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[gothic-l] Re: gaulish language

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  • babeck@alphalink.com.au
    Priscilla, The Gaulish language was a Celtic language whereas Gothic was a Germanic language. Both language groups belonged to the Indo-european language
    Message 1 of 3 , Jul 19, 1999
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      Priscilla,
      The Gaulish language was a Celtic language whereas Gothic was a
      Germanic language. Both language groups belonged to the Indo-european
      language family.
      The only modern members of the Celtic group are Welsh, Gaelic, Manx,
      Cornish and Breton. The only remnants of the Gaulish language occur in
      various inscriptions.
      You might find the following sites interesting:

      http://arts.uwaterloo.ca/~lcurchin/light/gallica.html
      http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/krmccone/celtorth.htm
      http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/barnsbury/841/tree/gaulish.html
      http://www.summerlands.com/crossroads/celticlanguage/gallica.html

      <7msm2u$h0t-@egroups.com> wrote:
      original article:http://www.egroups.com/group/gothic-l/?start=582
      > I would like to know sometuhing about the gaulish language , its
      > relationship betwen the celtic and the gothic languages. If there was
      > somethig about this matter that someone could me send , I would be
      > grateful. Thanks.
      > Priscilla de Paula
      > e-mail : prida@...
      >
      >


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    • Tomas Mac an Chrosain
      Priscilla: I hope the following will be of help: Gaulish can be studied from the early book _La langue gauloise_ -- Georges Dottin, and from _Dialects of
      Message 2 of 3 , Jul 20, 1999
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        Priscilla:
        I hope the following will be of help:
        Gaulish can be studied from the early book _La langue gauloise_ --
        Georges Dottin, and from _Dialects of Ancient Gaul_ -- Joshua Whatmough,
        _A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar_ -- Holger Pederson and Henry
        Lewis, _Gaulish Personal Names_ -- Evans, also in Etudes Celtique
        (published in France) in a series of scholarly articles of "Les Plombes
        du Larzac" -- the discovery of lead tablets of a long running prose text
        in Gaulish from the 1st century unearthed in the late 1970s and articles
        published in the mid1980s. Also, an article in the journal _Language_,
        Calvert Watkins wrote a phonology of Gaulish.
        Gaulish belonged to the P-Celtic group of Celtic. (Q-Celtic became
        dominant in Ireland and spread to Man and Scotland. Some small
        independent Q-Celtic dialects were spoken in ancient Spain). Gaulish was
        much the same language as ancient British or Brittonic( a dialect of
        P-Celtic) from which Welsh, Breton and Cornish descended.
        Gaulish had a SVO sentence pattern -- unlike the later insular Celtic
        languages.) Also unlike modern Celtic insular languages, it did not have
        a system of mutations and very little lenition during the time that it
        flourished. Gaulish survived into the 6th century as a rural language in
        Gaul(France)..remants of it were mixed in with some early Old French
        into the 8th century but it was altogether dead by then. Galatians spoke
        Gaulish but it died out to Greek. During St Paul's time, the Galatians
        were largely using Greek, although St Jerome stated that some Galatians
        were still speaking it in his own time. It was inflected similarly to
        Latin, Greek and Common Germanic. It contributed words borrowed into
        Latin and Germanic vocabularies eg:
        caballos "work-horse,nag" > Vulgar Latin:
        caballus(caballo,cavallo,cheval), riXs "king,chief" > Germanic: as in
        Gothic reiks, German reich. Except for lexical borrowing, Gaulish and
        Germanic were only siblings of the same Proto-Indo-European family.
        Celtic has a close relationship to other western Indo-European
        languages especially Italic and also perhaps to the far flung
        Tokharian. Germanic was more closely related to the Balto-Slavonic
        family.
        Count to ten in Gaulish:
        oinos, doui, tries, petuor,pempe, sueXs, seXtan, oXtu, nouan,decan
        canton (hundred)
        Note X = Greek chi pronounced /kh/ a fricative like the ch in German.
        The other peculiar sound was /ts/ like German z, which they spelled with
        a S or D with a horizontal bar through it. This last sound (and other
        sounds such as the sh sound heard in st- and sp- clusters) may have been
        a Gaulish substratum on the phonology of Old High German because the
        Bavarian alps were inhabited by the Celtic tribes earlier -- but this
        last hypothesis is controversial.
        Gaulish:
        o-stem was declined: a-stem
        nominative pennos "head" bena "woman"
        accusative pennon benan
        genitive penni benas
        dative/oblique pennu beni (<Celtic: *benai)

        consonant stem:
        nom. druis "druid" (plural druides) riXs "king"(<PIE:*reg-s)
        acc. druidin rigin
        gen. druidos rigos
        dat/obl. druidi rigi

        Verb "to be" (late Gaulish from 1st C. of the Roman Empire)
        I am immi <*esmi
        thou art esi <*esi
        he/she/it is e-DD-i /etsi/ <*esti [-DD- = dd or ss with horizontal bar)
        we are *esmos
        you are *sweste
        they are *sent

        Of early Germanic inscriptions the dissertation by Stephen E.
        Flowers,PhD called "Runes and Magic" has a score of Germanic
        inscriptions from the earliest times found on various artefacts.
        --Tom
        prida@... wrote:
        >
        > I would like to know sometuhing about the gaulish language , its
        > relationship betwen the celtic and the gothic languages. If there was
        > somethig about this matter that someone could me send , I would be
        >

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