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Re: Derrivation suffixes in Gothic

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  • anheropl0x
    45. Word Derivation Words in Gothic are generally simple, derivative, or compound. Simple words have no discernable internal parts with meaning of their own.
    Message 1 of 7 , Jan 6, 2012
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      45. Word Derivation

      Words in Gothic are generally simple, derivative, or compound. Simple
      words have no discernable internal parts with meaning of their own. Take
      for example the nouns abba 'father', áihs 'oath', dags 'day',
      fótus 'foot', stáins 'stone', waúrd 'word'. Nouns may be
      derived from other words, such as adjectives and verbs, by means of
      various suffixes and prefixes. For example suffixation converts the
      adjective laggs 'long' into the noun laggei 'length', manags 'much' into
      managei 'multitude', milds 'mild' into mildiþa 'mildness'. Examples
      of nouns derived from verbs are the following: dragk 'a drink' from
      drigkan 'to drink', saggws 'song' from siggwan 'to sing', giba 'gift'
      from giban 'to give', un-witi 'ignorance' from *witan 'to know'.
      Compound nouns are formed by the conjoining of two or more words to form
      a noun. In Gothic, the second element is always a noun, though the first
      element can be a noun, adjective, or particle. When the first element is
      an a-stem noun or adjective, the -a- of the stem usually remains:
      áiƕa-tundi 'thornbush', dwala-waúrdei 'foolish talk',
      weina-triu 'vine'. The -a- remains in short ja-stems, but not in long
      ja-stems: midja-sweipáins 'the flood', niuja-satiþs 'novice'; but
      arbi-numja 'heir', agláiti-waúrdei 'indecent language'. The
      ō-, jō-, i-, and u-stems generally retain their stem vowels
      when they form the first element of compounds: mōta-staþs
      'toll-place', þÅ«sundi-faþs 'leader of a thousand men',
      mari-sáiws 'sea', fōtu-baúrd 'footboard'. The n-stem nouns
      employ -a- in compounds: áuga-daúrō 'window',
      staua-stōls 'judgement seat'. When consonant stems form the first
      member of a compound, they sometimes employ the vowel -a- by analogy
      with the a-stems, e.g. brōþra-lubō 'brotherly love' and
      nahta-mats 'supper'.

      Examples of simple adjectives are baírhts 'bright', fagrs 'fair',
      háils 'whole', siuks 'sick'. Adjectives, like nouns, could be derived
      by means of prefixes: ana-siuns 'visible', fram-aldrs 'very old',
      un-fagrs 'unfit'. They could likewise be derived through suffixes: the
      noun stáins 'stone' yields the adjective stáinahs 'stony',
      waúrd 'word' yields waúrdahs 'verbal'. Nominal composition might
      even result in an adjective, the so-called bahuvrīhi or exocentric
      compound, which describes a person or thing related to the elements of
      the compound. Modern English is replete with examples: a blackbelt is
      not a belt, but a martial artist possessing a belt which is black;
      Blackbeard is not a beard, but a pirate whose beard is black;
      well-intentioned descibes a person with good intentions. Examples in
      Gothic are manag-falþs 'having many parts, manifold', láus-handus
      'empty-handed'.

      Examples of some simple verbs are the following: gaggan 'go', lÄ"tan
      'let', lisan 'gather', niman 'take', waírþan 'become'. Verbs were
      often derived from nouns and adjectives by means of prefixes and
      suffixes. For example, the noun áigin 'property' gives
      ga-áigin-ōn 'take possession of'; skalks 'servant' gives
      skalkinōn 'serve'. Many members of the weak verb classes are
      examples of just such a process, though at times it is difficult to
      discern which is primary, the nominal item or the verbal. For example,
      fisks 'a fish' vs. fiskōn 'to fish'; namō 'a name' vs. namnjan
      'to name'; weihs 'holy' vs. weihnan 'become holy'.

      The following sections provide charts listing the most common prefixes
      and suffixes employed in noun, adjective, and verb derivation.

      45.1. Nominal and Adjectival Prefixes

      Nouns and adjectives employ the same prefixes in the process of
      derivation. The following chart gives many of the more important
      prefixes, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as
      well as some examples of their use within Gothic.

