Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Goterkaellan

Expand Messages
  • Ingemar Nordgren
    Hello folks, I have read the list from time to time and seen some very shrewd interpretations of my book Goterkaellan-The Well Spring of the Goths. I judge it
    Message 1 of 2 , Jan 3, 2001
    • 0 Attachment
      Hello folks,

      I have read the list from time to time and seen some very shrewd
      interpretations of my book Goterkaellan-The Well Spring of the Goths. I
      judge it nessecary to submit an English summary to straighten things up.
      I am hoping to find an English and a German publisher as well but till
      now I have been busy producing enough books in Swedish. The first
      edition is already sold out and recently the second edition is out for
      sale. It is revised containing both a German and an English summary and
      my examination of Nordic and Continental Ringnames has been adjusted to
      the last results in a summary but the full examination is published in
      Migracijske Teme 1-2, Zagreb 2000.

      The book contains 444 numbered pages plus foreword et c, has soft cover
      and is in B5 format (17,6 x 25 cm). The attached file contains the
      summary and a picture of the cover.

      Those interested in buying the book cheeper than in the bookstore may
      contact me directly via mail.

      I will probably not have time to perform a regular debate just now but I
      follow the list when I can.

      Kindly
      Ingemar Nordgren, Ph.D.
      Sjögrässtigen 15
      S-533 73 KÄLLBY
      Sweden
      46-510-541851
      ingemar.nordgren@...

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Ingemar Nordgren
      Hello folks, I tried to send this as a file but it does not seem to have been received. I had a picture of the cover included. Instead i copy the written
      Message 2 of 2 , Jan 3, 2001
      • 0 Attachment
        Hello folks,
        I tried to send this as a file but it does not seem to have been
        received. I had a picture of the cover included. Instead i copy the
        written summary after the main message.

        I have read the list from time to time and seen some very shrewd
        interpretations of my book Goterkaellan-The Well Spring of the Goths. I
        judge it nessecary to submit an English summary to straighten things up.
        I am hoping to find an English and a German publisher as well but till
        now I have been busy producing enough books in Swedish. The first
        edition is already sold out and recently the second edition is out for
        sale. It is revised containing both a German and an English summary and
        my examination of Nordic and Continental Ringnames has been adjusted to
        the last results in a summary but the full examination is published in
        Migracijske Teme 1-2, Zagreb 2000.

        The book contains 444 numbered pages plus foreword et c, has soft cover
        and is in B5 format (17,6 x 25 cm). The attached file contains the
        summary and a picture of the cover.

        Those interested in buying the book cheeper than in the bookstore may
        contact me directly via mail.

        I will probably not have time to perform a regular debate just now but I
        follow the list when I can.

        Kindly
        Ingemar Nordgren, Ph.D.
        Sjögrässtigen 15
        S-533 73 KÄLLBY
        Sweden
        46-510-541851
        ingemar.nordgren@...



