francisc czobor <czobo-@...
> GoÞs dags izwis allaim!
> If there's a relationship between the Gothic "jah" and the Finnish &
> Estonian "ja", both meaning "and", I think that the direction of
> was from Gothic to Balto-Finnic. My arguments are:
> 1. The Gothic word can be explained within Germanic: ja "yes" + -(u)h
> "and", thus "yes and" (cf. Germ. "ja und" or "ja auch"), the sense
> "and also".
> 2. As pointed out also by Brian Beck, the Gothic "jah" is not an
> within the Germanic group. I have found something related in Old High
> German: in Otfried's Gospel (9th century): joh = "and"; in Notker's
> of Logic (11th century): ióh = "and". (it seems that these words come
> ja+uh, while the Gothic word from ja+h).
> 3. There are many old Germanic loanwords in the Balto-Finnic languages
> (some of them reflecting a stage of the source language even older
> Wulfila's Gothic, close to Proto-Germanic; see for instance: Finnish
> kuningas = "king", rengas = "ring", kulta = "gold", etc.).
> Fragkisks sa Rumons
1."The Gothic word can be explained within Germanic: ja "yes" + -(u)h"
I wonder if the goths like the norsemen were pronouncing ja="yes", as
jau. Nowadays you can find that sound in only icel. and gotlandic. Has
there also been an earlier gothic jauh for jah?
2.What strikes me is that many loanwords from Proto-Germanic in
Finnish, seems to have to do with trade and hierarchy. Not only
kuningas = "king"etc., but also ruhtinas-*druhtinas=queen. Maybe
borrowed during the bronze-age, known for their chieftainships.
Then Gotland probably was a transit-country between fur-traders(East
Scandinavia, Finland)in the north, amber-merchants(the Baltics)in the
east, and bronze, weapon and jewelry-deliverers in the south(N
Germany). This was especially intensive during 1000-500 B.C. You can
also find shipstone-settings in Latvia and Estonia(25), from this
period(settlements?), 375 from Gotland itself(Kiivikoski). Many objects
are pointing at a large scale contact and influence from the scythians.
Ackording to Pytheas of Massila 300 B.C.), there could be signs of
"gutones", Gotland´s early role as amber-deliverers.
The sicilian historian Diodoros, in the age of Caesar, wrote about an
island "north of the nortwind", there the god returned every 19th year.
This fits well to the gotlandic stone-cutmarks(stone-slabs?)from 2800
B.C. to older bronze-age, that has been made against the moonrise and
descendance at the wintersunstice(not sure of the expression), and the
moons same movements at the vernal equinox(Göran Henriksson).