      Prefix



      Meaning



      PGmc



      PIE



      Example



      Meaning























      af



      from, off



      *av



      *apó



      af-drugkja



      drunkard

















      af-guþs



      godless

















      af-lÄ"ts



      forgiveness























      afar



      after, next



      *afar



      *ápo- + -ero



      afar-dags



      the next day

















      afar-sabbatus



      the first day after the Sabbath























      ana



      on, upon



      *ana



      *an(u)



      ana-busns



      command

















      ana-minds



      supposition

















      ana-qiss



      blasphemy

















      ana-siuns



      visible

















      ana-waírþs



      future























      and(a)



      against, toward



      *andV



      *antV



      and-áugi



      face

















      anda-hafts



      answer

















      anda-nahti



      evening

















      anda-þahts



      circumspect























      at



      at, to



      *ad



      *ad



      at-aþni



      year

















      at-witáins



      observation























      bi



      by



      *bi



      *bhi



      bi-háit



      strife

















      bi-sitands



      neighbor























      dis



      apart, asunder



      Lat. dis-?



      *d(w)is?



      dis-wiss



      dissolution























      faír



      around, through



      *fer(i)



      *per(i)



      faír-weiti



      spectacle























      faúr(a)



      before, for



      *fur(a/i)



      *pr(o/i)



      faúr-hāh



      curtain

















      faúr-stasseis



      chief ruler

















      faúra-daúri



      street

















      faúra-gagga



      steward

















      faúra-hāh



      curtain























      fra



      before



      *fra



      *pro



      fra-gifts



      gift, promise

















      fra-waúrhts



      sin

















      fra-weit



      revenge























      fram



      from



      *fram



      *pro-mo



      fram-aldrs



      very old

















      fram-gāhts



      progress























      ga



      near, at, with



      *ḡa



      *kom



      ga-baúrþs



      birth

















      ga-bruka



      fragment

















      ga-dōfs



      becoming, fit

















      ga-guþs



      pious

















      ga-hugds



      thought

















      ga-juk



      pair

















      ga-munds



      remembrance

















      ga-skafts



      creation

















      ga-waúrstwa



      fellow worker























      hindar



      behind



      *hindar



      *ki-n-d-ero?



      hindar-weis



      deceitful























      id



      again



      *eð



      *eti



      id-weit



      reproach























      in



      in



      *in



      *eni



      in-ahs



      sober

















      in-gardja



      one of the same household

















      in-ilō



      excuse

















      in-kunja



      countryman























      inna



      within



      *inna



      *eni-no?



      inna-kunds



      of the same household























      miss(a)



      various, false



      *missa



      *mit-tā?



      missa-dÄ"þs



      misdeed

















      missa-leiks



      various

















      missa-qiss



      discord























      miþ



      with, under, between



      *miþ



      *me-ta



      miþ-gardi-waddjus



      partition wall

















      miþ-ga-sinþa



      travelling companion

















      miþ-wissei



      conscience























      uf



      up, under



      *uv



      *upó



      uf-áiþeis



      under an oath

















      uf-háuseins



      obedience

















      uf-kunþi



      knowledge























      ufar



      over, above



      *uvar



      *uper(i)



      ufar-fulls



      overfull

















      ufar-gudja



      chief priest























      un



      not, un-



      *un



      *n



      un-agei



      fearlessness

















      un-baírands



      barren

















      un-frōdei



      without understanding

















      un-háili



      disease

















      un-mahts



      infirmity























      us



      out of, utterly



      *Å«z



      *Å«s



      us-filh



      burial

















      us-kunþs



      well-known

















      us-qiss



      accusation

















      us-stass



      resurrection























      wiþra



      against



      *wiþra



      *wi- + -tero



      wiþra-waírþs



      opposite























      45.2. Nominal Suffixes

      Some suffixes were employed solely to derive nouns. The following chart
      gives many of the more important suffixes used to derive nouns, together
      with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples
      of their use within Gothic.

