 596.
          It
          has been suggested that it could have been a 'ritual deposition' of a cross.
          The pathway was constructed to give an elevated walkway above the surface of
          the bog. It provided access on foot from dry land of Killiaghintober to
          Leamanaghan Island, which contains the remains of St. Manchan's Church. The
          foundation of the church is reputed to have predated St. Manachan's death in
          AD 665. In the process of removing the upper layers of peat, networks of
          other pathways have been uncovered. These other pathways have been dated to
          the 10th to 17th centuries. In addition to the pathways, some coins and
          leather shoes have also been discovered.Source: "Archaeologist uncovers 6th
          century crozier in Offaly" (June 22, 2000) The Irish Times <A
          HREF="http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2000/0622/hom5.htm">
          http://www.ireland.com:80/newspaper/ireland/2000/0622/hom5.htm</A>
          downloaded
          June 25, 2000; Simon Denison (August 2000) "Bishop's Crozier" British
          Archaeology Issue 54 <A
          HREF="http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief">http://www.br
          itarch.ac.uk/ba/ba54/ba54news.html#inbrief</A>
          Bronze Age to Early Christian Cemetery Uncovered in MeathWorking in advance
          of a new development project, archaeologists in Laytown, Meath, have
          discovered an early Christian cemetery and a Bronze Age enclosure. By
          August,
          50 stone-lined graves of both men and women had been uncovered but curiously
          they found very few children. Double ditches suggesting extensive defenses
          encircled the Bronze Age sub-rectangular enclosure, although no artifacts
          had
          yet been discovered in August. Another Bronze Age settlement with its
          cemetery was discovered about two years ago at Bettystown, only a half a
          mile
          from Laytown.Source: Elaine Keogh (August 15, 2000) "Meath dig yields early
          Christian Graves" The Irish Times <A
          HREF="http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2000/085/north10.htm">
          http://www.ireland.com:80/newspaper/ireland/2000/085/north10.htm</A>
          Downloaded
          August 21, 2000. Scandinavia

          Roman Era Warriors Camp Discovered in NorwayAn approximately 2000 year old
          military camp has been discovered at Spangereid, Norway. The site of
          Spangereid is located on the Norweigan coast at the point closest to
          Denmark,
          at the time possibly held by the Jutes. This site is the easternmost of
          twenty newly discovered camps in Norway. The site with the remains of ten
          buildings has been determined to have been a military court because it
          lacked
          artifacts of normal civilian settlements. Several large boathouses were
          discovered near the Spangereid site. It has been suggested that these
          boathouses were used to house warships. The nearby village produced several
          rich graves illustrating contact with Britain, Roman Gaul, and the Baltic
          after A.D. 200.Source: Frans-Arne Stylegar. (December 12, 2000) "A Warrior
          Camp: Pre-Viking Chieftans Likely Drove Scandinavian Contacts" Discovering
          Archaeology <A
          HREF="http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/121200-warrior.shtml">http:
          //discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/121200-warrior.shtml</A>
          Downloaded December 13, 2000. (When this story was originally posted by
          Discovering Archaeology they credited it to Michael A. Stowe. It as since
          been changed to Frans-Arne Stylegar.) King Gorm Laid to Rest...AgainKing
          Gorm
          the Old died in AD 959 and was buried in a pagan mound at Jelling, Denmark.
          Gorm's son King Harold Bluetooth (r. 959-987) was the first Danish king to
          convert to Christianity and, according to legend, in an effort to save his
          father's soul, had his father exhumed and reburied in a wooden church in the
          same cemetery. Like many other wooden churches, this church burned down, as
          did two subsequent churches on the site, before a stone church was built in
          c. 1100. That this site was assoicated with Gorm and his son Harold is
          confirmed by the presence of two rune stones along with burial mounds. The
          oldest rune stone was dedicated by Gorm himself to the memory of his wife
          Thyra who is called "Denmark's Adornment". Harold erected the second stone
          to
          the memory of his parents, Gorm and Thyra, and claims that Harold won
          Denmark
          and Norway and made Denmark Christian.The saga of Gorm's travels after death
          began in 1820 when archaeologists excavated his first mound burial and found
          it empty, except for a single silver cup. Dendrochronological studies on the
          wooden beams in the burial chamber in the mound later confirmed a cutting
          date of c. 959, matching the reported date of Gorm's death. Further
          excavations sanctioned by King Frederik VII in 1861 excavated the other
          burial mound at the site and found it also empty. In the 1970s, the remains
          of a 173 cm middle aged man were found in a burial chamber in the stone
          church at Jelling. There is some controversy between archaeologists on
          whether or not these remains belonged to Gorm. Since their discovery, the
          remains had been studied and stored at Coppenhagen's University and National
          Museum. The remains were reburied in the Jelling church in the presence of
          Queen Margrethe II and the royal family. The new sealing stone on the tomb
          reads "King Gorm Laid to Rest in 959 and Later Entombed Here".Mark Rose
          (November/December 2000) "Gorm the Old Goes Home" Archaeology Volume 53
          Number 6. <A
          HREF="http://www.archaeology.org/0011/newsbriefs/gorm.html">http://www.archa
          eology.org/0011/newsbriefs/gorm.html </A>; Peter Starck
          (August 30, 2000) "Viking-era bones reburied - but is it Gorm" Reuters. (via
          OldNorseNet) Roman Era Swedish Temple DiscoveredA unique pentagonal shaped
          pagan temple has been found at Västerhanige, fifteen miles south of
          Stockholm, Sweden. The six postholes have up to a three-foot diameter and
          are
          five and a half feet deep with a lining of sturdy packing stones. The
          postholes are an impressive 23 feet apart. To date, there is no evidence of
          other supporting posts suggesting that these posts may have supported a
          roof.