        The Well Spring of the Goths - Summary
        This work rests on the hypothesis that the Goths were not a people, but
        a number of different peoples and tribes, held together through a common
        religious background. It means that not only the Vistula Goths, but also
        other peoples, could regard themselves as Goths. The religion therefore
        could be considered as the Gothic ethnicity. To verify this hypothesis
        the book starts with an examination of a number of different
        researchers' opinions concerning the Germanic religion during the Iron
        Age. The cults of the fertility gods and the combined god Óðinn-gaut are
        carefully examined and analyzed, and it is tried to reconstruct the cult
        of the presumed god Gaut, and to decide his possible place in the divine
        pantheon of the Nordic gods. During this process it is judged nessecary
        to try to follow the religious developement all the way from the
        Stone-Age. In doing this conclusions are drawn from the archaeological
        material, as well as from works within the field of history of religion
        and from old Nordic sagas.
        According to the hypothesis the cult of Gaut becomes actual in the end
        of the Nordic Bronze Age, when the climate gradually became less
        favourable, and the local chieftains needed to establish a firmer
        control of the warriors to guard the pastures of the cattle. Cattle
        breeding became more and more important the less harwest the earth
        yilded. It was not possible then to cultivate the clay-soil but it was
        exellent for cattle breeding. Because of the climate it was nessecary to
        keep the cattle in stables during the winter and it means the farm must
        lie close to the pasturelands. Because of the poor harwest it was no
        longer possible to run hughe farms with a lot of people sustained by a
        chieftain. These circumstances initiated a developement towards small
        farms run by single families, which for the chieftains resulted in a
        loss of power, when people no longer depended of them for food and
        shelter. During these circumstances, when the sacral king or chieftain
        no longer convincingly could claim to be the sun-god reborn, it was
        important to find a new motivation to recruite warriors. What then could
        be better than a personification of the god in the local chieftain.
        Farming was dependent on the protection by divine powers, and such a
        protection the chieftains could offer in the shape of secret men's
        leauges, which could be used as well as demon-hunters in the fields as
        well as warriors' leauges.
        The question is raised wether Gaut was a foreign war-god or if he
        possibly was included in the old fertility cult. This sun-fertility
        cult of Bronze Age Scandinavia is connected with the common name of the
        peoples worshipping the fruitful sun - Sviþioþ - meaning 'the
        Sun-people'. The king, Svíakonungr, accordingly must be interpreted as
        the 'Sun-king'.
        Another problem is if, and if so when, the cult of Óðinn is imported
        from the continent, or if it is originally domestic in Scandinavia and
        that Óðinn earlier was known under another name, for example Gaut. The
        examination leads to the conclusion, that the cult of Óðinn att least
        officially must be regarded as an immgrant. Still there is a possibility
        that Gaut, who gives the impression of a shamanistic fertility-god,
        could be regarded as a local variant of Óðinn, even if he was not the
        chief god-king and maybe also limited to southern Scandinavia with
        surroundings. Possibly he was from the beginning regarded mostly as a
        creator-god and divine ancestor of the people, and later sacral
        chieftains started to motivate their rule with genealogical inheritance
        from the god. Such a motivation differs widely from the claim of the
        Svíakonungr to be the reborn sun-god Ingr/Frejr. According to Skírnismál
        he was the reborn Balðr and probably earlier also ÚllR. He was indeed
        literally the reborn sun. Regarding the later cult of Óðinn the
        conclusion is drawn that it functioned very much like the hypothetical
        cult of Gaut - it supported a similar social structure. Because of this
        it is motivated to regard Gaut as in any case a variant of Óðinn. The
        Goths seem to have aknowledged a sacral king quite a long time, but with
        the continental cult of Óðinn a process is speeding up leading to the
        transfer of power to the local chieftains, even if the very beginning of
        this process goes back to the chieftains claiming genealogical descent
        from Gaut. We become a number of Gefolgschaft-kingdoms who in some
        cases with the aid of christianity are developed into modern states.
        The Vistula Goths probably kept their sacral kingdoms' structure until
        the arrival to the Black Sea, meaning that the institution of Kindins
        in Gutþiuða, which is thoroughly examined, represents the last stage of
        the declining sacral kingdom of the Goths. The cult of Óðinn, as well
        as of Gaut, is however no cult for the people but for kings, chieftains
        and warriors. The opinion is forwarded that the people all the time
        worships the old fertility-gods. The sacral king is primarily tied to
        the peoples' cult. Just this function is executed by the kinsman -
        Kindins - in the Gothic realm in Dacia.
        The family of gods, resulting of the arrival of the cult of Óðinn, are