      Suffix



      Use



      PGmc



      PIE



      Example



      Meaning























      and



      agent noun



      *Vnd



      *Vnt



      bisitands



      neighbor

















      frijōnds



      friend

















      fijands



      enemy

















      nasjands



      savior























      arja



      agent noun



      Lat. ārius







      bōkareis



      scribe

















      láisareis



      teacher

















      sōkareis



      disputer























      assu, inassu



      abstract noun



      *(Vn)ass



      *(Vn)-ad-t



      ibnassus



      evenness

















      ufarassus



      overflow

















      blōtinassus



      worship

















      hōrinassus



      adultery























      dÅ«þi



      abstract noun



      *dÅ«þi



      *tūti



      ajukdÅ«þs



      eternity

















      managdÅ«þs



      abundance

















      gamáindÅ«þs



      communion























      ein



      abstract noun



      *Ä«n



      *Ä«n



      áudagei



      blessedness

















      diupei



      depth

















      laggei



      length























      iþa



      abstract noun



      *iþ



      *it



      aggwiþa



      anguish

















      dáubiþa



      deafness

















      swÄ"iþa



      honor























      n



      abstract noun



      *Vn



      *Vn



      dáupeins



      baptizing, baptism

















      laþōns



      calling, invitation

















      libáins



      living, life























      ōþu



      abstract noun



      *ōþ



      *āt



      gáunōþus



      mourning

















      gabaúrjōþus



      pleasure























      ubni, ufni



      abstract noun



      *uvnja



      *mnjo



      fastubni



      observance

















      fráistubni



      temptation

















      waldufni



      power

















      wundufni



      wound























      þwa



      abstract noun



      *þwa



      *two



      fijaþwa



      hatred

















      frijaþwa



      love

















      saliþwōs (pl.)



      dwelling























      45.3. Adjectival Suffixes

      Other suffixes were employed specifically to derive adjectives from
      other elements. The following chart gives many of the more important
      suffixes used in deriving adjectives, together with their antecedents in
      the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within
      Gothic.

      Suffix



      Use



      PGmc



      PIE



      Example



      Meaning























      aga, aha



      relation



      *aga, aha



      *oko



      áudags



      blessed

















      grÄ"dags



      hungry

















      áinaha



      only

















      stáinahs



      stony























      eiga



      relation



      *Ä«ga



      *Ä«ko



      hrōþeigs



      victorious

















      láiseigs



      apt to teach

















      mahteigs



      mighty

















      waúrstweigs



      effective























      eina



      material



      *Ä«na



      *Ä«no



      aírþeins



      earthen

















      áiweins



      eternal

















      barizeins



      of barley

















      gulþeins



      golden

















      gumeins



      male























      iska



      quality



      *isko



      *isko



      barnisks



      childish

















      funisks



      fiery

















      gudisks



      godly

















      mannisks



      human

















      iudaíwisks



      Jewish























      45.4. Verbal Prefixes

      Many of the prefixes listed above are also used in forming verbs. There
      are, however, a few which are proper only to verbs within Gothic. The
      following chart gives the more important prefixes applied to verbs,
      together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some
      examples of their use within Gothic.

      Prefix



      Meaning



      PGmc



      PIE



      Example



      Meaning























      af



      from, off



      *av



      *apó



      af-áikan



      deny

















      af-gaggan



      go away

















      af-lÄ"tan



      dismiss























      afar



      after, next



      *afar



      *ápo- + -ero



      afar-gaggan



      follow























      ana



      on, upon



      *ana



      *an(u)



      ana-áukan



      add to

















      ana-háitan



      call on

















      ana-hneiwan



      stoop down























      and



      against, toward



      *and



      *ant



      and-bindan



      unbind

















      and-niman



      receive

















      and-standan



      withstand























      at



      at, to



      *ad



      *ad



      at-áugjan



      show

















      at-giban



      give up

















      at-saíƕan



      take heed

















      at-tÄ"kan



      touch























      bi



      by



      *bi



      *bhi



      bi-áukan



      add to

















      bi-leiban



      remain

















      bi-rinnan



      run about























      dis



      apart, asunder



      Lat. dis-



      *d(w)is?



      dis-dáiljan



      share

















      dis-sitan



      settle upon

















      dis-taíran



      tear asunder























      du



      to, at



      *tō?