          If so, this roof would have spanned 40 feet. There is disagreement between
          the archaeologists on whether or not there was a roof based partially on the
          suggestion that no roof spanned more than 30 feet until the Middle Ages. One
          of the posts was split to allow a granite and red sandstone threshold,
          possibly marking the entrance to the structure. In the center of the
          structure, a burial pit with creamated bones and a partially preserved clay
          floor have been preserved. A small strand of Roman gold thread dated to c.
          A.D. 150-345 has dated the remains.Source: Erling Hoh (October 11, 2000)
          "Unique Pentagonal Temple" Archaeology <A
          HREF="http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/sweden.html">
          http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/sweden.html</A> Gotland treasure
          hoard the
          largest ever foundArchaeologists working on Gotland have found the largest
          ever Viking treasure hoard. The 70 kg hoard of 13,000 Arabic silver coins,
          500 Viking arm bands and bracelets, dozens of silver bars, rings and
          countless jewelry fragments were discovered under the floorboards of a
          merchants home. It is believed that the hoard was buried in AD c. 870. The
          hoard is valued at £400,000.This hoard will be added to some 800 other
          treasure hoards discovered on Gotland alone. The vast wealth of this hoard
          and the sheer number of other hoards discovered over the years illustrate
          the
          wealth and importance of Gotland as a trading center. Gotland traded with
          Russia, Sweden, the Baltic coast and further afield. Although today Gotland
          is part of Sweden, it was a semi-independent state of approximately 30,000
          people with its own parliament in the ninth century when this hoard was
          buried. Then, Gotland was dominated by merchants, the metal working
          industry,
          and shipbuilding.Source: David Keys (September 4, 2000) "Viking treasure is
          discovered after 11 centuries under the floorboards" The Independent <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-09/viking040900
          .shtml">
          http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-09/viking040900.shtml
          </A>
          Downloaded September 14, 2000. Roman Era finds discovered in Skåne, Southern
          SwedenThis years excavations at Uppåkra, near Lund focused on an area known
          as "Jonas' Hill", where previous excavations had found sheets of gold and
          artifacts suggesting a workshop. This year further parts of the settlement,
          dating from the early first century, were uncovered. The main structures of
          a
          house were well preserved including its outside walls, and oven. Finds were
          mostly confined to pottery and bones. One building did yield a sheet of
          silver and some charred stones that may suggest this was a silversmith's
          shop. Graves had previously been discovered 600-700 meters from "Jonas'
          Hill'.In late October, archaeologists found a remarkably rich grave of a
          tall
          in Österlen, Skåne. The site is at Simrishamn, five kilometers west of
          Gärdestad. Among the artifacts found withher include a silver cup from the
          Black Sea region, a silver clasp, and over ninety amber beads. The grave has
          been dated to the fourth century. It is believed that this is one of the
          three richest graves found to date in Skåne.Source: Sydsvenska Dagbladet (30
          October 2000) 'Järnåldersgrav funnen i Skåne' <A
          HREF="http://sydsvenskan.se/pub/hpsart-43.html">
          http://sydsvenskan.se/pub/hpsart-43.html</A> . ; Birgitta Åkesson,
          "Uppåkra -
          avslutade grävningar", Artefact, Nr. 11. November 2000, <A
          HREF="http://welcome.to/artefact">
          http://welcome.to/artefact</A> Information for these stories was contributed
          to
          the Heroic Age by Sara E. Ellis. Scotland

          Caledonian extortion of Rome.A new hoard of Roman coins has been found at
          Birnie, near Elgin in northern Scotland. The hoard contained some 300 Roman
          coins, which date from the early third century. Literary sources indicated
          the Roman governor paid large sums of money to the inhabitants of southern
          Scotland but this hoard now brings into question if the Romans were also
          paying off the northern Caledonians as well. Reexamination of the coin
          hoards
          held by the National Museums of Scotland indicate that the payments were
          made
          to the Britons and Caledonians in four areas: southern Scotland (south of
          Edinburgh), Fife and Dundee, the Aberdeen region, and along the southern
          shore of the Moray Firth. The hoards of 200-400 silver coins were often
          ritually deposited. This newest hoard was found buried in a pot in a hole
          that had previously held a post. The Birnie hoard is estimated to be worth
          £20,000.Source: David Keys (November 3, 2000) "Romans paid Scots protection
          money" The Independent <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This-_Britain/2000-11/roman031100
          .shtml">
          http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-11/roman031100.shtml<
          /A>
          Downloaded December 18, 2000. Early Orkney Monastery DiscoveredA monastery
          has been discovered on the remote island of Papa Stronsay in the Orkney
          archipelago. The discovering archaeologists from Headland Archaeology of
          Edinburgh and the University of Birmingham have dated the ruins to the
          seventh or eighth century. By August, archaeologists had found a small
          church
          (23 feet by 11.5 feet), a circular chapel (16.5 feet by 10 feet) and several
          small domestic huts. It has been suggested that the monastery was founded AD
          650-750 and that the monastery was a supply center for other hermits in the
          Orkney archipelago. Although the monastery was abandoned in the Middle Ages,
          two chapels continued to be maintained on the island until the eighteenth
          century.Source: David Keys (August 27, 2000) "Early Christian outpost found
          in remote Orkneys" The Independent <A
          HREF="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/orkney270800
          .shtml">
          http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-08/orkney270800.shtml
          </A>
          Downloaded September 14, 2000. Easter Ross Monastery Redated to the Sixth
          CenturyThe monastery of Portmahomack in Easter Ross has been redated to the
          sixth century based on new radiocarbon dating of the human remains. Earlier
          excavations had discovered an all male cemetery and an enclosure including
          Christian sculpture
          Best Regards, John Piscopo
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