        functionally examined. Ablabius of Jordanes is also hopingly identified
        as the praetorian prefect of Rome under Constantine the Great.
        It is concluded, that the peoples claiming descent from Gaut provenly
        come from Scandinavian surroundings or that they claim to do so. This is
        understood as another indication, that in the bottom it deals with a
        declining cultic leauge. This leads to the conclusion that the names of
        Svíar, as well as Goths, Gautar, Gutar and Ýtar (Jutes), are theophoric
        names. The last mentioned group includes the peoples claiming descent
        from Gaut - they are 'the humans', 'the outpoured'. The origin of this
        cultic league may be sought in the former sun-cult-league, who's
        tribes/peoples all regarded themselves as Sviþioþ - the sun people. Even
        the Suebs might have been part of this. The tribes/peoples claiming
        descent from Gaut and accordingly regarding each other as kind of kins,
        even if this not automatically leads to political unity, at about AD
        called themselves or are mentioned in classic sources,
        Gautar,Jutar,Gutar, Gutones/Gudones/Gutoi. As the cult of Gaut is
        moulded into a politically more open form through a sacral king,
        confronting the old sacral kingdom, and later through increasingly
        stronger local chieftains, personifying the god in the warrior cult,
        finally joins with the cult of Óðinn, and this cult is generally
        accepted all over Scandinavia in about 500 AD, the result is, that the
        old title Svíakonungr is then taken over by a ruler motivating his power
        with descent from Óðinn.
        The presumed kings of the later 'folklands' north of the Mälar lake
        formally keep the claim to be related to Yngvi-Frejr, but now in the
        form of a genealogical descent from Óðinn-gaut via Njorðr and
        Yngvi-Frejr - a clearly odinistic claim. The circumstance, that the
        king is connected with the name of Upsala, does not mean that he
        nessecarily must be tied to a decided place Upsala, because there are in
        Scandinavia and Britain within the activity-area of the old mythic
        Ynglinga- and Skilfinga-kings about 200 places with this name. These are
        in several cases possible to tie to cult-places of the cult of
        Frejr/Freja. The king, also a petty-king, was also the goðe, 'the
        priest', of the local cult of Frejr/Freja. In the Mälar lake area the
        women seemingly have preserved their positions within the cult better
        than in other areas, which leads to the conclusion that this area, at
        least within the fertility cult, has played a decisive role.
        The question wether the Vistula Goths originate from Scandinavia, as is
        supposed by Jordanes, can of course never be assuringly answered. In the
        available material is however a number of factors indicated showing a
        possible Scandinavian origin. Scandinavia includes in this sense the
        whole Nordic area inclusive Denmark/Jutland with surroundings and the
        Scandinavian peninsula up to middle Norway or, in other words, the whole
        Baltic- and Kattegat region. A hughe emigration, as is described by
        Jordanes, is hard to find evidence for in Scandinavia around AD. However
        there are in Sweden evident indications in the form of terminated
        grave-fields, specially in Västergötland, but also in other areas, and
        in the whole country there is an evident lack of finds between
        approximately 300 BC to AD. Also in Västergötland there is quite a
        great amount of migration-period gold, showing in the direction of
        contacts with the Goths. Hachmann has raised objections against an
        emigration but they are partly rejected. Still it is nessecary to
        consider his statement about the mentioning by Plinius of Pytheas'
        knowledge of the Goths on the continent already about 350 BC. To explain
        this you must consider the fact, that on the island of Gotland there are
        terminated grave-fields and other indications of an emigration around
        350-300 BC. As told above there is also a lack of finds on the Swedish
        mainland during the same period. These circumstances may possibly be
        interpreted in that way, that there could have been an emigration at
        three different occasions, which is another way of indicating three
        different immigrations to the Vistula area.
        The first emigration, perhaps with dominance from Gotland, should then
        be dated at about 350 BC. Among the Nordic dialects the dialect of
        Gotland is most similar to the Gothic of Wulfila's bible. On the
        mainland, according to Wessén, it is the dialects of Götaland
        (Gautland). According to Gutenbrunner these tribes might have intended
        to establish extended trade-posts for the amber trade. In connection
        with this trade Pytheas might have heard of the Goths. The second wave
        then should have arrived at about AD. It is nessecary to presuppose,
        that the first immgrants have not superposed the old culture in the
        Vistula area because of the not uniform graves, indicating that they
        have lived as neighbours to the other tribes. Archaeologically there
        are similarities also with Östergötland. Probably in the second wave it
        deals with a military organised enterprise with a common cult for the
        whole area and with a grave-custom that can be traced from among else