      ?



      du-at-gaggan



      go to

















      du-ginnan



      begin

















      du-rinnan



      run to























      faúr(a)



      before, for



      *fur(a/i)



      *pr(o/i)



      faúr-biudan



      forbid

















      faúr-gaggan



      pass by

















      faúr-qiþan



      excuse

















      faúra-gaggan



      go before

















      faúra-standan



      govern























      fra



      before



      *fra



      *pro



      fra-giban



      give

















      fra-itan



      devour

















      fra-lÄ"tan



      liberate























      ga



      near, at, with



      *ḡa



      *kom



      ga-baíran



      bring forth

















      ga-háitan



      call together

















      ga-kiusan



      approve

















      ga-taíran



      destroy























      hindar



      behind



      *hindar



      *ki-n-d-ero?



      hindar-leiþan



      go behind























      in



      in



      *in



      *eni



      in-brannjan



      put in the fire

















      in-saíƕan



      look at























      tus



      (pejorative)



      *tuz



      *dus



      tuz-wÄ"rjan



      doubt























      twis



      two, separate, apart



      *twis



      *dwis



      twis-standan



      depart from one, diverge























      þaírh



      through



      *þerx



      *ter-kwe



      þaírh-baíran



      carry through

















      þaírh-gaggan



      go through

















      þaírh-wisan



      remain























      uf



      up, under



      *uv



      *upó



      uf-blÄ"san



      blow up

















      uf-brikan



      reject

















      uf-dáupjan



      baptize

















      uf-háusjan



      submit

















      uf-ligan



      lie under























      ufar



      over, above



      *uvar



      *uper(i)



      ufar-gaggan



      trangress

















      ufar-munnōn



      forget

















      ufar-steigan



      mount up























      und



      to, toward



      *unþ



      *nt



      und-greipan



      seize

















      und-rinnan



      run to























      unþa



      away from



      *unþa



      *nto



      unþa-þliuhan



      escape























      us



      out of, utterly



      *Å«z



      *Å«s



      us-anan



      expire

















      us-dreiban



      drive out

















      us-láubjan



      permit

















      us-qiþan



      proclaim























      wiþra



      against



      *wiþra



      *wi- + -tero



      wiþra-gaggan



      go to meet

















      wiþra-mōtjan



      go to meet























      45.5. Verbal Suffixes

      The most common suffixes employed in deriving verbs have actually been
      dealt with separately. These are in fact the suffixes of most of the
      weak verb classes. In many instances, however, such derivation had taken
      place long before Gothic became a separate language in the Germanic
      family. There are, however, a few additional suffixes used to derive
      verbs; but they are not sufficiently numerous to form separate verb
      classes as such. The following chart lists these suffixes, together with
      their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of
      their use within Gothic.

      Suffix



      Use



      PGmc



      PIE



      Example



      Meaning























      atjan



      intensive



      *at-jan



      *ad-jan



      laúhatjan



      lighten

















      káupatjan



      buffet, beat

















      swōgatjan



      sigh, groan























      inōn







      *in-ōn







      gudjinōn



      be a priest

















      ga-áiginōn



      take possession of

















      skalkinōn



      serve

















      hōrinōn



      commit adultery

      --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "kevin.behrens@..."
      <becareful_icanseeyourfuture@...> wrote:
      >
      > Hello,
      > I am always wondering, how to make nouns out of verbs or adjectives in
      gothic. First there are verbal nouns like "the making", how are they
      made of the several verbs? And how are those made like "the search" out
      of "to search"? (I only read that -jan verbs turn into -eins -> sokjan,
      sokeins. But what about the other verbs?) And last but not least, how
      are the nouns created that say, that somebody is doing something: "to
      drive" -> "driver". I have to know it for all the verb classes, I guess
      there are different variations how to make that. Could you please help
      me or know some sources where this is explained?
      > Thank you very much.
      > Greetings
      > Kevin
      >



      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • anheropl0x
      Well. The board won t let me post this the way it should look. Let me put it all in a word file and upload it to the group, then I ll link it here. Sorry.
      Message 2 of 7 , Jan 6, 2012
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        Well. The board won't let me post this the way it should look. Let me put it all in a word file and upload it to the group, then I'll link it here. Sorry.
      • anheropl0x
        Alright, it s uploaded to the group. The file name is called GothicSuffixes. It has both prefixes and suffixes, with translations and examples so you know what
        Message 3 of 7 , Jan 6, 2012
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          Alright, it's uploaded to the group. The file name is called GothicSuffixes. It has both prefixes and suffixes, with translations and examples so you know what they do and how they work. I hope this helps!
          http://f1.grp.yahoofs.com/v1/EJkHT02yeG7-Te0N_GGzkloVczDJHNUZk_o1nBOt4eDiQgO7UmSkaD5cRD6XZIW9dzFkcsDoeYh4yU5HJF8A4rHhEUTBax9i/GothicSuffixes.docx

          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "anheropl0x" <anheropl0x@...> wrote:
          >
          > Well. The board won't let me post this the way it should look. Let me put it all in a word file and upload it to the group, then I'll link it here. Sorry.
          >
        • kevin.behrens@rocketmail.com
          Hey, have you written that on your own? I really thank you! That s amazing. But some questions still remain. Are -arja and -and the only suffixes to mark an
          Message 4 of 7 , Jan 7, 2012
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            Hey,
            have you written that on your own? I really thank you! That's amazing. But some questions still remain.
            Are -arja and -and the only suffixes to mark an agent noun? And are they in a free variety or is -arja just for -jan verbes and the -and for all other verbs?
            It's pretty good to finally see a chart of the suffixes in gothic. But is there a certain rule, how these endings are divided?
            And how are those forms built as: "the making" etc.?
            Thank you very much for so far! ;)
            Liubos goleinins
            Kevin
          • anheropl0x
            No, these all came from my friend who works with Germanic languages even more than I do. He sites it in an e-mail as just Slocum & Krause. So I m not sure
            Message 5 of 7 , Jan 7, 2012
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              No, these all came from my friend who works with Germanic languages even more than I do. He sites it in an e-mail as just Slocum & Krause. So I'm not sure where it came from.

              Basically, yes.
              Verbal nouns, or abstract nouns, like in your original post (the search) can be made from weak nouns of specific classes, and are declined like i-stems. The differences, according to Wright, are that 2 & 3 class weak verbs are declined one way, and 1 class another. Where they differ is that the nom. and gen. pl. of class 1 verb-nouns are like the o-declension, but otherwise follow the i-stem like the other two classes.
              Example: class 2: nom. sing. mitons (from miton), nom. pl. mitonies, gen. pl. mitone
              class 3: nom. sing. libains (from liban), nom. pl. libaineis, gen. pl. libaine
              class 1: nom. sing. laiseins (from laisjan), nom. pl. laiseinos, gen. pl. laiseino

              When you're trying to find the nomina agentis, though, the two versions from the table are what you will use. Here's where it gets confusing. -arja, for all of the examples I can find, follows a noun. (bokareis = boka + arja, laisareis = laiseins + arja) You might wonder, in the case of laisareis, why not just go from the verb to nomina agentis, rather than verb to noun to nomina agentis? That's what -and is for after all (nasjands = nasjan + and), but keep in mind that this form literally means "the Xing one," where X is the verb. Nasjands is the masc. nom. sing. present participle of nasjan, and means saving. But to say sa nasjands would be "the saving one" or savior. So why not use *laisjands? Other than the fact that there is the word talzjands which means the same thing, I can't pinpoint the reason why. I can come up with a few theories though: 1. The corpus that we have is almost nothing but Biblical writings, a huge portion of which is merely a Greek-Gothic gloss. Not very handy for every day, common Gothic speech. 2. It's possible that these words, while Gothic in formation, were meant to be somewhat more abstract or carry a different weight. 3. Or maybe Gothic was just a weird language like the ones that exist today and have seemingly unrelated words for related things, like English watch (that you wear on your arm) and clock (that you put on a wall). I'm not sure, but part of me wants to say that if you make a noun with -and, it should be declined like -nd stems, such as frijonds and nasjands. But if you're keeping it as an adjective, remember to decline it as such and not mix the two up.

              Hopefully someone can help me with that.

              But as you can see, -arja isn't for -jan verbs at all, but for nouns and nouns derived from verbs. -and is for everything, but is basically for making present participles, and simply using them as a noun. I hope this helps, if you have any more questions, please ask.

              --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "kevin.behrens@..." <becareful_icanseeyourfuture@...> wrote:
              >
              > Hey,
              > have you written that on your own? I really thank you! That's amazing. But some questions still remain.
              > Are -arja and -and the only suffixes to mark an agent noun? And are they in a free variety or is -arja just for -jan verbes and the -and for all other verbs?
              > It's pretty good to finally see a chart of the suffixes in gothic. But is there a certain rule, how these endings are divided?
              > And how are those forms built as: "the making" etc.?
              > Thank you very much for so far! ;)
              > Liubos goleinins
              > Kevin
              >
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