        Västergötland and West-Sweden. Earlier neighbour-peoples might now have
        been gothizised, at least what concerns the cult. Peter Heather has also
        pointed out the fact, that the Wielbark-culture gives the impression of
        a great cultic league. The third wave, coming from the whole Baltic- and
        Kattegat-region, you could connect with the Gepids as Jerzy Okulicz
        convincingly has done.
        Many linguists mean, that the Goths originate in Scandinavia. They are
        however split into two factions. Either they mean that the Goths left
        Scandinavia while they still spoke Proto-Germanic or that they spoke a
        transition-language Goto-Nordic. That question is of no importance for
        this work because for both possibilites it must be presupposed that the
        first language-shifting, which evidently began about 300-200 BC and
        resulted in dialectical differences, has influenced the Nordic languages
        but not the Gothic. The emigration accordingly must be dated at about
        this time either with a Proto-Germanic language or with a Goto-Nordic.
        Ernst Schwarz means, that this language might be unchanged still during
        the 1st c. BC. Through the name-form Goutai delivers Ptolemaios only
        about 150 AD evidence that the languge-shifting has reached Scandinavia.
        Linguistically is accordingly nothing to object against an emigration
        but nor can you prove it in that way. Müllenhoffs thesis about a Gothic
        immigration in Scandinavia, is only supported by the archaeologist
        Kmiecinski and by Scherer. The cultural superpositioning by the
        emigration which Jordanes places in the time of king Berig, and which
        might be identical with the second wave, is confirmed through
        archaeological changes indicating a military and religious, but not
        nessecarily a totally cultural, superpositioning. Among else disappears
        weapongraves completely - cf. Tacitus about 'the sueonic tribes', where
        the kings have controlled all weapons, that they only could be used in
        controlled fighting. As an alternative the custom of burying men without
        weapons may be put in connection with the initiated warriors in
        shamanistic mens' leagues. These warriors, initiated through symbolic
        hanging and spearwound, were regarded as living dead. When such a
        warrior dies another takes his place. If he already was regarded dead,
        it was only the body that was buried and the weapons were still needed.
        A woman maybe only died once and so the funeral was more costly and
        women even had knives etc. with them. There is no way to decide exactly
        why we have graves for men with no weapons in them, but these are at
        least two suggestions. Maybe both could be correct?
        It is agreed with Wenskus that the by Jordanes described emigration has
        taken place under a sacral king but disagreed with him when he means
        the kingdom grew stronger during the process of migration. During the
        actual migration is a sacral king of course strong and also when he
        leads fights for freedom and defense when they are travelling. It is
        quite another matter when they settle within their own boundaries and
        there is peace. During those circumstances the real power lies with the
        chieftains and even in case of a defensive war the king then can give
        no orders outside the boundaries. With the transition to the cult of
        Óðinn-gaut he becomes, as already remarked, weaker and weaker until his
        function totally disappears. For the Goths this process finally leads to
        the arianic kingdoms in Italy and France/Spain, all ruled by a reiks and
        not a þiuðans.
        It has been regarded as pure chance that the Goths took the arianic
        confession. In that way you may not explain why they stayed with it so
        decisively in spite of the defiance of later church-officials. It does
        also not explain the sucessful Gothic mission among all other
        continental Germanic tribes with exeption of the Franks. Maybe it is
        easier to understand if you regard the cultic background of the
        Germanic warriors. Normally they were initiated to Óðinn-gaut and was
        thereby symbolically hanged and stabbed by a spear - they were indeed
        symbolically killed and reincarnated as 'living dead'. Their kings were
        initiated in similar way and they also claimed to be descendants of
        Gaut, later Óðinn-gaut.
        In the arianism is Jesus God's son but also human, he is
        killed(sacrified) and reincarnated (as a human). Such a process might
        for the Germans be quite natural and understandable. Of course the arian
        clergymen did not regard Christ as a mere human but the common folk
        would hardly care of such finesses. The son could of course not be the
        same person as the father, and so even the Holy Ghost was added as the
        same person by the nicenians. The arian opposal to this statement might
        well be understood by the Germans as a rejection of a polyteistic
        religion with three gods. They had been told there was only one god.
        Still an important explanation is that it replaced the old common cult
        with a new which differed from the neigbouring mediterranean folks and
        in that way served as the new ethnicity, which stopped the Goths to
        merge with the new cultures. Not until they accepted the catholic faith
        did the ethnicity finally begin to dissolve.
      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.